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s^rtioa-, u> prevent thciii 
. tg v-lTi.-h they biivo i." : 

: by their €W«- 
gnaranteed byihc government ol the 

■>■ r:i ',• in, i> v.- live. * 

The straggle nhrib. lo* and still contiBitet 

10 conyaUw i-'". Ration* in she o! d copainpn 
are in a great measure brer here Literty m> 

■ ■ ti . ■ . . . .■ 

exerc w* •- obi tin, sod others ts in 

nu'robe. '' ' v , ;l -.«. 1 .-ii*lcav. 


■ ' ■ ■■ 
inlllis irn.E' ■;. ■:"'.' 


todepeadtnt oi' 

oi" the right* which Got! h^ «'ven us in corn- 
mo« with aJl natioiw, malt'rtudcs are eoshiTed 
' with the- principles bro't ]..., 
V"wrio gisi settled thtfl country. Had Geonje fc$* 
%Airaf, when Iw withth 

: country, withdrawn ait (In- principles resgjett.- 
a»g civi! and religion ; - T 
|wsitibii to th' :, 

Save been a much more muted and happy peo- 
ple than we now are : but alas ! : 
I among u , like iiw Canaanitc* is anctem time . 

^ the army of Gog, which fell it;- 
jj taJE? o/ Israel they am to be be 
a^gro pioyed fin that purpose, «!;d: every pass- 
PrfcBger ts to eject a monument, wliei'tver \.r 
■"■ findi a bone in his way. It u not sum a tv 
I rannical government which deprive as of t&* 
'? ttty ; but the highly destructive, principles 
| of tyranny which remain in a good government; 
I end though these principle en- not protected 
?, fcy law, ya men's attachment to tb«n, in a 
t fjee gt.vvnuaptit, previa*-, the enjoyment of 
| ir&r/y which God has given us, and **b.tchatt 
|»»r*gfct enjoy AvCyrJm-:.. tk. ConatiUuiqH of 

the opinions ■ who tusuld bind 


and entail tftu s-inf on a!f t h.vir > 

Tin- de.-ign '. i ■ : -v. the lilxrrtt/ 

(■,m b l."^. ;..: i. :■.:<... .^ :! teipcc'J ihcir du- 

tid i ach fiiiier. 

I rim iple •.viiji nie, thai 
.;,)[. i -J.., m lin y pubUi ■■ 
faithnii to h« iiwm', will liava&doublechar- 
and ihem whwjud^e 
t mony ofswit be v; ■■■>■ 
rdadisturbtr a£ the peace, iwf ttiroJog; the 
■ | ■ . ■ . 

■ ■ . ■.■■:. 

■ . . : I ■ 


w no doubt in n)j mind btiJ many will he d«- 
Ijleaaed a« what day appear is thJs paper frt'tn 
sy own thaj, rightist- 
yiiai among n(i 

' -it t!,e tatlt rnayne^hichanow 

■ . ■ ii 

—this 'however b M 

■ ■■ ■■■■ 

I of men ; and to tnugj 

/ in a lair and nianiy way ; not 

scandatutn{j any, or doing any ^i-iag by pax- 

: : I DC [■, ■: b\ 
■ . ■ . ■ I ■"....■■■ : . ■ ' ■ . ■ ■ 

iii wiih to have hud things s^id oi 
igt. It is my 
design m tb« fi to give a plain 

description of the rights of men, and bo shew 
i i>e principle on w-htcb tScy aii founded, .'*nd 
iikewlie to alicw the opposite. There arc ma- 

lafcMjgplace in the pjnsaeat day K- 
niectin^ religion, which will be noticetl as 
they occur. A particular attention will be 
pa,d to the accounts of revivah of religion io 
difieroDt parts of ih'j world, auiim; the yarioei 
diWrnitiati&ns who call Jesus Ii>rd, as far as 
it c^n '«■ obtaiiw-d, 

■■ti: Nvi^pap*r, is almost a new 
iliiiif; under the *.»n; I Maow ant but this is 
'M lijil K'er published W thv w»r!d- 

\-jriij.'C oi lite llHl.'tTLi' .-'.-= klllljifcm 

iir prorantnd or iacVcased iofihe'd 
h uppearj to rnc b< 

! . ■ - ! subscript 

Iready wished s 


icouragetl mf= 
i- wiN find 

lose who have 

: ■,-■ -. in Ibje 

:,ny (hit- 

■■taieJ ' 


i-iipnittni. «id 

the T-.riit^ u,- iitrau^n wii* 

■ give them ;> knowJetfge of th u lifaefr 

chich their fatl*ers bled, and I >t -■ S 

ke T^hior, w d««rib*5^.. 
the mtrjn: t.f *Vi .'il ^ud rvli-^uas Liberty to 
tonic to Hi- caparttf.i of i!)"^.' -■'■■ ■" 

.;. ; urutjj a gen- 
crai ki»owli-l^e <>: 1 1 1 -_- -■ : i. 

It may be that tome may wi I '->-- 
why thin papcrshooid ! ' ■ ' *• 

h ibc only one which can make ss happy, be- 
ing the giori.jiu Liberty of the boos, of God, 
v hich Christ proclaimed ; and which" ail wlio 
hare, are exhorted to Ftaiid fast In, being U<at 
wiiich i^ given ;o'id enjuved !>vthc l^wof L(i»- 
eriv i which 1.1 tin In v'-V dir -pint of life in ' 
whien«naJces lite ir>m the bwof 
>in and death. 

In tht* plauc, T give the meanim; of the 
v.r.rd Herald. Thin word is derived 
- l&nhault, and by ■■■" 
Heraiif which ia tbatdangnagesignifieatfe' 
Champion of an army, and ^rowmg t« be-a 
uain« of office, it w* given tohkn whOj, in tht 
army, had tlte spedai charge t" denounce vru", 
to cbjlk-ngc to baltlo and combat, to proclaim 
peace, and to execute martial rttessajjes.- Xht 
bttSrnefB of an Herald at the Knfcii-h $ijfnt* 
ment U as follows — " To marshal, order, afifl 
cortdnet alf roval ti\.ikadw, ceiemoaies.ia 

First page of the first issue of the first religious newspaper — 
greatly reduced. 

The Centennial 


Religious Journalism 

"Thy Kingdom Come" 



Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 

"The Oldest Religious Newspaper" 





"Ye are called with a holy calling 
The light of the world to be; 

To light up the lamp of the gospel 
That others the light may see.' 





To the memory of the early 
leaders or theChristianMove- 
ment, as the prophets or a 
hroader fellowship among 
Christians — 

To the religious press as 
messengers of light to every 
tribe and nation — 

And to every individual 
believer as the personal repre- 
sentative of our Lord and 
Master in the church militant. 

"Nnta Imp" 

"We call ourselves 
Christians, not in any 
invidious, or presump- 
tive sense, but devoutly, 
as most expressive 
of our relationship to 
Christ, and at the same 
time as most promotive 
of real brotherly fellow- 
ship and true Christian 


This book is designed to commemorate the first 
century of the history of the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty., and therein to give a bird's-eye view of the 
work and progress of the Christian Church. 

The introduction of the religious newspaper 
marks an era in the work of the church in modern 
times, and gives to the Christian Church a distinc- 
tion as the originator of the idea of religious jour- 
nalism which others have coveted, in some cases even 
to the point of an effort to wrest this honor from 

In this volume, beginning on page 37, the his- 
torical facts pertaining to this question are given 
in a very definite and convincing manner, fixing 
beyond any reasonable doubt the right and jus- 
tice of this claim of the Christian Church. 

If after examination any one should question our 
right to this distinction, here and now, we ask for 
the proof to sustain the justice of any such doubt. 

The following topics, including many allied sub- 
jects, are covered in this volume: The Beginning 
and Beyond; A Concise Statement of our Denomi- 
national Position; The History of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty; One Hundred Editorial Gems; 
Early Leaders; Our Century Churches; A Hundred 
Years of Progress, or The Development of Our 
Denominational Life and, Work; The American 
Christian Convention ; Constituent Conventions: 
The Outlook. 

Certain celebrated sayings and historical inci- 


dents are occasionally repeated — due to the fact that 
each of the several authors wrote on a given theme, 
entirely independent of the others, but each one had 
the Centennial of Religious Journalism as a com- 
mon center, with the history of the Christian Move- 
ment as a setting for the whole. 

The biographies of a number of our early leaders, 
together with the pictures of many of our pioneer 
and later workers, will be highly appreciated by our 
people, to say nothing of much other valuable mat- 
ter. It is much regretted that the faces of so many 
eminently worthy of a place in this book are kept 
out for the lack of space, and that, too, after the 
size of the volume, as originally planned, has been 
doubled. Some of our editors are not included be- 
cause we could not get necessary information, al- 
though we sought it again and again. No 
doubt some of our century churches are not includ- 
ed, and for the same reason — information, though 
asked for time and again, could not be obtained in 
time, or not at all. The collection of material and 
its arrangement for publication have been under 
the pressing duties of editorial and pastoral service. 
The reader is therefore kindly requested to bear 
patiently with defects, for they are more painful 
to the editor than to the reader. 

Among the pictures used a few are not so good, 
because made from very old photographs, or from 
a reprint, but they are the best we could get. 

In behalf of the Centennial Committee and the 
editor we extend a sincere word of thanks to 
the writers and to all who have helped to make this 
volume of special interest to our Brotherhood. 


We are standing in the twilight of the closing 
days of our first century, and already we behold the 
dawning of the morning of our second century. We 
look backward upon the things that were, and for- 
ward that we may catch glimpses of the things that 
shall be. 

From this mount of vision the promises of God 
stand out as so many beacon lights, luring us on- 
ward to a fuller realization of, and a larger fruit- 
fulness in, our mission to the world. 

For more than one hundred years God has led 
us, bearing our burdens and comforting our hearts. 
He has brought us to this vantage ground, this 
Fisgah outlook, where we may study the prospect 
in the light of the retrospect. I"n the retrospect 
we shall see enough to humble us, while in the pros 
pect are visions so enchanting as to stir our hearts 
and inspire our lives to a better service in the great 
work of giving the gospel to a .lost world. 

In this day of light and progress God calls us to 
the front of the battle that we may honor ITis Son 
in the face of the enemy by a glorious victory for 
the Cross. 

In the coming conflict, for which God lias been 
preparing us for a century, the battles will be such 
as the modern church has not known — struggles 
that will try men through and through. Funda- 
mental truths will be assailed, while many may fall 
by the wayside. Be not dismayed — it is the Lord's 
battle, and if we prove true, He will honor us wifli 

We must remember we are under marching or- 
ders. There must be no faltering. The battle song 


must be sung in earnest. Every true soldier will 

join in the refrain: 

Surely the Captain may depend on me, 
Though but an armor-bearer I may be. 

Thus committing ourselves to the Lord's work 

for the Twentieth Century, through the hearing of 

faith, we shall receive anew God's promise to his 

ancient people: 

I will not leave thee, nor forsalce thee. 
From this thought we get hope and inspiration 
for a new day and a new battle. Let us be much in 
prayer, constant in love, enthusiastic in purpose 
and faithful in service, seizing every opportunity 
as it passes, and meeting bravely each responsibility 
which may come to us in the vicissitudes of our 
second century, and it will be enough, for the vic- 
tory in Christ will be complete, and the reward 
sure and glorious forever. 

Dayton, Ohio, August 1, 1908. 

Second Edition 

Within one week from the appearance of the first 
edition of the Centennial op Eeligious Journalism, 
the rapid sale of the work made it necessary to pub 
lish a second edition, which, with some revision, we 
send to the public, with the earnest wish that its 
usefulness may be long continued as a souvenir of 
the first hundred years of religious journalism. 

Dayton, Ohio, September 10, 1908. 



~/{ ( • rii> (tH |"r[ 'l ' : l- ;; ' > 

The Present Herald and Its Editor. 



A Brief Study of the Conditions and Ideals Which 
Gave Rise to the Christian Church 


Beginnings may be obscure, but they are interest- 
ing and instructive. Once discovered and compre- 
hended, we have the true view-point from which to 
study development and after history. 

In celebrating the Centennial of Religious Jour- 
nalism, we may well introduce the event by a brief 
study of the beginnings of the movement which gave 
birth to the idea of a religious newspaper. 

To do this we must look beyond the mere formal- 
ities of organization. We must study the conditions 
and in them find the causes which made the new 
body a necessity in meeting the religious needs of 
the age. It was in the effort of this infant body of 
believers to meet these needs that the idea of re- 
ligious journalism loomed up on the horizon of their 
possibilities as an excellent aid in the execution of 
their work and in the accomplishment of their mis- 
sion to the world. 

In their ministry a prophet arose whose keen 
vision caught glimpses of a new world of activity 
and usefulness. 


saw in a vision a religious newspaper. The idea 
fastened itself upon his mind and heart. He de- 
clared that in it — 


From realms far distant and from climes unknown 
We make the knowledge of our King your own. 

From the impressions of this vision, the idea 
slowly developed till September 1, 1808, when 
the first issue of the first distinctly religious news- 
paper the world had ever seen appeared from the 
city of Portsmouth, N. H., under the name of the 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, and the same is yet with 
us in active service. 

To the Christian Church, therefore, is due a debt 
of appreciation for introducing religious journal- 
ism, and for giving a practical demonstration of its 
utility in the publication of the Herald of Gospel 

From the first, the idea secured a sure footing in 
the history of the modern church. Its development 
has been rapid, till to-day, as an institution, the re- 
ligious newspaper is the right arm of all denomina- 
tional effort, and a great power in giving the light 
of the gospel to the world. It surpasses in power 
all influences of other human agencies for the health 
and prosperity of the church militant. The centen- 
nial celebration of religious journalism, therefore, 
promises to be an event of peculiar interest. 

As to the validity of the claim, that the Christian 
Church published the 


we only ask for a study of the facts. Three other 
religious newspapers have laid claim to the distinc- 
tion of seniority, as follows: 

1. The Religious Remembrancer, Philadelphia, 
now the Christian Observer, of Louisville, Ky., first 
published in 1813. 


2. The Weekly Recorder, Philadelphia, first pub- 
lished in 1814. 

3. The Boston Recorder, now the Congregation- 
alist, Boston, first published in 1816. 

As the Herald of Gospel Liberty was first pub- 
lished September 1, 1808, it is clearly five years 
the senior of the oldest of the three. 

In proof of the date of its publication, original 
files may be seen on application, at the office of 
the Christian Publishing Association, Dayton, Ohio, 
which necessarily ends the contention as to the oldest 
religious newspaper, giving the Christian Church 
(not the Disciples) the honor of being the mother 
of religious journalism. 

We may, therefore, combine in a brief study the 
introduction of religious journalism and the history 
of the people from whose ranks it sprang. 

The beginning of the Christian Church is some- 
times reckoned from the date of the famous Meth- 
odist Conference, Baltimore, Maryland, in November, 
1792, when that body divided under the leadership 
of James O'Kelly and his associates, not on account 
of doctrinal differences, but because of the 


which found its expression in the rule of the bishop. 
The real beginning, however, of the organic his- 
tory of the Christian Church is August 4, 1794, when 
the withdrawing wing of the Methodist Conference, 
then known as "Republican Methodists," met in gen- 
eral meeting at Lebanon, Surry Co., Virginia. It 
was on this occasion, after much prayer and delib- 
eration, that Rev. Rice Haggard stood before that 



The exact spot on which stood Lebanon church in which the 
conference had met. when Rev. Rice Haggard made his famous 
motion for the adoption of the name Christian. 

v v . •-...'.. 

:-■';- '^ ' • <2^H$ \ -' / iiit ! 

^ ! • r ■-' • 

111-] I ' mm 



The successor of the "Old Lebanon"- — located a bit distant from 

the old site, Surry County, Virginia. 


assembly, holding aloft, in his right hand, a copy 
of the New Testament, and said : 

Brethren, this is a sufficient rule of faith and practice. 
By it we understand the disciples of our Lord were first 
called Christians, and I move that henceforth and forever 
the followers of Christ be known as CHRISTIANS simply. 

The motion was put to the house, and unanimous- 
ly adopted. From that date to this we have never 
acknowledged or answered to any other name as a 
body of believers. 

This was unquestionably the beginning of the 
modern organization of the Christian Church. Of 
course, its principles came to us from the teachings 
of Christ and the apostles. To understand condi- 
tions which made its existence a necessity, we must 
go back of the Lebanon meeting, and even beyond the 
Baltimore Conference. In our search, we must fol- 
low mere threads of history, if we would find the 
real cause of this division, and the formation of the 
new body in the Lebanon meeting. At the end of 
these threads of history we shall find ourselves on 
English soil, and in one of Mr. Wesley's conferences. 
Here we get at the conditions which brought forth 


as a modern organization, all centering about one 
man and one event. That man was Francis Asbury. 
and that event was his appointment as missionary 
to Mr. Wesley's "Societies" in America. We shall 
better understand this fact when we learn that Mr. 
Wesley, after searching the ranks of his people, 
could find no man who would accept this missionary 
appointment, except Francis Asbury, who was well 
known among his acquaintances as possessing a 


domineering spirit. It was on this account that 
even Asbury's friends were surprised that Mr. 
Wesley accepted him for this work. Later develop- 
ments will show how well founded was this sur- 
prise. To this man and his appointment as mission- 
ary to America, and no further, have we been able 
to trace the causes which made the existence of 
the. Christian Church, as a separate organization, 
a necessity. 

Appointed, and once in power, Mr. Asbury quick- 
ly assumed the attitude of a commanding general, 
and began to rule the preachers, who were under 
his supervision, with a rod of iron. He determined 
all matters of debate by his own ipse dixit. The ma- 
jority against him counted as nothing. Even the 
preachers were denied the right of appeal to the 
body. These were the legitimate fruits of the "one- 
man power." Of course, such methods could pro- 
duce but one effect — a revolt came. 

The Episcopacy was the issue, and the revolution 
culminated in the formation of a new body of be- 

The new body suffered great provocations under 
the rule of the bishop, who, we are told, 
in answer to a petition from the preachers for some 
purpose, said: "Though five hundred preachers 
should ask it on their knees, I would not grant it." 
[See Guirifs History of the Episcopacy, p. 380.] The 
bishop dominated the conference at will. No man 
could be ordained to the office and work of 
the ministry, unless he was elected by the confer- 
ence, but the conference itself did not elect, until 
the bishop had nominated, practically making it 


impossible to ordain a man against the wish of 
the bishop. 

O'Kelly and his compeers defied this sort of gov- 
ernment. They could not be frightened into sub- 
mission and they would not be driven to surrender. 
It was in this crisis that they led the way to a 
larger and more Christlike religious freedom. 

American Methodism sprang from English im- 
migration, but the Episcopacy of the American 
Methodists was an innovation, for the English Meth- 
odists have never had a bishop. No wonder a re- 
volt came, resulting in a new body of believers. 
It is quite clear that the new denomination was 
far more nearly in harmony with Mr. Wesley than 
were Mr. Asbury and his followers. 

The bishopric idea was distasteful to Mr. Wesley. 
Had it not already practically driven him out 
of the church? It divided the Lord's people in Eng- 
land — and it did the same in America. 

The truth is, Mr. Wesley and Mr. O'Kelly were in 
closest sympathy. Indeed, according to Mr. O'Kel- 
ly's own testimony, Mr. Wesley's views largely in- 
fluenced Mr. O'Kelly's ideas and gave shape to his 
work as the leader in the establishment of the Chris- 
tian Church. Let Mr. O'Kelly be heard as to the 
facts. In writing of Mr. Wesley, he said : 

They (certain ministers) came to us under direction of 
John Wesley, whose name to me is of precious memory. 
His writings magnified the Bible, and gave it preference and 
honor; he declared he regarded the authority of no writ- 
ings but the inspired. He urged the sufficiency of the 
Scriptures for faith and practice, saying, "We will be down- 
right Bible Christians." 

Then O'Kelly added: 

This doctrine pleased me, and so did the conduct of the 


holy preachers. I entered the connection (I think) in 1776, 
and soon entered the list among the traveling ministers, 
where I labored night and day, pleading with God for that 
connection in particular, and the world in general. But 
In those days Wesley was rejected, and his name blotted 
out of our book. I took an alarm ! In the year (I think) 
17S9, I contended against a growing power, though myself 
in legislature: (in the council with Mr. Asbury) this con- 
tention continued until the Conference for 1702. from 
thence I withdrew. But as a free man. I have continued 
to travel. I soon found myself undesignedly in a little band, 
the Christian Church. I think by the grace of God, if all 
should seek my life, I would never change my Christian 
name, nor subscribe to any government (as to religious 
conduct) but that contained in Christ's Word, and that 
which rests on His shoulders. 

From this statement several facts are clearly 
presented, viz., Mr. Wesley repudiated human creeds 
— only the inspired writings he accepted as author- 
ity. He held to the sufficiency of the Scriptures for 
faith and practice, and he favored the use of the 
name Christian, as is shown in his own words, when 
he said : "We will be downright Bible Christians." * 
That is a pretty fair summary of the leading princi- 
ples of the Christian Church. Mr. O'Kelly said : 
"This doctrine pleased me." Thus we can distinct- 
ly trace the hand and influence of Mr. Wesley in 
the shaping of the views of Mr. O'Kelly, and through 

* It is related that once John Wesley, in the visions of the 
night, found himself, as he thought, at the gates of hell. He 
knocked and asked who were within. "Are there any Roman 
Catholics here?" he asked. "Yes," was the answer, "a great 
many." "Any Church of England men?" "Yes, a great many." 
"Any independents?" "Yes, a great many." "Any Presbyterians?" 
"Yes, a great many." "Any Baptists?" "Yes, a great many." 
"Any Wesleyans?" "Yes, a great many." Disappointed and dis- 
mayed, especially at the last reply, he turned his steps upward, 
and found himself at the gates of paradise, and here he repeated 
the same questions. "Any Wesleyans here?" "No." "Any Pres- 
byterians?" "No." "Any Church of England men?" "No." 
"Any Pioman Catholics?" "No." "Whom have you here, then?" 
he asked in astonishment. "We know nothing here," was the reply, 
"of any of those names you have mentioned. Ihe only name of 
which we know anything here is 'Christian.' We are all Christians 
here, and of these we have a great multitude, which no man can 
number, of all nations, and kindreds, and peoples, and tongues." 


Mr. O'Kelly the great Biblical strongholds of the 
Christian Church are ours to-day. 

It is thus clear after the history of a hundred 
years has been written, as with a pen of fire, that 
Asbury, and not O'Kelly, was the innovator. O'Kelly 
withdrew from this innovation, and not from the 
truths Mr. Wesley held, for these, as named above, 
we love, cherish, publish and defend in the light 
of the Twentieth Century. Is it not safe to say, 
had Mr. Wesley been in America, he would have 
stood with O'Kelly in his revolt against the in- 
novation of the Episcopacy? The facts seem to 
answer decidedly in the affirmative. 

From the beginning the movement encountered 
severe theological storms. 

It had strong friends, but met great opposition. 
They fought their way through the first ten years 
of their existence under many discouraging situa- 
tions. They were thoroughly tried, but their faith 
was more precious than gold, for they lived through 
it all, to the praise and honor and glory of Jesus 

It was about this time, that similar movements 
sprang up among Baptists in the east, and among 
Presbyterians in the west, each being actuated by 
the same spirit, seeking similar ends. Each body, 
upon learning of the existence of the other, sought 
a closer acquaintance, and as they came together, 
they found themselves one in Christ. This gave 
them great encouragement and largely stimulated 
their efforts to occupy larger fields in the hope 
of greater fruitage. 

That the Christian Church has not become a 


large body, numerically, is no proof whatever that 

she has not a truly God-given mission to the 
age in which she has been called to serve. On the 
contrary, her lack in numbers is more than bal- 
anced in achievements peculiar to the genius of her 

While she has been zealous in preaching the 
Gospel in common with sister denominations, she 
has also led the way to 


in a number of modern problems, peculiar to her own 
ideas. At first these new fields called forth much 
severity of criticism and great opposition, but the 
acute stage has been passed, and now many of these 
reforms have the sympathy of the great brother- 
hood of churches. 

Some of these we may name, as follows : 
1. They have held before the Christian world, 
for more than a century, the Bible as the only creed 
on which all true Christians can ever unite. This 
is self-evident, since all Christians accept the Bible; 
while the Methodists, as such, will not accept the 
peculiar tenets of the Baptists, nor will the Bap- 
tists, as such, accept Methodist teachings; and 
what is true of these two denominations, is true 
very largely of all. 

The Christian Church holding to the Bible as 
her only creed, with the privilege of individual in- 
terpretation, makes it possible for all, not necessa- 
rily to come into her membership, but for Chris- 
tians in all evangelical denominations, to come 
together with the Bible as the only creed, and 
Christian life, and character, and service, as a 


full expression of their relationship to Christ. In 
the last one hundred years the drift of this idea has 
been little less than marvelous, as witness the good 
fellowship and kindly co-operation among most of 
the denominations of to-day. May not the next 
one hundred years witness all denominations, 


with the Bible as the only creed-basis for their 
faith ? 

2. The Christian Church was used of God to 
introduce to His people of the Nineteenth Centu- 
ry a wonderful agency for the spread of the truth 
of the Gospel of Christ in the religious newspaper 
which, to-day, is the right arm of every important 
enterprise in the church. Indeed, without it, me 
best equipped denomination in all Christendom 
would feel itself so handicapped as to lose hope of 
success in aggressive work. As the mother of the 
religious newspaper, eternity only will reveal' the 
fr.uitf illness of this small body of people, reaching, 
not only as it does, every denomination, but almost 
every nook and corner of the great field in which 
the church universal has been called to labor. 

'.\. The Christian Church was the first of all 
denominations to open her college doors to women 
on equal terms, in every respect, with the men. In 
standing for this reform, they encountered 
much opposition, but they bravely stood for the 
principle, until now, after half a century, the idea 
is sweeping the country with a strong footing in 
the larger portion of the great colleges and univer- 
sities of all Christendom — a blessing to all. 

To-day we are looking out upon 



white already to harvest. Our fathers contended for 
the f;iith, as they believed it was once delivered to the 
saints ; they fought a good fight ; they gained a 
glorious victory. They are dead, and yet they 
speak to us, and through us they are feeding the 
hungry multitude. 

It is no wonder the church in those days was 
called "a man of war," since she must needs fight 
her way across a roaring sea of disturbed theology. 
She was like a ship sailing at night in a storm 
period, near dangerous shoals, her lights were be- 
dimmed by the mists of human dogma. The light 
of the Bible in the church was obscured by reason 
of these ugly man-made creeds, till few knew her 
course, or her destiny. Prejudice, ignorance and 
sectarian bias almost paralyzed the power of the 
Lord's people in those days. No wonder the church 
was non-progressive, non-missionary and almost 
non-spiritual. No wonder she lagged at a poor- 
dying rate. What good thing could live smothered 
in sectarian thought and paralyzed by its own self- 
ishness? All this was quite enough to stagnate a 
crystal spring. To rescue the church from the 
perils of that age was the noble purpose of these 
godly men and women in the formation of the 
Christian Church. They had fearful odds against 
them, but they had courage and grace for the task. 
They did their work nobly, and after toil and suf- 
fering, they rest from their labors. 

What a grand company of 


upon ns, upon whom their- mantles have fallen. 


They are expecting great things from our labors 
in this, the Twentieth Century of unparalleled op- 
portunity. The Holy Spirit calls to us through 
their lives, their teachings and their labors to a 
more faithful study of the Word as the expressed 
will of God; to a larger spiritual life, to a greater 
field of usefulness and to a more abundant fruit- 
age in the service of God. 

Noble men and women — stalwarts they were upon 
life's great battle-field, heroes of faith and victory 
in Christ! They wrought mightily for larger and 
better service, and they have gone to their reward 
in the fullness of the blessing of the Gospel of 
Jesus Christ. 

No nobler characters have graced the world's 
history than the men and women who have loved 
unto death — illustrious examples of the true life 
as exemplified in Christ. Let us rejoice to believe that 
this is no small company which has gone before us, 
both in service and reward. The world was not 
worthy of their sacrifices, but they none the less lav- 
ishly dedicated their all to the one thing — preaching 
the Gospel to all men. In the "Tower of Constance," 
during the reign of Louis XIV, Protestant women 
were imprisoned because they would not renounce 
their faith at the bidding of the king. Among those 
who tlms suffered was Marie Duran, who spent forty 
years of her heroic life within that dismal chamber. 
On the paved floor of her room, they found after her 
death, the one word, Resist, carved there by some 
sharp instrument and evidently by her own hand. It 
was but one short word, but how full of meaning! It 
was a volume in a word. It expressed the life pur- 


pose of as brave a woman as ever suffered for the 
truth. Forty years of imprisonment for her faith's 
sake, had engraved the sentiment of that thought 
so deeply upon her heart and mind, that she had 
cut that word Resist into the paved floor of her 
prison-house, as an expression of a determined pur- 
pose to be true to the truth. Marie Duran was a 
heroine of faith ! When human lips refused to tell 
the story of her dauntless courage, she made the 
mute floor speak as in thunder tones of her purpose 
to dare, to do, and to die for the right. 

With a similar heroic spirit the pioneers of the 
Christian Movement gave their lives of service to 
the one great purpose of standing for the truth. 
They labored, suffered and died for the cause, but 
they surrendered, never ! 

We may fail to do them honor, the world may be 
slow to accord a place to them in 


but they have written in their life-work encomiums 
far beyond the power of mortal lips to express, and 
they live to-day in the hearts of their successors, 
as well as in heaven, through their unyielding faith, 
their undying courage and their more abundant life 
and labors. 

"No sculptured stone in stately temple 

Proclaims their rugged lot ; 
Like Him who was their great example, 

This vain world knew them not. 

"But though their names no poet wove 

In deathless song or story, 
Their record is inscribed above — - 

Their wreaths are crowns of glory !" 




If you are not already acquainted with the Chris- 
tian Church, you may desire a few words of in- 
formation. There is much to be said, but we will 
not intrench upon your time for more than a few 
minutes now. 


This church does not owe its existence to any one 
man. It is a part of the great movement for relig- 
ious liberty, which characterized the Eighteenth 
Century, and is still dominant in the Twentieth. 
The Christian Church, in the United States, came 
into existence under the impulse for liberty, fol- 
lowing upon the realization of American independ- 
ence. Three bodies of people, in widely separated 
sections of the country, determined to secure a 
larger religious freedom than they had enjoyed, 
and to quit the denominational sectarian strife 
and bitterness then rampant. Those bodies soon 
learned of each other, came together, and the result 
was the Christian Church. 


Slowly the Christian Church has spread from 
Maine to Oklahoma, from Alabama to Washington 
(state), and into Canada. Its highest represent- 
ative body is the American Christian Convention, 


which meets quadrennially. The local work in 
the states is organized in state associations and 
conferences, which meet annually. 


The name "Christian" is not taken in any invid- 
ious or presumptive sense, but merely as the most 
expressive, and the most promotive of true fellow- 
ship and unity. We answer to the names "The 
Christians," "The Christian Church," and we are 
sometimes called "The Christian Connection." We 
are an entirely different body from the "Christian 
Alliance" and from the "Disciples of Christ" or 
"Church of Christ," and came into existence before 
those bodies. 


All our churches are self-governing: that is, free 
from the dictation of other churches, or confer 
ences, or of associations, and without any form of 
presbytery or episcopacy. 


The Christian Church is — 
loyal to God, 
loyal to Jesus Christ, 
loyal to the Bible. 
It has no hobbies to ride, no theories to exploit, 
no pet system of theology to force upon anyone, 
and does not wish to pose: but its mission is — 
to serve God and man, 
to give people liberty of conscience, 
to give them freedom to interpret the Bible as 


to give them an untrammeled but Christian fel- 
to give the gospel to the unsaved, 
to give a true fraternity to ail Christians of 
all denominations. 
To this end we especially enjoin our membership 
to abide by the teachings of the New Testament in 
matters of faith and discipline. 


to become acquainted with our people and their 
past history. No denomination has been more con- 
sistently evangelistic and revivalistic. No denomi- 
nation has produced a larger proportion of thor- 
ough-going revivalists, men who have won their 
thousands to Christ. We do not glorify men, we 
are not living on our past record ; but we invite 
you to investigate, and discover whether, as a peo- 
ple, we are still true to a noble aim. 



To the subscribers for tit is paper, and to all who 
may hereafter read its contents: 

Brethren and Fellow-Citizens: — The age in 
which we live may certainly be distinguished from 
others in the history of man. and particularly, as 
it respects the people of these United States; the 

Published in the first Issue of the Herald of Gospel Liberty. 


increase of knowledge is very great in different 
parts of the world, and of course there is an in- 
crease of Liberty among the people, and an increas- 
ing desire among certain individuals, accompanied 
with their fruitless exertions, to prevent them from 
enjoying what they have been taught belongs to 
them, as a right given by their Creator, and guar- 
anteed by the government of the country in which 
we live. 

The struggle which has and still continues to 
convulse the nations of the old countries, is in a 
great measure over here. Liberty as men, is what 
many are now making violent exertions to obtain, 
and others (though few in numbers) by every pos- 
sible means are endeavoring to prevent. 

This Liberty is in a great measure obtained in 
this country, to the great advantage of millions 
and the grief of thousands, "who care not for the 
people;" but while we glory in being a free people, 
and of being independent of the nations which en- 
deavored to deprive us of the rights which God has 
given us in common with all nations, multitudes 
are enslaved with the principles brought from Eu- 
rope by those who first settled this country. Had 
George the third, when he withdrew his troops from 
this country, withdrawn all the principles respect- 
ing civil and religious affairs, which are in opposi- 
tion to the rights of mankind, we should have been 
a much more united and happy people than we now 
are ; but alas ! they are left among us like the Ca- 
naanites in ancient times, to be overcome by little 
and little; and like the army of Gog, which fell 
upon the mountains of Israel, they are to be buried 


by men employed for that purpose, while every 
passenger is to erect a monument, wherever he 
finds a bone in his way. It is not now a tyranni- 
cal government which deprives us of liberty; 
but the highly destructive principles of tyran- 
ny which remain in a good government ; and 
though these principles are not protected by 
law, yet men's attachment to them, in a 
free government, prevents the enjoyment of Liber- 
ty which God has given us, and which all might 
enjoy according to the Constitution of the United 
States. A member of Congress said to me not long 
ago (while speaking upon the state of the people 
in this country, as it respects religious liberty) to 
this amount : "The people in this country are in gen- 
eral free, as to political matters; but in the things 
of religion, multitudes of them are apparently ig- 
norant of what liberty is." This is true: MANY 
who appear to know what belongs to them as cit- 
izens, and who will contend for their rights, when 
they talk or act upon things of the highest impor- 
tance, appear to be guided wholly by the opinions of 
designing men, who would bind them in the chains 
of ignorance all their days, and entail the same on 
all their posterity. The design of this paper is to 
shew the liberty which belongs to men, as it re- 
spects their duty to God, and each other. 

It is an established principle with me, that the 
man who appears in any public service and is faith- 
ful to his trust, will have a double character; by 
the unjust and them who judge from the testimony 
of such, he will be considered a disturber of the 
peace, as turning the world upside down, and stir- 


ring up the people to revolt; but by the well-in- 
formed lovers of truth, he will be considered a light 
to them who otherwise would sit in darkness. 
There is no doubt in my mind but many will be dis- 
pleased at what may appear in this paper from 
time to time, unless they own that right is equal 
among all. 

How difficult the task may be, which is now un- 
dertaken, is unknown to me, experience will shew 
this ; — however, it is my design to have a steady and 
persevering regard to truth, and the general good 
of men, and to treat everything in a fair and manly 
way; not scandalizing any, or doing anything by 
partiality. Should any scandalize themselves by 
bad conduct, let them not charge it to me. If men 
do not wish to have bad things said of them, let 
them not do bad things. It is my design in the fol- 
lowing numbers to give a plain description of the 
rights of men, and to show the principles on which 
they are founded, and likewise to show the oppo- 
site. There are many things taking place in the 
present day respecting religion, which will be notic- 
ed as they occur. A particular attention will be 
paid to the accounts of revivals of religion in differ- 
ent parts of the world, among the various denomi- 
nations who call Jesus, Lord, as far as it can be 

A religious News-paper, is almost a new thing 
under the sun. I know not but this is the first ever 
published to the world. 

The utility of such a paper has been suggested to 
me, from the great use other papers are to the com- 
munity at large. In this way almost the whole state 


of the world is presented to us at once. In a short 
and cheap way, a general knowledge of our affairs 
is diffused through the whole; and by looking into 
a News-paper, we often look at the state of nations, 
and see them rise into importance, or crumble into 
ruin. If we are profited in political affairs in this 
way, I do not see why the knowledge of the Redeem- 
er's kingdom ma}" not be promoted or increased in 
the same way. It appears to me best to make the 
trial. The liberal subscription for this work in 
these trying times, has encouraged me to begin it, 
hoping that others will find an advantage in for- 
warding the work by adding their names to the list 
of those who have already wished such a work to 
appear in the world. 

There are many tilings which will be taken up 
which are not new, but are important, and which 
if stated to the rising generation will serve to give 
them a knowledge of that liberty for which their 
fathers bled, and for which they ought to contend. 

It is the design of the Editor, in describing the 
nature of civil and religious liberty, to come to the 
capacities of those whose advantages have been 
small, as to acquiring a general knowledge of the 

It may be that some may wish to know why 
this paper should be named the "Herald of Gospel 
JA~bcrt\j. ,: This kind of liberty is the only one 
which can make us happy, being the glorious Lib- 
erty of the sons of God which Christ proclaimed ; 
and which all who have, are exhorted to stand fast 
in, being that which is given and enjoyed by the 
law of liberty; which is the law of the spirit of life 


in Christ Jesus, which makes free from the law of 
sin and death. 

In this place I give the meaning of the word Her- 
ald. This word is derived from the Saxon word 
Herchault, and by abbreviation, Heralt, which in 
that language signifies the Champion of an army, 
and growing to be a name of office, it was given to 
him who, in the army, had the special charge to 
denounce war, to challenge to battle and combat, 
to proclaim peace, and to execute martial messages. 
The business of an Herald in the English govern- 
ment is as follows : — - 

To marshal, order and conduct all royal cavalcades, cere- 
monies at coronations, royal marriages, installations, crea- 
tion of Dukes, Marquises, Earls, Viscounts, Barons, Bar- 
onets, and dubbings of Knights, embassies, funeral proces- 
sions, declarations of war, proclamations of peace, etc., to 
record and blazon the arms of the nobility and gentry ; and 
to regulate any abuses therein through the English domin- 
ions, under the authority of the earl Marshal, to whom they 
are subservient. 

As this is the meaning of an Herald and as 
many such things ought now to be attended to, I 
see a great propriety in the name. The origin 
of Herald is very ancient. 

Stentor, is represented by Homer, as Herald of 
the Greeks, who had a voice louder than fifty men 
together. O may the voice of real liberty be heard 
above all the opposite sounds which can be made 
by tyrant kings and priests ! 

Elias Smith, 
Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty. 

Portsmouth, N. H., September 1, 1808. 




The Pioneer Religious Journal — A History 


The Herald of Gospel Liberty has completed 
the first one hundred years of its history as a re- 
ligious newspaper. It was established by Elias 
Smith in Portsmouth, Xew Hampshire, on the first 
day of September, A. D. 1S0S. Previous to the pub- 
lication of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, Mr. Smith 
had published a number of books and tracts. The 
tracts were found to be a helpful and inexpensive 
method of disseminating religious knowledge, and 
doubtless suggested some advantages of a regular 
publication. In the early part of 1804. Mr. Smith 
proposed the publication of a quarterly magazine, 
and made an effort to secure a list of subscribers. 
Later he issued a second "proposal" for the publica- 
tion of a magazine, "the first number to be pub- 
lished by the first of June, 1805." This periodical 
appeared under the name, "The Christian's Maga- 
zine, Reviewer, and Religious Intelligencer; con- 
sisting of subjects Historical, Doctrinal, Experi- 
mental, Practical and Poetical." It was published 
at Portsmouth, N. H., and was issued quarterly at 
twelve and one-half cents per number. It contain- 
ed thirty-six pages and the size of the page was four 
and one-half by seven and one-half inches. 

In the introduction to the first number the editor 


wrote as follows concerning the purpose of the 
paper : 

The design of the Magazine is to diffuse useful knowl- 
edge among my fellowmen. and particularly among those 
who love our Lord Jesus Christ. I have observed in other 
states, publications of this kind, which have greatly encour- 
aged and edified the followers of Jesus ; and I believe that 
there are materials enough to make a profitable pamphlet 
once in three months. 

The subjects and arrangement of the articles pub- 
lished in the Christian's Magazine are suggested by 
the title of the paper. The publication of this maga- 
zine continued about two years. 

In the summer of 1807, Elias Smith went by re- 
quest to Little Compton, a town on the sea coast, 
in the east part of the state of Rhode Island. Here 
he was cordially received by the Rev. Mr. Feckham, 
the pastor of the Free Will Baptist church, and 
his members, and invited to preach in the meeting- 
house and in their dwellings. The relation of this 
visit to the publication of a religious- newspaper is 
described by Mr. Smith in his autobiography. 

While at Little Compton, Isaac Wilber, Esq., who was 
then a member of Congress, proposed to me to conduct a 
religious newspaper, that should give a description of that 
religious liberty that is in harmony with civil liberty. He 
stated that the people in this country had a better under- 
standing of civil than religious liberty, and he thought that 
a work of this kind would be very useful to the people of 
the United States. 

The next winter, he, while at Congress, sent me a pro- 
posal of the publication before mentioned, and the plan con- 
templated by him and other members. The plan was lib- 
eral and several of my particular friends thought as I was 
poor, this would afford me some help, while benefiting oth- 
ers. So it appeared to me at first, but after mature de- 
liberation I concluded the plan, though liberal, would not 
do for me. 

I had endured the loss of property and friends, with 
much persecution, to obtain my freedom. I thought that 



to undertake a work of this kind under the direction of 
others would confine me. They might wish some things 
published which I should not like, and I might wish to pub- 
lish some things disagreeable to them, and therefore con- 

Thc house in which the Herald of Gospel Liberty was first 
printed, Portsmouth, N. H. 

eluded to undertake it at my own risk. Their liberality 1 
acknowledged. in a letter sent to Washington, and soon after 
issued proposals for publishing "The Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty," and issued the first number September 1. 1808. 


The first number of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, 

"No. I. Vol. I." bears the date of "Thursday evening, 

September 1, 1808." It contains the following an 

nouncement : 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty is published at Ports- 
mouth, N. H., every other Thursday evening by Elias Smith, 
at his house near Jeffrey Street. Terms — One dollar per 
year, exclusive of postage ; fifty cents to be advanced when 
the first number is delivered ; the other fifty when twenty- 
six numbers are delivered. 

The paper was to be "punctually forwarded 


to any part of the United States where con- 
veyance is practicable." The postage was to be 
paid by the subscribers at the rate of one cent for 
one hundred miles or less, one cent and one-half for 
a greater distance, but not more than one cent 
within the state. The Herald of Gospel Liberty 
was a four-page paper, and the size of the page 
was about nine by eleven inches. It was well 
printed on good paper and contained three columns 
to the page. Two hundred and seventy-four sub- 
scribers were obtained for the first issue. 

March 31, 1809, the time of publication was 
changed to Friday morning. About one year later 
Mr. Smith removed to Portland, Maine, and from 
April 17, 1810, to July, 1811, the Herald of Gospel 
Liberty was "printed and published" in that town. 
In December, 1810, Mr. Smith visited Philadelphia, 
and spent several months there. This city was in 
a central part of the United States, "a place where 
a correspondence might be opened to all parts of 
the country, and the free gospel spread in every 
direction." He was induced to make this city his 
home, and in the summer following his family came 
from Portland to Philadelphia. He began the pub- 
lication of the Herald of Gospel Liberty in the lat- 
ter city July 5, 1811. While living here Mr. Smith 
engaged in pastoral work, traveled extensively, and 
published a number of tracts and books, among the 
latter being his New Testament Dictionary. Living 
expenses were high, subscribers were slow in the 
payment of their subscriptions, churches paid him 
but little for his services, and sickness invaded his 
home. He was soon heavily burdened with debts, 

R E L I G I O U S JOUR N A L I S M 41 

and in the hope of finding relief from his financial 
burdens, he returned to his old home in Portsmouth 
and began to issue the paper from that place Feb- 
ruary 4, 1S14. 

The number of subscribers was about one thou- 
sand five hundred. Many of these were not prompt 
in paying their subscriptions, and Mr. Smith's finan- 
cial troubles were not relieved. He continued to 
make extensive journeys, preach the gospel, and pub- 
lish his paper. Probably in the month of May, 1816, 
he removed to Boston. The Rev. Jasper Hazen in 
an editorial note in the Christian Palladium of De- 
cember 2, 1846, gives the following explanation of 
this change: 

From the multiplicity of his (Smith's) labors, the ex- 
pense of his numerous publications, and extensive journeys, 
he became embarrassed, and probably to free himself from 
pecuniary difficulties, he formed a connection in business of 
some character with the celebrated Dr. Samuel Thomson ; 
and from that time he gave himself to the healing art. 

From September, 1815, to May, 1818, the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty led a precarious life. In the is- 
sue of September 20, 1815, notice was given that 
one number more would complete the seventh vol- 
ume, the number of subscribers was 1,400, and 
some changes would be necessary if the paper were 
to be continued. The agents and subscribers were 
requested to send in their names by the first of 
January, if they wished the paper published. 

Should there be nine or ten hundred of the present sub- 
scribers who wish the paper printed again; it shall be done 
upon this condition — that each subscriber shall pay one 
dollar per year in advance ; the money to be sent as soon 
as the first number of volume eight is received. 

Vol. VIII., No. L, appeared in August, 1.S16. Its 


form was changed and it showed less vigor than 

formerly. It was now issued "the first of every 

other month" and contained thirty-six pages and a 

cover, each page being about five by eight inches. 

This volume was published in Boston. 

In the August number of 1817, the editor gave 

notice to the following effect : 

One number more will complete the eighth volume of the 

Herald, which has now been published in nine years 

I now conclude, after the next number, to drop the publi- 
cation forever unless those who are indebted pay before 
the time for publishing the first number of volume ninth. 

In the meantime Mr. Smith had been giv- 
ing more attention to the practice of med- 
icine and less to the preaching of the gospel. He 
traveled much less than formerly, and also in his 
preaching manifested a leaning toward Universal- 
ism. October 1, 1817, an "Elders' Conference" was 
convened in Portsmouth, N. H., "occasioned, in part, 
by the shock given the preachers by the turning 
away of Elder Elias Smith to Universalisin." 
Elder Elijah Shaw stated in his journal that this 
Conference "laid the foundation for setting limits 
to the encroachment of this pernicious doctrine 
among us, by a more stringent discipline, and the 
organization of conferences." Elias Smith was not 
present at this conference, but he heard about it, 
and in the October number of the Herald of Gos- 
pel Liberty, he published three articles called Fare- 
wells. He clearly set forth his ideas of Universal- 
ism, and embraced the doctrine. This was the 
last number of the paper issued by Elias Smith. 
He gave notice that "this number closes the volume," 
and "no more are to be printed by me." He also 


stated in the paragraph following the above notice 
that "Robert Foster of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 
proposes to publish a work of this kind upon the 
same terms as this has been published, called The 
Christian Herald.'' 1 

The files of the Herald of Gospel Liberty as indi- 
cated in the preceding pages are complete and ex- 
tant to-day, and have been depended upon almost 
entirely for the foregoing history- We shall now 
return to the first issues of the paper for a more 
careful study of its character. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty is a religious news- 
paper. It was intended to be such by its founder. 
On the first page of each number of the early vol- 
umes these words were printed as the motto of the 

From realms far distant, and from climes unknown ; 
We make the knowledge of our King your own. 

Its "adamantine" purpose is manifested by the 
following poem which appeared in the first number : 

"Had I a thousand mouths, a thousand tongues, 
A throat of brass, and adamantine lungs, 
I'd sound redeeming love through all the earth ; 
The love that gave me first and second birth ; 
I'd tell to all creation's utmost space. 
How great his goodness and how rich his grace ; 
Till wondering nations should his grace adore, 
Jehovah's Christ. God blest forever more." 

The Herald, of Gospel Liberty was founded as 
an advocate of religious liberty. The editor writes: 

Religious Liberty signifies a freedom to believe in God, 
and to obey Him according to the manifestation which he 
has made to man, in his works, in the Scriptures, and by 
the Spirit of truth, the manifestations of which are given to 
every man to profit withal. Every kind of human law re- 
specting religion is inconsistent with real religious liberty. 



The tower rising in the distance shows the church in which 

Elias Smith was preaching in Portsmouth, N. H., 

when he founded the religious newspaper. 

'Portsmouth Historic and Picturesque," 
by courtesy of C. S. Gurney. 


In the first one hundred and forty-six num- 
bers there are fifty-three articles on the subject of 
"Liberty," written apparently by the editor. The 
one entitled "Liberty No. 16" begins with the fol- 
lowing language: 

Religious liberty is what my heart rejoices in, and what 
I long for all men to enjoy. I am bound as a lover of man- 
kind to instruct them, and teach them the nature of it. 
according to my ability and the opportunity given me to 
do it. This is the "glorious liberty of the children of God ;" 
begun here, to be completed at the resurrection of the just. 
This is the liberty which the Son of God proclaimed to 
captives — founded on the perfect law of liberty; wherewith 
Christ makes free indeed. 

This liberty was first preached by Jesus Christ, next by 
his apostles, who learnt of him. and was known and en- 
joyed by the Christians in the days of the apostles. 

In the struggle for liberty it was inevitable 
that the paper should contend for certain prin- 
ciples. The advocacy of any cause involves 
loyalty to foundation doctrines. The editor and 
his fellow-laborers were pioneers in the cause 
of religious freedom. They had a glorious vision 
of a new day, and they heard a voice saying unto 
them, "Stand fast therefore in the liberty where- 
with Christ hath made us free, and be not entan- 
gled again with the yoke of bondage." It was not 
to be expected that these men, whose training had 
been largely in the school of experience, would un- 
derstand the full meaning of that voice at once. 
They grew in their conception of liberty, and grad- 
ually discarded many of the vagaries advocated at 
first. However, there were certain fundamental 
principles which have obtained throughout the his- 
tory of the Herald of Gospel Liberty. In a letter 


from Virginia, dated December 18, 1808, William 

Guiry wrote: 

After we became a separate people, three points were 
determined on. 1st. No head over the church but Christ. 
2d. No confession of faith, articles of religion, rubric, 
canons, creeds, etc., but the New Testament. 3d. No re- 
ligious name but Christians. 

In reply to this letter Elias Smith wrote : 

The three things you mention are what we have all 
agreed to, and are now agreed in throughout the whole 

Sometimes a writer referred to "The Holy Scrip- 
tures," and not simply the New Testament, as the 
law of the church, although the editor regarded the 
New Testament as a sufficient rule, saying, "that 
we ought to hear God's Son, Jesus, in all things." 

Many articles dealt with the "Sacred Import of 
the Name Christian." William Lanphier wrote: 

We believe that party names engender party animosities, 
and that the most and only proper name for the followers 
of Christ is Christians. That all other names, given or 
assumed, are nicknames, and serve only as a rallying point 
for a party spirit. Those who assume party names say 
they do it for distinction's sake, and this is the very reason 
why we discard them ; because Christians ought not to be 
distinguished from each other ; for "there is one body, and 
one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your call- 

Many writers contend that the Scriptures favor 
this name as the proper one for the followers of 
Christ, for "it was given by divine authority." 

It will be impossible to understand the spirit of 
the Herald of Gospel Liberty in its opposition to 
certain doctrines and practices, unless we keep in 
mind the fact that the writers were struggling for 
liberty, and liberty to their minds Was the right 
to believe Bible doctrines. And Bible doctrines 


were such as could be expressed in the language of 
the Bible. Trinitarianism, with its scholastic terms, 
"There is one person of the Father, another of the 
Son, and another of the Holy Ghost, the Father is 
God, the Son is God, and the Holy Ghost is God," 
seemed to them to be tritheism, a limited form of 
polytheism. They could not find the word Trin- 
ity in the New Testament, neither could they par- 
allel the terminology of its doctrinal statements 
with Biblical quotations, and therefore they turned 
away from this "mystery" to the simpler Biblical 
statements concerning the Father, Son, and Holy 
Spirit. Calvinism seemed to be fatalism, but they 
found in the Word no eternal decrees determining 
the fates of men. 

It seems not to have occurred to the writers 
in the Herald of Gospel Liberty at first that there 
could be any serious differences of opinion on the 
essentials of Christian faith, and so we read noth- 
ing in the earlier numbers of the paper concern- 
ing the rights of the individual in interpreting the 
Scriptures and the test of Christian fellowship. 
There were differences of opinions and of practice, 
but these offered no serious problems. They believed 
that a more perfect understanding of the Scriptures 
would remove these differences. In New England 
baptism was by immersion, and in the South both 
sprinkling and immersion were practiced. The 
question was asked : 

If a brother is not buried in baptism, is it a bar to com- 

The answer was : 

It is the uniform belief of all the elders and brethren 


in this part (New England), that baptism is only one thing, 
viz., a burial in water ; and that it is enjoined on all be- 
lievers only ; that it is the duty of all believers to be bap- 
tized, as soon as they are born again ; and that baptism is 
the first thing enjoined on a believer by Jesus Christ and 
the apostles. At the same time they do not think a be- 
liever ought to be driven to submit to that command before 
he sees the duty, and do not think a brother ought to be 
shut out until he is baptized ; but they consider it their duty 
to instruct such in the way of the Lord more perfectly. 

By the year 1810 the policy of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty was quite definitely settled. In the 
number of January 19, the editor issued a 
"Protest," from which we make the following quota- 
tion to show the advocacy of the paper : 

I do in the first place publicly declare, that the Holy 
Scriptures which contain a revelation of the will of God, 
are the only sure, autlienticlc, and infallible rule of the faith 
and practice of every Christian, by which all opinions are 
to be fairly and impartially examined; and in consequence 
of this I do protest against setting up and allowing the 
decrees of any man, or body of men, as of equal authority 
and obligation with tbe word of God ; whether they be 
councils, synods, convocations, associations, missionary so- 
cieties, companies called churches, or general assemblies; 
whether ancient or modern, Romish, Episcopal, Presby- 
terian, Congregational, Baptist, or Methodist, Popes, Fa- 
thers, or Doctors of Divinity. 

I do further assert and maintain according to the doc- 
trine of Christ and the apostles, and the practice of Chris- 
tians in the first century; that in all things essential to 
the faith and practice of a Christian, the Scriptures are 
plain, and easy to be understood, by all who will diligently 
and impartially read and study them ; and that charging 
the Scriptures with obscurity and uncertainty is contrary 
to the plain declaration of the Scriptures, and is an abuse 
of the rule given for Christians to walk by, and an insult 
upon the Holy Spirit, by which the authors of them were 

I do further assert that every Christian is under an in- 
dispensable obligation to search the Scripture for himself, 
and make the best use of it he can for his information in 
the icill of God, and the nature of "pure religion;" that he 
hath an unalienable right, impartially to judge of the sense 
and meaning of it, and to follow the Scripture wherever 


it leads hiru, even an equal right with the Bishops and Pas- 
tors of the churches ; and in consequence of this I further 
protest against that unrighteous and ungodly pretence of 
making the writings of the fathers, the decrees of councils 
and synods, or the sense of the church, the rule and stand- 
ard of judging the sense of the Scriptures as Popish, ^anti- 
Christian, and dangerous to the church of God. 

I do further assert and maintain that every Christian 
hath an equal right to the peaceable and constant posses- 
sion of what he believes to be the truth contained in the 
Scriptures, and ought to be left by all men, and secured by 
civil government, in the full and undisturbed enjoyment of 
them ; even though his principles may, in many things, be 
contrary to what the Reverend D. D.'s call Orthodoxy. 

As truth is no private man's property, and all Chris- 
tians are under obligations to propagate it; I do also de- 
clare that every Christian has a right to publish and vindi- 
cate what he believes is contained in the Scriptures ; to 
speak and icrite against all corruption of the word, either 
in doctrine or practice ; and to expose the errors of good 
men, and the wickedness, oppression and hypocrisy of un- 
godly men; that every Christian has not only a right, but 
is commanded to separate from such professors whose doc- 
trine and worship are contrary to what he finds recorded 
in the Scriptures : and that he has a right to enjoy without 
disturbance, oppression, or disgrace, or any kind of punish- 
ment, civil or ecclesiastical, the liberty of serving God, with 
any other company of Christians, as he shall judge most 
expedient and useful to him. 

The above quotations outline quite clearly the ad- 
vocacy of the Herald of Gospel Liberty under the 
management of Elias Smith. 

One of the mot important departments in the paper 
was called "Religious Intelligence." In this depart- 
ment appear reports from the churches, ministers 
and conferences or general gatherings, in one num- 
ber there are letters from Virginia, North Carolina, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Ken- 
tucky. It was through the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty that the Christians in New England, the South, 
and the West, became acquainted, and were gradual- 
ly drawn into a closer fellowship. In 1812 the editor 


wrote that there was but one state in the Union 
where the paper was not sent. 


The last number of the Herald of Gospel Liberty 
to be issued by Elias Smith bore the date of "Octo- 
ber, 1817." Notice had been given that Robert Fos- 
ter proposed to publish "a work of this kind upon the 
same terms as this has been published, called The 
Christian Herald.'- The first number of the Chris- 
tian Herald bears the date of "May, 1818." It 
was published in Portsmouth, N. H. It contained 
twenty-four pages, the size of each being five by 
eight inches, and was issued monthly. Robert Fos- 
ter was the editor and publisher. 

The character of the paper was considerably 
changed by the new editor. Elias Smith had been 
a reformer. His paper had teemed with articles 
on Liberty. His opposition to religious despotism 
had been relentless. His bitter invectives had been 
hurled forcefully against church polities, clerical 
trappings, ministerial titles, ecclesiastical associa- 
tions, hireling preachers, creeds, and all the "isms" 
which to him seemed to be forms of religious tyran- 
ny. The change of policy in the Christian Herald 
was suggested by the editor in the first number of 
that paper. Wrote the editor : 

Perhaps the time has come when arguments instead of 
censure, and entreaties instead of the scourge may do more 
for the cause of truth than an host of censurers and volumes 
of invectives. 

It was proposed to give particular atten- 
tion to the manners and customs of the 
times in which the Scriptures were written, 


to present such historical subjects and miscellaneous 
articles as would be consistent with the design of 
the paper, to give accounts of the revivals of re- 
ligion among the different denominations, to present 
foreign religious intelligence, and to make the paper 
the herald of the pleasing intelligence that Chris- 
tians of every denomination had turned their effect- 
ive force from opposing one another to operate 
against the "man of sin." 

The controversial spirit disappears almost com- 
pletely. General articles appear on such subjects 
as i 'Thc Obligations of Christians to Love One An- 
other" "The Jews" "■Historical Sketch of Jerusalem 
and its Environs'' "The Inquisition/' "Faith," "The 
Harmonist Society," "History of the Waldenses," 
"Prayer" "The Wisdom of God." A prominent de- 
partment of the paper was called "Illustrations of 
Scripture." Frequent accounts were given of mis- 
sionary work in various lands. The most prominent 
department was that of "Religious Intelligence." In 
this department were extracts of letters from minis- 
ters, reports of revivals and general meetings, and 
information concerning the general status of the 
Christian Church. Biographical sketches and obit- 
uaries were given. The department of Poetry con- 
tained many poems, the most of them being histor- 
ical or experimental in character. They were 
chosen, evidently, because of their religious tone. 

"Almighty Lord, roll on Thy power, 
And grant a pentecost-like shower, 

Lef thousands feel Thy love ; 

And lead them by Thy gentle hand, 

Through this dark vale and desert land 
To the fair world above." 


The publisher of the Christian Herald did not 
find the paper very remunerative. In 1819 he gave 
notice that "country produce will be received in 
pay for the Christian Herald" at the current market 

The former editor, Elias Smith, did not long re- 
main in fellowship with the Universalists, and his 
burning desire to declare a free gospel led him to 
undertake the publication of another paper, called 
the Morning Star- and City Watchman. In this he 
contended for the simplicity of apostolic customs. 
To show how far the church had drifted from Scrip- 
tural forms he published the following ironical no- 

PUBLIC NOTICE— The Rev. Mr. PAUL, of Tarsus, has 
received a CALL, which he has accepted ; to become Pastor 
of the Church and society at Ephesus. — To be ordained or in- 
stalled on such a day. The Rev. Mr. Simon Peter, D. D., is 
to preach the sermon. The Rev. Mr. John to give the right 
hand of fellowship. Rev. Mr. Luke, the Charge, etc. A 
Choir of Singers, and instruments are engaged. 

This was in 1S27. Mr. Smith occasionally attended 
Christian conferences and assisted ministers in hold- 
ing meetings. Some of the bitterness against him 
had disappeared. The returning fellowship was 
manifested by the sale of the Watchman to Robert 
Foster and its consolidation with the Christian 
Herald in May, 1829. 

In accordance with a previous announcement the 
Christian Herald was changed in May, 1829, to a 
"quarto, imperial size," three columns to the page, 
and published semi-monthly. At the beginning of 
volume fifteen the size of the page was diminished 
and the number of pages increased to thirty-six. 

For seventeen years Robert Foster carried the 


burden of this publication. He was both editor and 
publisher. The burden of the years drained his 
financial resources and destroyed his health. He 
too had suffered much persecution for his faith, but 
he kept his paper free from all bitterness. When 
he was reviled, he reviled not again. 


The Christians of New England had learned the 
value of a religious newspaper, and they would not 
willingly let the paper die. On the first day of 
January, 1S35, an assembly of "preachers and 
others'' met at the home of Abram Drake, in Hamp- 
ton, N. H., and organized the "Eastern Christian 
Publishing Association." The following named of- 
ficers were elected: President, Elder Noah Piper; 
Vice-President. Elder Simeon Swett; Recording 
Secretary, Elder S. E. Brown; Corresponding Secre- 
tary, P>. F. Carter; Treasurer, J. C. Blodgett; Ex- 
ecutive Committee, Elders Elijah Shaw, R. Davis, 
and J. C. Blodgett; editor of the Christian Journal. 
Elder Elijah Shaw; Editorial Council, Elders 
Mark Fern a Id, Moses How, and S. E. Brown. 
The Association was organized for "the purpose of 
publishing and circulating a religious newspaper 
and such books as it shall be thought best for the in- 
terest of the Redeemer's kingdom in the world." 

The Association purchased the Christian Herald 
of Robert Foster and removed it to Exeter, N. H. 
The name was changed to the Christian Journal. 
The first number appeared April 2, 1835. Elijah 
Shaw was the editor. 

This is the second time that the Herald of Gospel 


Liberty has changed owners. The continuous publi- 
cation of the paper from September 1, 1808, to the 
time it assumed the name Christian Journal is 
abundantly proved by the files of the paper which 
are complete and extant to-day. There is also 
abundant proof that the change of names and owners 
is not evidence of new publications. The Herald of 
Gospel Liberty gave notice of the publication of 
the Christian Herald by Eobert Foster in the is- 
sue of October, 1817. The Christian Church of 
Portsmouth, of which Elias Smith was a member, 
believed that the doctrine of Universalism was "un- 
scriptural, dangerous and licentious," and there- 
fore it decided: 

That we do not approbate the preaching of Elder Elias 
Smith, nor can we receive him as a preacher so long as he 
preaches the doctrine of Universalism. 

This was the position of the church gen- 
erally, and therefore it was a matter of 
policy not -to say anything about the con- 
nection of the Christian Herald with the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty. Later, when Elias Smith was being 
fellowshiped by some of the Christian ministers, 
Eobert Foster acknowledged that his paper was the 
successor of Smith's paper. In May, 1828, Mr. Fos- 
ter wrote in the Christian Herald: 

The present number commences a new series of the 
Christian Herald. As this is acknowledged to be the first 
Religions Newspaper ever published, we hope to receive for 
our new series so much patronage and support both from 
its subscriptions, and from those who may assist in furnish- 
ing matter for its columns, that it may not be late the 
least in circulation, or the last in influence. 

Mr. Foster could not have been ignorant 
of the fact that the Boston Recorder was 


founded in 1816, nearly two years before ho 
took charge of his paper, and of course 
he was aware of Smith's publication. He, therefore, 
must have regarded the Christian Herald as a con- 
tinuation of the Herald of Gospel Liberty. In July, 
1832, the following statement appeared in the 
Christian Herald: 

The Christian Herald is our periodical. It belongs to 
the Christian Churches of New England. They have patron- 
ized it for twenty-four years. The first number was issued 
the first day of September, 1808, and was a lonely traveler 
in the world ; not another religious paper existed in Amer- 
ica. It has had but two owners, who have also been its 
editors. Signed "E. S." (Elijah Shaw.) 

Elijah Shaw, Mark Fernald and Asa C. 
Morrison were an advisory committee to assist 
Editor Foster, and so the above statement is issued 
with the sanction of the owner of the paper. The 
testimony of Mark Fernald, given in 1835, accords 
with the above statement. 

The following statement is taken from the Memoir 

of Elijah Shaw, written by "His Daughter" : 

The "Herald of Gospel Liberty," the first religious news- 
paper published in this country, was commenced at Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire, in 180S, by Elias Smith, and in 
1818 it passed into the hands of Robert Foster, and the 
name was changed to the "Christian Herald.'''' 

Elder D. P. Pike gives his testimony as follows in 

the Herald of Gospel Liberty of March 4, 1858: 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty was the first religious pa- 
per published in the United States. It was first issued at 
Portsmouth, N. II., September 1, 1808, and edited by Elder 
Elias Smith. In 1818, Robert Foster, who had purchased 
the paper of Elder Smith, commenced its publication under 
the name of the "Christian Herald.'''' 

Robert Foster gave notice in the Christian Herald 
of January 15, 1835, to the following effect : 


We would inform our subscribers tbat after the present 
volume of the Christian Herald is completed, it will become 

the property of the Eastern Christian Publishing Associa- 

In the same issue the following statement ap- 
peared : 

The Christian Herald has been purchased by the East- 
ern Christian Publishing Association, and is to pass into 
their hands at the close of the present volume, which is to 
be terminated in April next. Signed, Richard Davis, 
Julius C. Blodgett, Elijah Shaw, Executive Committee. 

April 2, 1835, an editorial in the Christian Journal 
stated that the Association had purchased of Robert 
Foster his list of subscribers with his whole interest 
in the Christian Herald, and that the list of sub- 
scribers had been furnished the Association. 

As early as 1839, the question of the oldest re- 
ligious newspaper was raised, and the following 
editorial appears in the Christian Journal of March 
7, 1839, under the title, "The First Religious News- 
paper." It was written by Elijah Shaw, who had 
been identified with the Christian Connection since 
1810, and could speak from personal knowledge con- 
cerning the Herald of Gospel Liberty: 

We have in our office the first seven, volumes of the first 
religious newspaper ever published, all bound in one vol- 
ume. Its name is the Herald of Gospel Liberty. The first 
number bears date, "Portsmouth, N. H., September 1, 1808." 
Religious magazines had been previously published, but 
this was the first religious newspaper. 

This paper was published by Elias Smith, until the year 
1S17, when it passed into the hands of Robert Foster, of 
Portsmouth, and was regularly published by him till 1835, 
when it was purchased of him by a company, and has ever 
since been published under the title of "CHRISTIAN JOUR- 
NAL." Hence our good paper is the oldest in the world. 
It has changed owners and editors but twice in more than 
thirty years. The "Boston Recorder" has been proclaimed 
the first religious newspaper. That paper was commenced 


in 1810. Hence our paper is eight years older than the 
Recorder. Thus much for the first paper. 

The Christian Journal was first issued as a semi- 
monthly paper of four pages, the size of each page 
being thirteen by nineteen inches. It was printed 
five columns to the page. In 1S39 it was issued 
weekly, and the name was changed to the Christian 
Herald and Journal. In April, 1840, Benjamin F. 
Carter took charge of all business matters as pub- 
lishing agent, and Elijah Shaw, David Millard, and 
Philemon R. Eussell were elected editors. At this 
time the word Journal was dropped from the first 
page of the paper, but continued at the top of the 
other pages. One year later its use was discon- 
tinued and the name of the paper became the Chris- 
tian Herald. In July, 1841, it was enlarged to six 
columns, the page being fifteen by twenty-one and 
one-half inches. David Millard severed his con- 
nection with the paper as one of its editors October 
6, 1S42. 

The leading departments in the Christian Journal 
were contributed articles, editorials, religious in- 
telligence, correspondence, conference proceedings, 
general intelligence, obituaries, youth's department, 
temperance, and notices. Among the prominent con- 
tributors were David Millard, Mark Fernald, Abner 
Jones, Simon Clough, O. E. Morrill, P. R. Russell. 
E. Edmunds, J. V. Dimes, D. P. Pike, J. 0. Blodgett, 
, A. (j. Comings. Many articles were not signed, 
or signed by a nom de plume, such as Amicus, Verita- 
tis, A. P. P., Franklin, B., Roselin, Peletiah, Alpha, 
Omega, Justice. 

The motto of the paper was expressed in these 


words : "In necessary things, unity ; in non-essen- 
tials, liberty; in all things, charity." Robert Fos- 
ter was a lay member; Elijah Shaw was a minister; 
hence it is not strange that the paper should become 
more theological in tone. "Doctrinal subjects," an- 
nounced the editor, "will find a place in our columns. 
Doctrine is the foundation of practice." Many of 
the subjects of editorials and contributed articles 
were practical, such as Sabbath Schools, the Sab- 
bath, Sacred Music, Education, Revivals, The For- 
giveness of Sins, Charity, and Spirituality. The 
paper was progressive, and always ready to advo- 
cate measures that promised success in building up 
the Redeemer's kingdom. It was a strong advocate 
of the establishment of church schools. It favored 
a trained ministry : 

If God does not call the man to preach the gospel, 
education can never qualify him for the work. But if 
called of God, the better his education, if properly used, the 
more useful he may be in the world. Human learning can 
never supply the lack of a call from heaven ; and a call 
from heaven can never supply the want of education — the 
want of knowledge of books and of men. 

The missionary movement was commended and the 
churches were urged to form missionary societies. 
At first the thought of missionary work was con- 
fined to the home field, but in 1842, the discussion 
included the foreign field. 

In 1838 the Association passed the following reso- 
lution : 

Resolved, That the columns of the Christian Journal be 
open for articles on the evils and sin of slavery, so far as 
the same may involve the fundamental principles of mor- 
ality and religion. 

Three years previous to this time some articles 


had appeared on this subject. The first article be- 
gan with these words : 

We believe slavery to be a sin, always, everywhere, and 
only sin. 

In 1840 to 1843 the subject of Christ's second 
coming was agitating the minds of the people. The 
Rev. William Miller had reached the conclusion that 
the Christ would return to the earth in 1843, and 
the advocacy of the doctrine was pushed with such 
evident candor and support of prophecy that many 
people were led to believe it. The Christian Herald 
acknowledged that the New Testament taught that 
Christ would return to earth, but denied that the 
Bible gave any basis for the determination of the 
time of his coming. 

When the views of Alexander Campbell were be- 
ing promulgated in New England, the Christian 
Herald both in its editorials and in its contributed 
articles took issue with Mr. Campbell on the pur- 
pose or design of baptism and on the operation of 
the Holy Spirit. In February, 1838, Barton W. 
Stone wrote an article for the paper, which was 
published with the approval of the editor, in which 
is this language: 

I approve of my choice in taking the Bible alone as the 
foundation of my faith and practice; and to meet all Chris- 
tians on this broad platform without regard to diversity 
of opinion, if that opinion were not of a demoralizing na- 
ture and tendency. On this foundation I am fully convinced 
the church of Christ must ultimately settle. 

I most heartily approve of my course in so strenuously 
advocating the doctrine that immersion is not the sine qua 
non Of Christianity ; but that there are many Christians 
better than myself, who, not knowing immersion to be a 
duty, have been blessed of God without it. They have the 
humble spirit of obedience. For this sentiment I have ex- 
perienced much opposition. 


. I also approve of my course in tenaciously adhering to 
and advocating the influences of the Spirit through faith 
and obedience. 

About 1837 the question of a test of fellowship 
comes to the front. One writer in stating the posi- 
tion of the church uses the following language: 

They (the Christians) hold that the only proper test of 
Christian fellowship is sincere piety, evidenced by an up- 
right walk and meek deportment. Thus they extend the 
hand of fellowship to all who "have the fellowship of the 
Father and the Son." They own all as their brethren whom 
they have evidence that God owns as His children. They 
are free to commune with all whom God communes with. 

June 28, 1838, the Eastern Christian Publishing 
Association purchased The Christian, a paper which 
was being published by the Rev. J. V. Himes of 
Boston, and consolidated it with the Christian Jour- 


In 1850 the Christian General Book Association 
was publishing two papers in Albany, N. Y. The 
one was called the American Christian Messenger 
and the other, the Christian Palladium. The Rev. 
Jasper Hazen was the editor of both papers. There 
had been some discussion of the advisability of con- 
solidating the denominational papers, the result of 
which was the union of the Christian Herald and 
the American Christian Messenger. Of this transac- 
tion we have the following account: 

We have the pleasure to announce to the friends — East 
and West — that we have made arrangements with the 
Eastern Christian Publishing Association, which we trust 
will result in united and harmonious action in the future. 
P>y arrangements the second volume of the Messenger will 
commence March 27, (1850), and be denominated "Christian 
Herald and Messenger,'' as the Herald becomes the property 
of the General Association. 


The above is from the Rev. Jasper Hazen, and ap- 
peared in the Christian Palladium, February 16, 
1850. In the same issue of this paper, the Executive 
Committee of the E. C. P. A. gave notice that they 

sought and accomplished a union of the "Old Pioneer" with 
the American Christian Messenger. The next volume of the 
Christian Herald will commence with the new volume of 
the Christian Messenger, under the name of CHRISTIAN 
HERALD AND MESSENGER. All the subscribers of the 
Herald will be transferred, and they will receive a larger- 
sheet at the same price. The senior editor, Elder Elijah 
Shaw, has received and accepted an appointment as our 
editor for the next volume. 

The first number of the Christian Herald and Mes- 
senger appeared March 27, 1850, but the union did 
not prove satisfactory, as will be seen by the follow- 
ing explanation, taken from the "Committee's Salu- 
tatory" in the Herald of Gospel Liberty of March 
13, 1851. 

At the annual meeting of the Eastern Christian Pub- 
lishing Association last November, it was voted to open 
correspondence with Elder Jasper Hazen, Publishing Agent 
of the Christian General Book Association, with a design to 
repurchase the list of Christian Herald subscribers, that we 
might commence its publication again in New England. 
The Committee immediately did so, and received from Elder 
Hazen two propositions, either of which, if accepted by us, 
would be satisfactory to him, and we might go on and pub- 
lish the paper again in New England. One of these propo- 
sitions has been accepted. 

With the purchase of the Christian Herald 
by the Eastern Christian Publishing Association, the 
paper was removed to Newburyport, Mass. The fol- 
lowing is the heading of the first issue: 


Published by an Association of Brethren. 

In Necessary Things, Unity ; In Non-essentials, Liberty ; 
In All Things, Charity. 

Vol. XLIII. No. 1. Newburyport, Thursday, March 13, 
1851. Vol. I. No. 1. 

The publishing agent was B. F. Carter. The 
editors were Daniel P. Pike, A. G. Morton, Elijah 
Shaw, Oliver Barr, John B. Weston, O. J. Wait, 
and Austin Craig. Later the list of editors included 
the names of Thomas Holmes, David E. Millard, E. 
Edmunds, Moses Kidder, J. R. Hoag and others. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty, under the new man- 
agement, was issued weekly at $1.50 per year. It 
was a four page paper, the size of the page being 
fifteen and one-half by twenty-two inches. February 
14, 1856, Benjamin F. Carter became the resident 
editor, and Charles Bryant, assistant editor. Six 
years later Daniel P. Pike assumed the duties of 
editor, and John W. Hayley was associated with him 
in the work. 


In January, 1862, the Herald of Gospel Liberty 
enlarged the scope of its work by the consolidation 
of another paper with it. Some time after the re- 
purchase of the Christian Herald by the Eastern 
Christian Publishing Association, the Christian Gen- 
eral Book Association removed its headquarters from 
Albany to New York City. The Christian Messen- 
ger was issued weekly from that place, and the 
Christian Palladium semi-monthly. Moses Cum- 
mings was the editor of both papers. On the third 
day of January, 1861, these papers were consoli- 


dated under the name of Christian Messenger and 
Palladium. One year later the Christian Mes- 
senger and Palladium was united with the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty at Newburyport, Mass. This 
closed Volume XIII of the Christian Messenger and 
Volume XXX of the Christian Palladium . 

During this period many of the contributed ar- 
ticles were written by such men as Daniel P. Pike, 
John B. Weston, O. J. Wait, James Burlingame, 
O. P. Tuckerman, E. Edmunds, Moses Kidder, David 
E. Millard, J. R. Hoag, Oliver Barr, Austin Craig, 
Thomas Holmes, John W. Hayley, and B. F. Sum- 
merbell. The editors announced in 1851 that the pa- 
per "would advocate fearlessly and lovingly educa- 
tion, Sabbath Schools, and the diffusion of useful 
and general intelligence among all classes." As 
early as 1853, B. F. Summerbell urged the churches 
to provide parsonages for their ministers. The sub- 
ject of education was made prominent, and the 
movements which resulted in the founding of 
Starkey Seminary, Antioch College, Union Christian 
College, and the Christian Biblical Institute were 
greatly accelerated by the earnest advocacy of the 
paper. Fears were occasionally expressed lest the 
ministers should depend too much upon education, 
and not enough upon the Spirit of God. But there 
had been a great change since the days of Elias 
Smith. Such men as Thomas Holmes, O J. Wait, 
and John B. Weston were in a large measure sha- 
ping the policy of the paper. In a series of articles 
addressed "To Young Ministers," O. J. Wait argued 
in favor of a divine call as a sine qua non of min- 
isterial service. He also advised the young minis 


ters to take a course of stud} 7 in a college and in a 
theological seminary. 

On the subject of slavery the editorial policy was 
unrelenting opposition. President Lincoln's in- 
augural address was highly commended as wise, and 
patriotic. During the war the citizens of the nation 
were encouraged to enlist in the Union army, and 
the destruction of slavery was advocated. How- 
ever, the editors did not lose sight of the fact that 
the paper was religious and not political. 


The year 1868 opened a new era for the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty. Hitherto the paper had been 
confined largely to New England, but the denomina- 
tion was growing in numbers and in the perfection 
of its organization. The plans of the General Con- 
vention called for the co-operation of the entire 
brotherhood, and there came a demand for a paper 
that would represent the whole Connection. 

In the West was the Gospel Herald. This was 
founded by the Ohio Christian Book Association 
in 1843. The Rev. Isaac N. Walter was the editor. 

The first number of the Gospel Herald, printed in octavo 
form, double column, a semi-monthly, appeared the second 
of October, 1S43 ; the whole bearing the impress of ability 
in matter, taste, arrangement and mechanical execution, 
giving its patrons a warrant of what they might expect 
when time had been given for its maturity. 

It was first published at New Carlisle, 
Ohio, and after an itinerary which included 
Springfield, Yellow Springs, Columbus, and Eaton, 
its headquarters were established in Dayton, 
about the first of May, 1865. The Ohio Christian 


Book Association became the Western Christian 
Book Association in 1852, and at a meeting held in 
Covington, Ohio, November 27, 1866, the name was 
changed to The Christian Publishing Association. 
The list of editors of the Gospel Herald from 1843 
to 1868 includes the names of Isaac N. Walter, 
James Williamson, James W. Marvin, James Maple, 
L. Purviance, N. Summerbell, John Ellis, and Henry 
Y. Rush. 

Neither the Herald of Gospel Liberty nor the 
Gospel Herald fully met the demands of the de- 
nomination. Possible plans were discussed, and at 
a meeting of the Christian Publishing Association 
held in Hagerstown, Indiana, November 19, 1867, 
arrangements were made for the consolidation of 
the Gospel Herald and the Herald of Gospel Liberty. 
The two papers were united January 4, 1868, under 
the name of the Herald of Gospel Liberty. The 
paper was published at Dayton, Ohio. The Rev. 
H. Y. Rush was editor, and the Rev. I). P. Pike was 
associate editor. With the removal of the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty to Dayton, Ohio, it became the 
general denominational organ. The Christian Pub- 
lishing Association is composed of the same dele- 
gates as is the American Christian Convention, and 
is therefore representative of the entire brother- 

The policy of the paper under the editorship of 
Rev. Dr. Rush cannot be better expressed than in 
his own words, written at the close of his editorial 
career : 

To maintain the peace and harmony of the brotherhood ; 
to allow all possible liberty of discussion that shall not in- 


volve ill temper and undue personality ; to exclude from 
the paper all forms of liberalism and all ingenious outcrop- 
pings of infidelity ; to make it the preacher of a pure gospel, 
and the promoter of personal, domestic, and church piety ; 
to recognize the labors and the usefulness of the fathers, 
the vast good being done from city to remotest wilderness 
by the large number of pious, zealous, devoted ministers, 
who never had the advantages of literary education — an ad- 
vantage or disadvantage, just as the heart and mind are 
sacredly consecrated to Christly labors ; to speak well of 
all good, industrious, useful ministers and laymen ; to make 
as many and as earnest pleas as practicable for our schools 
and colleges ; to give the fullest possible account of revival 
intelligence, of churches organized and dedicated ; to make 
the paper a church paper, a denominational paper, a peo- 
ple's paper, keeping it alive with our own work as a peo- 
ple, rather than a scientific, speculative, or dogmatic jour- 

In keeping with his policy as outlined above, 
the editor prepared and published many strong- 
editorials on such subjects as The Boole of 
Books, Religious Revivals, German Theology, What 
Our Position Implies, The Glory of Pentecost, Our 

In 18G8 Union Christian College was making an 
effort to raise an endowment fund of one hundred 
thousand dollars. The Herald of Gospel Liberty 
performed commendable service in keeping the sub- 
ject before its readers, and in the presentation of 
the general subject of education. The contributed 
articles cover a large range of subjects. The follow- 
ing are characteristic: The Secret of Ministerial 
Success, Spiritual Liberty, Benevolence, Pulpit- 
Style, Resting Place of the Soul, A Sinner's Friend, 
Bible Reading, True Age of Man, Sanctification. 

At the close of twelve years of service as editor 
of the Gospel Herald and the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty, the Rev. Henry Y. Rush resigned, the resigna- 


tion to take effect December 31, 1876. The Kev. N. 
Summerbell, D. D., immediately assumed the duties 
of the office. 

With the new editor there came a new emphasis 
upon theological subjects and the position of the 
Christians. Such subjects as Theology, Science and 
Religion, God, The Gospel, Christology, Science, 
Science Confirming Revelation, Jesus and His Glory, 
are prominent in the editorial columns. Although 
the Herald of Gospel Liberty was not a "passive 
medium equally of truth and error," it welcomed to 
its columns articles from writers whose views were 
divergent. The editor believed that "truth's floods 
flow eternally on, washing over those who with wisps 
vainly strive to sweep back its onflowing deluge." 

The ''fundamental principles" of the denomination 
were strongly advocated. The editor writes : 

Our cause is the cause of heaven and we have no right 
to resign it. betray it, forsake or neglect it. This is our 
mission ! We are the advocates of a purely Biblical relig- 
ion ; a religion most readily worded in Biblical language. 
We advocate the Bible as the only universally accepted 
rule of faith and duty ; we advocate Christ as the only 
true leader and lawgiver ; we advocate the Christian name 
as the only universally acceptable name for God's people; we 
advocate universal charity and Christian union, with free 
Christian fellowship and communion for all the followers 
of Jesus ; we advocate all these with charity and fellowship. 
.... These are the great fundamental principles of relig- 
ious truth advocated by Christians from the beginning, or 
the days of the Savior, and now principally represented by 
us in making character the only test of fellowship. 

Dr. Summerbell divided his time between the edi- 
torial work and business affairs for the Association. 
The indebtedness on the Publishing House was quite 
large, and the editor undertook the task of paying 
off the debt. July 6, 1878, he reported that $9,634.68 


had been paid out on old obligations the past eight- 
een months. During this time the number of sub- 
scribers increased from 4,53G to 5,520. The editor 
had been chosen by the trustees "to pilot them 
through a terrible strait." When he had accom- 
plished this task, he hastened to lay down his com- 
mission.. "I confess," he wrote, "that to me there 
was a charm in the editor's chair. I loved to speak 
to the people." But believing that his work as editor 
had been accomplished, he closed his editorial la- 
bors August 1, 1878, and stepped "up and into the 
pulpit," his former place. 

The Rev. Thomas M. McWhinney, D. D., at once 
took charge of the office. Again the editorial policy 
changes. Moral reform becomes a prominent theme. 
The evils of the liquor traffic were vividly portrayed 
in the editorials on "Legalized Crime." The Farm 
and Home Literature also are favorite subjects. A 
department devoted to the Sunday-school lessons 
was introduced August 31, 1878. The Rev. John B. 
Weston and the Rev. A. W. Coan became associate 
editors August 7, 1880. 

After the removal of the Herald of Gospel Liberty 
to Dayton, among the leading writers were Warren 
Hathaway, James Maple, N. Summerbell, D. P. Tike, 
H. M. Eaton, J. R. Hoag, B. F. Summerbell, P. 
Roberts, Josiah Knight, Peter Winebrenner, and J. 
P. Watson. Among the younger men of that time 
may be mentioned S. S. Newhouse, J. J. Summerbell, 
T. C. Smith, A. H. Morrill, John Whitaker, Martyn 
Summerbell, and E. W. Humphreys. 

The editorial labors of Dr. McWhinney ceased 
about July 1, 1881, and the Rev. Asa W. Coan be- 


came editor. Under the Rev. Mr. Coan the paper 
was the advocate of the general measures of the 
denomination. There was no subject of supreme 
importance at the front. The contributed articles 
were of a practical nature. 

The form of the paper has undergone many 
changes. In 1868 it was large, printed seven columns 
to the page. The size of the page was nineteen and 
one-half by twenty-five and one-half inches. In 1874 
the size of the page was reduced to fifteen by twenty- 
one and one-half inches, and the number of pages 
increased to eight. In 1884 it was changed to a 
sixteen-page paper, the size of the page being eleven 
by fifteen inches. 

When the Kev. Mr. Coan became editor, the busi- 
ness affairs of the Association were placed in the 
hands of the Rev. C. W. Garontte, but later Mr. 
Garoutte resigned, and Mr. Coan assumed charge 
of financial matters in addition to his editorial 

In the early part of 1885, Mr. Coan was stricken 
with paralysis. February 19, the Rev. Charles J. 
Jones, D. D., became editor pro tern. Mr. Coan 
rallied and for some time hopes were entertained 
that he would be able to assume the duties of the 
office again, but on April 7, he tendered his resig- 
nation and Dr. Jones was elected editor. 

The Rev. Dr. Jones had been a pastor and evan- 
gelist. It was but natural that the subjects with 
which he was familiar should be made prominent 
in the Herald of Gospel Liberty. The paper became 
the advocate of an evangelistic Christianity. To 
assist the ministers in their work, a homiletical 


department was opened. There was much discus- 
sion of the question of Christian union, and nego- 
tiations were carried on, especially with the Free 
Baptists, looking to a closer union of the two bodies. 
The editor expressed his views as follows : 

To us the union of Christians is simply union in Christ 
and for Christ. To talk of a difference between Christian 
fellowship and church fellowship, is to talk of that which 
indeed is, but which ought not to be. The only true Christian 
union is the spiritual union in Christ; the possession of that 
living relation to the Son of God and Savior of men which 
comes from faith in him and leads to the abandonment of 
sin and the consecration of the life to his service. 

The financial affairs of the Publishing House were 
not in a flourishing condition, and once more the 
editor is called from his duties as editor. Dr. 
Jones traveled much among the churches, and se- 
cured many subscriptions for the indebtedness. 
There was a call also from the churches for him to 
devote his energies to evangelistic labors. July 12, 
1888, Dr. Jones became corresponding editor and 
general evangelist, and the Eev. J. P. Watson, D. D., 
who had been associate editor, was elected editor, 
March 23, 1893, the names of J. V. Watson and 
George D. Black appear as editors. This arrange- 
ment continued until November 9, 1893, when the 
Rev. Mr. Black retired from the office, and Dr. Wat- 
son became the sole editor of the paper. 

It is impossible in a few sentences to give any 
satisfactory characterization of the paper. As the 
organ of the denomination, it was the advocate of 
all the general plans of the body, and grew in de- 
partments as the work of the church developed. Be- 
fore Dr. Watson became editor, he had enlisted the 


children in mission work, and furnished matter for 
the "Children's Mission Department." Later, when 
the first missionaries were sent to the foreign land, 
a department deyoted to foreign missions was in- 
troduced. With the advent of the Christian En- 
deavor Society came the Endeavor Department. The 
following is the general outline of the contents of 
the paper under Dr. Watson : Contributed articles, 
editorial articles, selected poetry, Christian Endeav- 
or department, Home department, the higher life, 
A. C. C. department, conference minutes, Mission 
department, field notes, marriages, obituaries, and 
church notices. 

At a meeting of the Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation held in Haverhill, Mass., in October, 1894, 
the Rev. J. J. Summerbell, D. D., was elected editor. 
He assumed the duties of the office in January 
following. This position he held for twelve years. 
It was a time of general readjustment of denomina 
tional machinery, and the advent of many new 
workers. The missionary work was enlarged and 
pushed with new vigor. There was increased ac- 
tivity in educational circles. The conferences gen- 
erally adopted courses of study for the ministers. 
An educational department was begun in the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty. Increased attention was given 
to the care of pastorless churches. The subject of 
Christian union was discussed quite generally in 
conventions and conferences as well as in the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty. Negotiations were carried on 
with some denominations, especially with the Con- 
gregationalists, relative to union. The paper had 
grown in its influence over the denominational life, 


and its utterances were strong factors in shaping 
the course of events. To recite the history of this 
period in detail would require more space than can 
be given in this article. 

January 1, 1907, Dr. Summerbell was succeeded 
by the Eev. J. Pressley Barrett, D. D., who had been 
elected to the position of editor by the Christian 
Publishing Association at its meeting held in Octo- 
ber, 1906, at Huntington, Indiana. With the first 
number of January, 1908, the form of the paper was 
again changed. The number of pages was increased 
to thirty-two, the size of the page being nine by 
thirteen inches. During the centennial year, 1908, 
especial attention is being given to the genius, his- 
tory, and mission of the denomination. A series of 
biographical sketches is appearing under the general 
heading of "Our Centennial Biographical Sketches." 
These are the biographies of men who have been 
prominent in the history of the Church. Many other 
articles of a historical character are being published. 

In January, 1907, the Christian Messenger of 
New Bedford, Mass., was consolidated with the 
Herald of Gospel Liberty. This paper was begun 
in February, 1900, and was published in the interest 
of the churches in New England. It was governed 
by an editorial board. At present one page of the 
Herald of Gospel Liberty is devoted to the work in 
New England. 


The facts contained in the foregoing account have 
been obtained almost entirely from the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty. Where doubt existed as to the 


real truth, recourse has been had to other sources 
of information to establish the facts. The files of 
the paper are practically complete from 1808 to 
190S. At times the life of the paper was at a low 
ebb, and when one number appeared, it was doubt- 
ful whether the next would be published. However, 
the next number always came from the press, al- 
though it was delayed occasionally. Twice the des- 
tiny of the paper was in the balance for several 
months, but it survived and has come down through 
an unbroken line of succession to the present time. 
From 1808 to 1835 it was owned, edited, and pub- 
lished by individuals, — first by Elias Smith, and 
then by Eobert Foster. These persons were mem- 
bers of the Christian Church, and conducted the 
paper in the interest of the Christians. Since 
1835 the paper has been owned by associations as 
follows: from 1835 to 1850, by the Eastern Chris- 
tian Publishing Association ; from 1850 to 1851, by 
the Christian General Book Association ; from 1851 
to 1868, by the Eastern Christian Publishing As- 
sociation ; and from 1868 to the present, by the 
Christian Publishing Association. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty was founded as a 
religious newspaper, and has maintained its char- 
acter throughout its history. Under the editorship 
of Elias Smith, it was largely the exponent of the 
editor's views, while at the same time it reflected 
fairly the denominational life. It has grown with 
the denomination, and has been a factor in deter- 
mining church polities. It has uniformly contended 
for the Bible as a sufficient guide in matters of 
religious faith and practice, for the name Christian 


as the proper designation for all the followers of 
Christ, and for the Christ as the only head of the 
church. When the question of Biblical interpre- 
tation was raised, it took the position that the in- 
dividual Christian was under obligations to inter- 
pret the word of God for himself, — a position which 
it has maintained to the present, although not all 
the editors and contributors have agreed as to what 
is involved in the proposition. About 1816 the 
churches generally had come to the conclusion that 
Christian character and not dogma was the proper 
test of Christian fellowship, and tuat there ought 
to be no distinction between Christian and church 
fellowship. The paper was in accord with this 

It may be fairly stated that the Herald of Gospel 
Liberty has been the advocate of the general pro- 
gressive measures of the Christians. Under some 
editors it was slow to ally itself with certain re- 
forms, and even opposed certain polities which af- 
terward became the adopted measures of the Church. 
By way of illustration, reference may be made to 
Elias Smith's opposition to salaried and educated 
ministers. We shall need to remember, however, 
that he was blazing the way through the forest 
without compass or guide. His erratic nature and 
lack of general training will explain many of his 

As the denominational life has changed from the 
simplicity of one hundred years ago to the variety 
and complexity of to-day, the paper has undergone 
a corresponding change. Its columns have teemed 
with articles on all the practical questions of church 


polity. Educational institutions, Sunday-schools, 
mission enterprises, moral and social reforms, 
Christian union, church extension, and Christian 
piety have been fostered by this pioneer of religious 
journalism. Its field notes have kept the readers 
informed of the progress of the Church and in fel- 
lowship with one another. Its notices and depart- 
ments have promoted co-operation. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty is the representa- 
tive of a religious body that does not make theologi- 
cal dogma a test of its fellowship. The Church, 
however, does not regard doctrine as unimportant. 
In the paper have appeared vigorous discussions of 
Biblical doctrines. The widest freedom, consistent 
with loyalty to the word of God, has been granted 
to contributors. Arguments, pro and con, on re- 
ligious subjects have been freely published. The 
apparent general policy has been in favor of solv- 
ing religious problems within the church, and against 
the ostracizing of a Christian because of peculiar 
views on minor questions. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty was founded as the 
advocate of religious liberty and a pure gospel, 
and in that advocacy it still pursues its way. 

Muncie, hid. 




Our father's God, we raise 
To Thee our hymn of praise 

For gospel light. 
It shines from sea to sea, 
Before it shadows flee, 
It sets the bondmen free 

From error's night. 

Author of Liberty — 

Whose Spirit makes us free, 

Thy name we love; 
Release the fettered mind, 
The shackled soul unbind, 
And unto all mankind — ■ 

Thy presence prove. 

Thy Spirit man has freed 
From letter and from creed 

In other days; 
The wineskins that are old 
The new wine cannot hold , 
Thou dost Thy truth unfold — 

In wondrous trays. 

* May be sung to the tune of America, Italian Hymn, or 


Upon the printed page, 
From pen of saint and sage, 

The light doth shine. 
It sJwws the onward way, 
It heralds coming day, 
Revealing in each ray — 

The will divine. 

One hundred years have gone, 
The day begins to dawn 

When souls are free; 
The vision of the years, 
Delayed by doubts and fears, 
Within Thy church appears — 

Blest unity. 

Thou Herald of the right 
Long may the gospel light 

Illume thy page! 
For truth and unity, 
For love and liberty, 
May all thy witness be — 
From age to age. 
Troy, Ohio. 




Ex-President of Union Christian College 

The influence of The Herald of Gospel Liberty up- 
on the world in promoting the beneficent end con- 
templated by those who organized the Christian 
Church in 1794, is not easily estimated. The meas- 
ure of that influence must be found in the change 
that has been wrought within one hundred years in 
the attitude of the sects one toward another, and 
the attitude of the secular world toward them all. 
Many other agencies are to be credited with helpful 
influences in this direction, during the latter por- 
tion of that time; but to the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
ert]/, in the hands of the people who inaugurated 
the movement, belongs the credit of pioneering the 
great work by the use of a weekly newspaper. 

new announcement in Portsmouth, N. H., on the 
1st day of September, 1808. It was indeed a new 
thing under the sun. How it startled the world ! 
A newspaper sensation of a new kind ! 

The spirit of liberty is the Spirit of God. "When 
he, the Spirit of truth is come, he shall guide you 
into all the truth." "Ye shall know the truth, and 
the truth shall make you free." Who will deny 
that Elias Smith, a prophet of God, was moved by 
the Holy Spirit, when he conceived the idea of using 
the weekly newspaper as a herald of gospel liberty? 


Did he apply to himself the language of the Psalm- 
ist, "My heart overfloweth with a goodly matter; 
my tongue is the pen of a ready writer?" 

The influence of this one thought upon the world 
has been incalculable, inconceivable. It was the 
pioneer of all the religious journals published in 
the entire world; and is there to-day a journal of 
any kind, at least in this great America, that does 
not openly advocate the principles of Christian lib- 
erty and liberality, in the interest of which that 
unique movement was inaugurated? 

The determination to break the galling chain of 
creed orthodoxy, as such, was fostered, if not origi- 
nated, by the conviction that certain doctrines, on 
which great emphasis was laid, the very questioning 
of which was denounced as "damnable heresy," were 
unscriptural, unreasonable and unsound. These 
doctrines were discussed with great earnestness by 
Elias Smith and his co-laborers in their public min- 
istrations, and the columns of the Herald soon be- 
came the medium through which such discussions 
reached larger numbers of thoughtful persons, and 
in a more tangible form for studious consideration. 
The result was far-reaching, extraordinary and 
permanent. So careful and thorough was the Bible 
study of the men who wrote those articles; and so 
clear and logical and Biblical and convincing were 
their arguments, that, in a very short time, the en- 
tire membership — -ministers and laymen — came to 
great unanimity of faith on all important doctrines. 
Though the greatest freedom of inquiry and judg- 
ment was conceded to all, the Bible was found to be 
the plainest, clearest, most unmistakable creed in 


the world ; requiring less explanation than the creeds 
that had been substituted for it, and exalted above 
it. Will not the same careful, prayerful study 
still produce the same result? Let LOYALTY TO 
THE WORD be the slogan all along the line! "If 
they speak not according to this WORD, there is 
no morning for them." 

The spiritual influence of the Herald upon its 
readers has ahvays been marked, positive and whole- 
some. The discussion of Biblical doctrines in the 
Biblical spirit is and ever must be most potent in 
promoting growth in the spiritual life. To sup- 
pose the contrary is to impeach the wisdom and love 
of "Our Father." 

One of the most important utilities of a denom- 
inational paper is the promotion of a general under- 
standing of denominational enterprises, and of unit- 
ed effort in making them successful. The paper, 
therefore, is of such vital importance, and is so sure 
an exponent of the real strength of the church, that 
it has been well said that the real membership of a 
church is limited to the subscribers for its paper 
and their families. Let those who do not take the 
Herald think of that. 

One of the most commendable features of the Her- 
ald is that its columns are open to the whole broth- 
erhood. By this means the readers of the Herald, 
in addition to the great variety of practical, profita- 
ble thought furnished them, and the encouraging 
news from our churches, obtain a very interesting 
personal acquaintance with many of our ablest, most 
influential men whom they have never seen, which 
greatly increases, in both reader and writer, a work- 


ing interest in the common cause in which both are 

With my mind crammed with thoughts I would 
like to express, respecting the dear old Herald, I 
must now close. The reader may be glad, but I 
am sorry. 

One hundred years of struggling, useful life! and 
more youthful vigor to-day than ever before. Hal- 
lelujah ! Praise the Lord ! ! May many centuries 
yet be added to the life and usefulness of the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty — the pioneer of religious journal- 
ism ! In all its future, as in its past, may it be 
found unwaveringly in the front rank of progress 
along every line of heaven-approved growth and de- 
velopment; holding fast, at the same time, the funda- 
mental, unalterable principles taught by Him who 

Upon this ROCK I will build my church ; and 
the gates of hades shall not prevail against it. 

Chelsea, Mich. 


Secretary Christian Publishing Association 





A Word to the Wise 

The successful attempt in the Northern and 
Southern states to revive the ancient name, CHRIS- 
TIAN, formerly given by Christ to His followers, 
makes no small stir among the friends to modern 
party names. They cry out: "Why make another 
party?" "We all profess to be Christians." "This 
is as much a party as the rest." These objections 
make me think of a man who is opposed to day- 
light, and cries out as the sun is rising, "Why do 
we need another light? We have now, the moon- 
light, starlight, and the light of lamps and candles, 
and there are many asleep and do not need any 
light." Why should there be another light? What 
good will it do among all the rest? Ah! What good 
will the others do when the sun comes? The fact is, 
all the other lights will be overpowered when the 
sun appears. So it is with the name of Christ. It, like 
the sun, overpowers all the rest. "His name shall 
endure forever, and be continued so long as the sun." 
"IN that day there shall be one Lord and His NAME 
one." "God hath highly exalted Him and given Him 
a name above every name." Those who name the 

* Selecle'l by Rev. Henry Crampton, Baton, O., from the various 
papers of our brotherhood for the first century of our journalistic 
efforts. The purpose of this section is to show the drift of 
religious thought from a spiritual standpoint. These gems are 
very rich and shine with a beautiful luster. — Editor. 


name of Christ are called by the most worthy name 
on earth, a name which as much outshines all others, 
as the sun outshines the moon, stars, lamps and can- 
dles. — Rev. Elias Smith, Herald of Gospel Liberty. 
March 31, 1809. 

The Light of the Moon Preferable to the Light of 
the Sun 

It is said that two men were riding out one very 
pleasant afternoon, while the sun shone remarkably 
clear, there being not a cloud to be seen to prevent 
its shining. As they passed along, one mentioned to 
the other, the very great advantage the sun was to 
the inhabitants of the earth. "Very true," replied 
the other, "but it is not half equal to the moon ; for 
the sun only shines in the daytime, when we might 
do without it ; but the moon shines in the night, and 
were it not for the light of the moon, it would be 
very dark every night in the year, which would be 
very disagreeable indeed." 

This story puts me in mind of the system makers 
— creed makers — article makers — platform makers 
— discipline makers — confession of faith makers — 
catechism makers, etc., etc. 

They all profess some regard for the Scriptures, 
"a light which shineth in a dark place," and all en- 
deavor to prove that it is the foundation of their 
buildings of wood, hay, and stubble, while they pre- 
tend, or think the plan they have invented is founded 
on the Scriptures; and they are like men taking light 
from the sun to use in the night instead of candles. 


We often see such people lay aside the Scriptures 
to keep their own rules, but it is seldom we see such 
people lay aside their man-made rules to esteem the 
Scriptures concerning all things to be made right, 
and to hate every such false way. The Scripture, 
they say, is a very good book; but it is not suitable 
to govern a church by. Like the sun, it only gives 
light in the daytime ; we want something to shine 
in the night, changing every four weeks. We want 
a rule that we can alter once in four years if we 
think proper; so that if our minds alter, we can 
shape it to our minds. The Scripture is such a book 
that our minds must be shaped to that, and to do 
this, we must all be servants, and no one can be 
chief, or above his brethren. 

In the time of the apostles, when men preferred 
the light of the Sun of Righteousness to all other 
lights, Christ was the only King, Lord and Lawgiver; 
"the great Shepherd and Bishop of their souls." 
Him they heard in all things. All the ministers were 
servants for Jesus' sake, and the members were 
Christians and all brethren, preferring one another. 
Let ministers and all saints come to this now, and 
all will soon be convinced that the light of the Sun 
of Righteousness is the greatest blessing to the 
world. — Rev. Ellas Smith, Herald of Gospel Liberty, 
April 1',, 1S09. 

When men raise their x^assions to support their 
doctrines, or rules, it is pretty certain that their 
arguments are all gone, or that they never had any. 


When men charge others with being men of bad 
characters, and that all their friends, or "ad- 
herents," are the same, it is generally thought their 
own characters will not bear a close examination. 

When men set up notifications in their own houses 
against proselyte-makers, representing their friends 
as the devil's pack-horses, it is a common sign that 
they do such business themselves, and are afraid of 
being suspected or discovered. 

When men turn from one thing to another, and 
turn back, and turn again, and turn again, it is 
generally thought that they are like a broken tooth, 
or a foot out of joint. 

A guilty person always thinks himself suspected, 
and often discovers himself by endeavoring to pre- 
vent that suspicion. — Rev. Elias Smith, Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, August It, 1809. 

The Happy Man 

The happy man was born in the city of regenera- 
tion, in the parish of repentance unto life. He was 
educated in the school of obedience, and lives on the 
plain of perseverance. He works at a trade of 
diligence in the country of Christian contentment, 
and many times does acts of self-denial. He wears 
the plain garb of humility, and has a better dress 
to put on called, "the robe of righteousness." He 
often walks in the valley of self-abasement, and 
sometimes climbs the mount of spiritual-mindedness. 
He breakfasts every morning upon spiritual prayer, 
and sups every evening upon the same. He has meat 


to eat which the world knows not of; and his drink 
is the water of life. Thus happy he lives and happy 
he dies. 

Happy is he who hath gospel submission in his 
will; due order in his affections; sound peace in his 
conscience; sanctifying grace in his soul; truth in 
his breast; true humility in his heart; the Kedeem- 
er's yoke on his neck; a vain world under his feet, 
and a crown of glory over his head. 

In order to attain which, dear reader, pray fer- 
vently ; believe firmly ; wait patiently ; work abun- 
dantly, the work of faith — live holy, die daily to every 
inordinate desire and affection ; watch your heart 
with all diligence; guide your senses; redeem the 
time, love Christ and long for glory. — Rev. Elias 
Smith, Herald of Gospel Liberty, April 29, 1814- 

The Passing Year 

The swiftness of time is among the many reasons 
which might be adduced as motives to prompt us 
to fill up the measure of our time allotted us in this 
transitory world, in the most profitable and useful 
manner both to ourselves and others. We possess 
but one short life which when it is passed, like the 
rolling years, returns not again. How pleasing to 
look over a life spent in wisdom's ways with a quiet 
conscience, and behold the spring of our life fol 
lowed by a pleasing summer when the expanding 
mind, like the summer sun, was ever ready to diffuse 
its warm and genial rays of beneficence and friend- 
ship, and pour the light of life on every inquiry af- 


Editor and Publisher Herald of Gospel Liberty 



ter the right way of the Lord, which has been suc- 
ceeded by the harvest of blessings, from the heaven 
above and the earth beneath, and the blessings of 
the poor who were ready to perish. Thus, "he that 
reapeth receiveth wages," and although the winter 
of death may succeed, yet he gathereth fruit unto 
eternal life. 

The person who lives for himself exclusively may 
have the paltry satisfaction of having obtained his 
object. But this satisfies not the philanthropic mind. 
He views himself formed for society, with social ties 
and social feelings ; his end is not attained unless 
friendships are preserved, misery is relieved and 
happiness prevails. 

The incentives to human greatness and honor are 
but few and insignificant in comparison to those 
for that honor. which cometh from God only; which 
those who by patient continuance in filling up their 
time with well-doing receive. 

An Alexander shines in splendor, with conquests 
and wealth his situation looks enviable; but he 
weeps amidst it all because this earth circumscribes 
his conquests and his glory. But the beggar in rags, 
with his scanty pittance, having the honor that 
comes from God only, exults amidst reproaches that 
he is worthy to suffer shame for his name's sake, and 
rejoices amidst his crumbs that at his Father's 
table he shall eat of the richest fruits that heaven 

A Bonaparte may regale in splendor, and pour 
destruction and dismay in all his path; but in a 
moment the scene is changed ; he that carried away 
captive is carried into captivity. He soon sees the 


end of human greatness. But the person who seeks 
honor from above, though he may be a servant or a 
slave, shall be raised to glory, and tread upon the 
high places of the wicked when his God shall come 
out against them. Well might the wise man cry out 
"vanity," when beholding human greatness and hu- 
man honor. 

But above all the reasons we could bring why we 
should improve our time as it flies, in acts of kind- 
ness and friendship to one another and obedience 
to our Lord is, and let it suffice, that our Lord has 
commanded it. Read and learn his precepts in his 
inimitable sermon on the mount — follow his example 
and obey his commands ; then shall our days pass on 
in prosperity and our years in peace, then shall the 
pleasure of the Lord prosper in our hands ; and 
although our days may be fast passing away, and 
the exit of the year remind us of our own departure, 
yet they do but in reality bring us nearer to a life 
that never ends. — Robert Foster, in the Christian 
Herald, December 16, 182Jf. 

Christian, Be Careful 

How careful should Christians be to have their 
life holy and their conversation chaste, particularly 
those of influence, remembering that for every idle 
word and action they will have to give an account. 
Not only so, but how many who are under their in- 
fluence are led astray and do things which they 
would not have done had they not seen others in 


whom they had more confidence than they had in 
themselves, do so first. 

To be Christians we must believe on the Lord 
Jesus with the whole heart and obey all His com- 
mandments, take up our cross daily and follow Him, 
take His yoke upon us, and learn of Him; for He 
is meek and lowly in heart and we shall find rest to 
our souls. — Rev. J. Rodenbaugh, Christian Palla- 
dium, November 1, 1835. 

The Dark Side 

Some preachers and brethren are always dwelling 
upon the dark side — are filled up with spleen, jeal- 
ousy, unbelief and despair. What an evidence of 
weakness and folly ! The torrent of despair which 
is poured out by some individuals is enough to freeze 
up all the energies of any living society. When a 
preacher has the misfortune to be troubled with 
the BLUES, the whole congregation will partake 
more or less of the same contagion: — like priests, 
like people. Where a minister is full of life, am- 
bition and enterprise, his congregation will be so. 
It is best for all to look sharp to see what manner 
of spirit they are of, and what influence they exert. 
If we addict ourselves to ponder upon the dark side, 
we shall be useless. The Scripture teaches us to 
look unto Jesus — then all is light. — Rev. J. Badger, 
Christian Palladium, August 15, 1836. 

An Affectionate Address 
The Christian name, the Christian character and 
fellowship, and Christian brethren, are to me of the 


Editor Gospel Luminary 



sweetest savor; and for their welfare and honor I 
have, as a preacher of the gospel, devoted more than 
thirty-five happy years. Yes, I say happy years, for 
preaching the gospel is my highest honor, it is my 
soul's delight; it is my chief joy, it is my only busi- 
ness. Splendid thrones, dazzling crowns, brilliant 
palaces, gorgeous apparel, luxurious tables, gay 
horses and glittering chariots, gaudy theaters, the 
honorable halls of state, the able orator's sound dis- 
cussion, the vain, pompous, parliamentary spoutings 
of many windy stomachs, as well as all earthly glory, 
vanish away before the truth as does the sparkling 
of the morning star when the sun ariseth. 

Dearly beloved, "Let nothing be done through 
strife or vainglory." Let all, east, west, north and 
south, be gathered into one spirit, all harmoniously 
laboring in the great vineyard of the Lord, for the 
good of the whole, yet let every man work over 
against his own house, until the wall is joined firmly 
together in general measures. If we are not per- 
mitted to see each others' faces on these mortal 
shores, God grant us a happy meeting in the land of 
glory, honor, immortality, and eternal life. Yours 
in gospel bonds never to be broken. — Rev. A~bner 
Jones, Christian Palladium, June 15, 18-17. 

An Address to Ministers 

Ministers of the gospel should seek a revival of 
religion in their own hearts, that they may be the 
means of reviving others. If there is to be a revival 
of religion, where should it commence? In whose 


bosoms should the fire of zeal, of love, of ardent de- 
votion be first kindled? Who may be supposed to 
be first roused to activity in the cause of God? 

The ministers of religion. As the sunbeams strike 
first upon the mountains, and as the clouds pour 
forth their treasures first upon the hills, which often 
form a kind of reservoir for the valleys, so may it 
be expected that the spiritual rain will descend 
first into the pulpit, before it reaches the pew. The 
influence of ministers upon their flocks is very great, 
for good or for evil. "Like priest, like people," is 
a proverb founded in truth. Like central fires, 
ministers produce a glowing atmosphere; or like 
icebergs, which chill everything in their vicinity. 
If ministers are eminently spiritual and devotional, 
the influence will be felt by all their people. Their 
prayers and sermons in the house of God, and their 
conversation in private intercourse, will all tend to 
keep up the power of godliness in the hearts of their 
hearers. But if they are secular, lukewarm and 
trifling, the same spirit may be looked for in the 
church. Should a revival take place in the church, 
and not in the minister, he would undo what has 
been done; but if the piety and spirituality of the 
minister be increased, the influence of it will, in all 
probability, be spread through the whole assembly. 

But does the state of religion need to be revived 
in the minds of the ministers? I am of the opinion 
that it does. I am fully and painfully convinced 
that the bulk of the present race of ministers is by 
no means distinguished for the more spiritual and 
elevated exercise of religion. Do we not fall very 
short in what may be called devotional habits — in 


spirituality of mind — in communion with God — in 
self-examination? Let us read the memoirs of emi- 
nent and pious ministers in former ages, and com- 
pare ourselves with them, to see how dwarfish is our 
piety. Permit me to ask: 

What is the state of your closet devotions? Do 
you spend much time in reading the Scriptures, not 
as critics, but as Christians, anxiously desirous of 
drinking deeply into the spirit of the word of 
God? Do you spend hours, or even an hour, every 
day, in that breathing, panting, and wrestling after 
God, which characterized the ministers of a bygone 
age? Have you seasons of extraordinary devotion; 
days of fasting, humiliation, and prayer, as they 
had? My dear brethren, does the fire of devotion 
burn with that intensity upon the altar of your 
hearts, which is necessary to form a central flame, 
from which the whole church should ever be receiv- 
ing a renewed warmth and glow of holy feeling? 

Are you in your families men of God, ministers of 
Christ, prophets of the Lord, always teaching by 
your word and actions? You should be domestic 
ministers ; pastors of the church in your own houses ; 
looking well after the souls of your wives, children, 
and servants; breathing the spirit of devotion 
throughout your habitations. A minister's house 
should be the element of piety, the vestibule of 

How do you act and appear in the houses of your 
friends? Are you mere guests and companions? Or do 
you preach from house to house, not ceasing to diffuse 
the knowledge of Christ in every place? If religion 
be revived in the church, it must be revered in the 


home, and if it spread with greater vigor around the 
greater circle of the vestry, it must be nourished 
with care in the smaller circle; and if this be done 
at all, it must be done instrumentally by you. And 
in your intercourse with each other, you should re- 
member while you cultivate cheerfulness, and dis- 
countenance gloom and grimace, that you bear a 
high and sacred character; that your vocation is 
religion, your grand business is salvation, your labor 
is for immortality; that you are ambassadors, and 
should be consistent, and maintain that dignity 
and seriousness which become your office. Let there 
be much of mutual edification, of mutual excite- 
ment to deeds of piety and zeal, of earnest prayer, 
of conversation upon the difficulties and encourage- 
ments of your office. While you entertain each 
other as men and brethren, improve each other as 
men and as Christians. 

Are you spiritual and devotional in your public 
services? Are your sermons the fruits of your own 
experience, as well as of your studies? You should 
lay before your flocks that which you yourselves 
have tasted and handled of the word of life, and 
never preach to others what you have not first 
preached to yourselves. Discourses full of thought, 
yet at the same time characterized by fervor, sim- 
plicity, and spirituality, are too rare; if ministers 
take pains, it is too often merely to shine. They 
look for tokens of approbation, and expressions of 
admiration, and are, perhaps, disappointed if they 
do not receive them ; and seem to feel as if they had 
preached in vain, if they hear not the language of 
applause. I do not say that this is the case with 


all, or with any at all times, but it is too much the 
case with many preachers, and must grieve the 
Spirit of God. 

It is also to be feared that the prayers of most 
preachers are not characterized by that solemnity, 
spirituality and earnestness, which are essential to 
the cultivation of devotional feelings in the people. 
A minister's prayers, when they are of an intense 
and elevated character, do more perhaps to keep 
up the spirituality of his people than his sermons. 

My dear brethren, examine yourselves. You must 
begin with your own souls; you must seek, first, the 
revival of religion in your own hearts; you must 
exhibit a state of piety, renewed and invigorated. 
Of a revival of religion, "this kind goeth not forth 
but by fasting and prayer," on the part of the min- 
isters. The impulse must be given by you not by 
words, but by examples. All your operations are 
influenced by the kind of religion which prevails ; 
the members of your churches, the teachers in your 
Sabbath-schools, the singers in your galleries, the 
people who wait upon your ministry, the heads of 
families, all feel the influence of a revived state of 
religion ; they cannot be expected to be active while 
their souls are lukewarm; or if they do anything 
to circulate religion, they will circulate only a poor, 
heartless kind of piety. Suffer me, my dear breth- 
ren, to exhort you most seriously, to inquire whether 
an improved state of our churches must not begin 
with us who are ministers of the word ; and whether 
we should not immediately, and most earnestly, ap- 
ply ourselves to this business? Let us begin afresh 
to live for God, and to commune with Him. O, 


what preachers would we be, if we preached from 
the full, rich experience of a renewed and revived 
piety! An earnestness and freshness would be 
imparted to our public services, and this by the 
grace of God would clothe them with new. power, 
and invest them with new attractions. — Rev. Simon 
Glough, Christian Journal, June 15, 1837. 

A Short Sermon 

"And they took knowledge of them, that they 
had Tieen ivith Jesus." — Acts 4:13. 

This is what St. Luke, the writer of the Acts 
of the Apostles, says concerning the "rulers and 
elders and scribes, Annas, the high priest, and 
Caiaphas, and John, and Alexander, and as many 
as were of the kindred of the high priest, who were 
gathered at Jerusalem." 

It was the boldness, the spirit, the holy min- 
istration of the word by Peter and John, that 
caused this mixed multitude of doctors, lawyers, 
priests, and those who composed the Jewish Council 
at that time, and also those who were gathered to- 
gether at Jerusalem, to marvel and take knowledge 
of them, that they had been with Jesus. While 
there are many duties performed and traits of 
character possessed by many, which most naturally 
and readily lead us to the consistent conclusion 
that such persons have been with the Savior; yet 
there are on the other hand a great many duties 
left undone, and a kind of cold indifference in- 
dulged by others, and not unfrequently by the 


same, which greatly contribute to the opposite im- 
pression. — Rev. E. Edmunds, Christian Palladium, 
July 2, 1838. 

Promote Good Feelings 

Christians, and particularly ministers, should 
strive earnestly to promote good feeling, and strong 
regard among the people of God. To advance 
Christ's cause there should be, as far as possible, 
agreement in sentiment, in means and operations, 
in spirit and in practice. To produce and per- 
petuate such a state of harmony, every Christian 
should use the appropriate means, and avoid those 
causes which unavoidably produce alienation, cold- 
ness, and unchristian distance. These evils are fos- 
tered by selfishness, after being generated by am- 
bition. Would we promote peace, and enlist our 
brethren in the same work of love, we must avoid 
several things now too common in the church. 

First. A sacred regard must be had for the 
honest sentiments of those who differ from us in 
their views on certain points. They may be in 
error, but till convinced thereof, no sarcasm, no 
ridicule, no censure of ours can drive them into the 
truth; but in nine cases out of ten will drive them 
both from it and from us. They may be right and, 
in that case, the work and the account of the sar- 
castic ridiculer is solemn and awful. 

Second. Their feelings must be regarded. All 
men must possess feelings which are tender. They 
are easily hurt. An honest man feels hurt if due 


Editor Christian Journal and Christian Herald 


regard is not paid to his honest avowal of senti 
ments. If ridiculed, or misrepresented, and that 
with apparent design to hold him up to contempt, 
he can not but feel hurt, and alienation ensues. 

Third. Character must be regarded, if we would 
promote union of feeling and effort. When those 
viewed as equals, or those who occupy high places, 
treat character with recklessness, and turn the 
honest acts of others into intentional wickedness., 
then it is that very friends are separated, and a 
brother is offended. When this is effected, he is 
harder to be won than a strong city. 

Fourth. To promote peace, and cultivate union, 
the influence of our brethren must not be suffered 
to engender in us envy, and thus produce the fruits 
which naturally arise from fostering this unholy 
principle. If a brother's influence is an eyesore 
to us, we should fear there is in us an evil root, 
from which will spring up a branch, to bear the 
fruit of gall, and to poison both him and us with 

Fifth. No obstacle should be thrown in the way 
of the usefulness of others. If there is, with ap- 
parent design, it will break the bands of friendship, 
and produce jealousy which will be followed with 
evil surmising and evil speaking. Every man should 
be encouraged to go on and do all the good he can. 
If at any time a brother is believed to be too for- 
ward, let the aged and judicious privately instruct 
and admonish him. If kindly done, it will not in- 
jure, but greatly aid him. 

"Be kindly affectioned one to another, in 


honor preferring one another." "Let love be with- 
out dissimulation." — Rev. Elijah Shaw, Christian 
Herald, April 11, 1839. 

The Sower of Discord 

It is not only the duty of Christians to watch and 
pray, to attend on public worship, to pay their 
preacher, to give good weight and good measure, 
and to be benevolent to the poor, but there are 
some things, not unfrequently among their own 
number, against which they should be most cau- 
tiously guarded. It is a talebearing, detracting, 
and calumniating spirit. 

The fiery darts of slander are the chief weapons 
used in the unholy wars of sectarian strife of the 
present age. And strange to tell, the man 
who is the most skilled in hurling his arrows of 
calumny against his opponent, in the estimation 
of thousands, is acknowledged the soundest logi- 
cian, the most orthodox in sentiment and the purest 
Christian ! Beware of such men, and the sect or 
church which countenances their unholy work. 
Were they defenders of the truth, calumny would 
not be the chief weapon of their defense. Shun 
them, and cautiously" guard against their infectious 
spirit, for the poison of asps is under their tongue, 
and their ways take hold on death. 

There are few, if any, greater evils, or pests, in 
the church of God, than members who are addicted 
to the practice of talebearing; to telling their 
grievances to every one who has the folly to hear 


them before taking gospel steps to have their trials 
amicably settled. But as great an evil as it is, 
this cowardly and reprehensible practice is too much 
tolerated in many churches; and in not a few in- 
stances has been the means of rending asunder the 
holy bonds of Christian union, with which its mem- 
bers were once united. "Go to thy brother and 
tell him his faults between him and thee ALONE," 
is the rule that Jesus gave. But if they persist in 
their course, beware of such busy and disordered 
spirits. Shun them and partake not of their ways. 
Listen not to their insidious pratings, unless it is 
to give them a Christian rebuke, to point them to 
their duty, and to warn them of the pernicious 
consequences of persisting in their wickedness. The 
sooner the church is freed from such infectious 
bodies, the better, for their "tongue will set on fire 
the course of nature, and it is set on fire of hell." 
— Rev. Joseph Marsh, Christian Palladium, June 
1, 1839. 

Principles of Union 

"That they all may be one." — Christ's prayer. 

There are first or fundamental principles recog- 
nized in all associations, whether civil, political, ec- 
clesiastical, or domestic. They are found in the 
laws of nature or revelation, or arise from human 
policy, interest or expediency. The gospel estab- 
lishes a new and distinct relation, and creates an 
association of heavenly origin. The principles upon 
which this union is based are a matter of revela- 


tion, and not of human policy. It is not for Chris- 
tians to say how, and for what purpose they will 
unite, for these things are fixed by a higher power. 
Christians must unite on the principles of Chris- 
tianity, or they cease to be Christians. For union 
is the sine qua non of the religion of Christ. Hence 
if union, or love, is wanting, religion is wanting, or 
is but an empty name.— i?er. Ira Allen, Christian 
Palladium, July 1, 1840. 

Consolations of Religion 

Can you tell me its value? It is to be desired 
more than all the momentary enjoyments of this 
world; one day in the courts of my God is better 
than a thousand elsewhere. The world may pre- 
sent its riches, its honors, with all its gaudy show, 
to the mind of the humble Christian, in order to 
draw his mind from this great source of consolation, 
yet hear him say, "One smile, one lovely smile of 
Thine, my dearest Lord, outweighs them all." — Rev. 
Hiram Simonton, Christian Palladium, October 1, 


Infidelity in the Church 

There is much infidelity out of the church, and it 
is most fatal to the eternal happiness of its deluded 
subjects. But is there none in the church? 
There is; if not in its perfection, there is much in 
its imperfect state. Every species or degree of dis- 


belief of the Word of God is a degree of infidelity. 
Christians are not aware that infidelity has made 
imperfect and crippled their Christian faith. It 
is true they profess to be full believers in a divine 
revelation, but their unbelief causes them in works 
to deny their profession, for many of the command- 
ments of God are treated as non-essentials and are 
entirely neglected. 

Why does the confirmed skeptic refuse obedience 
to the law of God? Because he does not believe in 
its divine authenticity. Thoroughly convince him 
that it is true, and he will obey it. Why does the 
professed Christian neglect baptism, the supper, 
prayer, exhortation, deeds of charity and benefi- 
cence, or any express requirement of the gospel? 
On the same ground that the infidel rejects the en- 
tire Word of God, viz., Unbelief. He does not be- 
lieve it is absolutely necessary for him to attend to 
these requirements. Infidelity has fastened its de- 
ceptive and fiendish fangs upon his Christian faith. 

It has not fully conquered its unsuspecting vie 
tim, but has produced doubts in his mind relative to 
the validity of many portions of the Bible ; has caused 
him to think and talk that certain of its positive 
requirements are not binding on him, and may be 
treated in the light of non-essentials. Were he a 
full believer in God's Word, or free from the influ- 
ence of infidelity, he would find no non-essential in 
the perfect law, and would delight in doing all the 
commandments of the Lord. 

Be exceedingly careful, my brother, my sister, how 
you countenance a spirit that would lead you to un- 
dervalue any portion of the Word of truth, or to 


disobey any of its just commands. The same princi- 
ple that would lead you to do either, if followed to 
its legitimate conclusion, would plunge you into 
the vortex of confirmed infidelity. You have just 
the same reason for disbelieving the entire book of 
inspiration, as to doubt the divine truth of any por- 
tion of it. The same evidences that prove true a 
part, seal the eternal truth of the whole of it. And 
on the same reason that you would neglect one of 
its commandments, you may, like the infidel, treat 
the whole with neglect and contempt. 

The Word of the unerring Jehovah is not a book 
of unimportant requirements, and useless ceremo- 
nies, left to the whims and notions of finite, erring 
mortals, to obey or disobey a part, or the whole, as 
they may feel disposed. No, no. It is imperative in 
all its commands, and none have a promise of a 
right to the "tree of life" but those who do them ; not 
such parts as they may choose, but all the command- 
ments. Be not deceived, God is not mocked. What- 
soever we sow, that shall we reap. If we are unbe- 
lieving or skeptical, and disobedient, we must walk 
in darkness and condemnation here, and finally 
stumble on the dark mountains of despair and death 
and take our part with all the fearful and unbeliev- 
ing in the second death. But if we take God at His 
word, repose implicit confidence in all He has said, 
treat His commands as the imperative law of Jeho- 
vah, and willingly and faithfully obey all His right- 
eous will, then our light shall be as a morning with- 
out a cloud, our peace as a river, and an inheritance 
incorruptible shall be our eternal reward. — Rev. 
Joseph Marsh, Christian Palladium, Sept. 1, 1842. 


The Ministry 

One very important part of the study of a preach- 
er of the gospel should be, to know himself and the 
motives by which he is actuated. He should always 
study to know God's will concerning him, and to be 
in possession of the spirit of his Master, that he may 
love his enemies, and pray for them that despiteful- 
ly use and persecute him. If he is destitute of this 
spirit, he is unprepared to do the work of an embas- 
sador of Jesus. — 8. S. N., Christian Herald, January 
26, 1843. 

The Lambs Must Be Fed 

Without a special care, after a revival of religion, 
there is great danger of apostasies. Indeed, noth- 
ing is more common than to see a declension, a fall- 
ing away, after a great revival, or ingathering to 
the church. 

Where such falling away is, there must be a 
cause. Many attribute it to the spuriousness of 
the work; supposing that if the converts were genu- 
ine there would be no falling away. Others regard 
it as unavoidable, and hence make no efforts to pre- 
vent it. But I apprehend the great difficulty is, 
"The lambs are not fed." Too often after a revival 
the whole church falls back into a lukewarm, in- 
active, lethargic state; and hence have neither care, 
nor capacity to feed the lambs; and lambs can not 
draw milk from dead sheep. 

They must be fed with knowledge. Those who 
have been taught, or left to believe that religion 


Editor Christian Palladium 



consists alone in feelings — deep or strong emotions, 
are almost sure to fall away. Under the influence 
of great excitement they have felt strong; and 
they have supposed this emotion — this feeling alone 
to be religion. Hence, when the excitement ceases, 
and the emotions subside, as they view it, their re- 
ligion is gone. Now this is a wrong view. I do 
not say that religion produces no feeling, no pleas- 
ing emotion ; no, far from that. But I do say that 
feelings are often produced by circumstances, and 
hence are as changing as the circumstances that 
produced them. 

The question should not be : "How much do you 
feel?" but, "How much do you love God?" Do you 
love Him because he is good, and lovely, and first 
loved us? Do you love Him with that strength of 
attachment that you had rather suffer for His cause 
than to forsake it? Do you love His character, 
His word, His commandments? Do you love your 

Converts found peace when they heartily sub- 
mitted themselves to God. They continue in that 
peace while they cheerfully obey His commands. 
Their meat and their drink is to do the will of 
God. If they do this "they will never fail." In 
obedience they are fed "with the sincere milk of 
the word," and "grow thereby." As well may lambs 
live without feeding, as converts without doing the 
will of God. 

How important that converts be taught that 
religion consists in love and obedience to God; and 
how important that older Christians show them this 


by their example. Few would then apostatize.- 
Rev. J. Badger, Christian Palladium, August 2 


The meaning of the word Christian is a follower 
of Christ. They who embrace the opinions and sen- 
timents of others, and look up to them for direction 
and instruction in any of the arts and sciences, or 
in any of the systems of religion which have ob- 
tained footing in the world, are properly their dis- 
ciples; and are generally distinguished by certain 
distinctive and appropriate names, descriptive of 
such discipleship and adherence to particular sys- 
tems. Hence the followers of Pythagoras and Plato 
are denominated Pythagoreans and Platonists, and 
the followers of Mahomet, Mahometans, after their 
several masters. And hence the followers of Christ 
are called Christians, after Christ their Master. 
And it should be considered a matter of no little 
importance to the followers of Christ, to be distin- 
guished by no other title than that of Christian, a 
name every way suitable to their holy profession, 
and as entirely adapted to their peculiar circum- 
stances, as being the disciples of Him who has said 
His kingdom is not of this world. If this name, 
as we believe, be of divine appointment, it very 
forcibly occurs that no option is left to the dis- 
ciple of Christ as to the choice of names. He must 
take that name which his Master has given him, 
and with His consent be called by no other. His 
enemies, by way of derision, may stigmatize him 


by any epithet they may think proper to use. But 
for himself, let him rejoice and not be ashamed to 
suffer as a Christian. There is something strange 
in the idea, that the disciples of Christ should con- 
sent to be called by other names, even by those of 
other eminent disciples, such as Luther, Calvin, Wes- 
ley, and so forth. It might be asked in the language 
of the apostles, Were these eminent saints and re- 
formers crucified for yon ? or were you baptized in 
their names? And if you were not baptized in their 
names, how can you with consistency be denomina- 
ted after them? I know that many pious and holy 
persons attach little or no importance to names; 
and conceive that if they possess the thing signified 
by the same, it is a matter of no importance by 
what name they may be called. In this indiffer- 
ency about names, many errors have been committed. 
The name Christian, with the thing signified there- 
by, constitutes the sum total of religion. It is 
always proper and correct to call things by their 
appropriate names. If we are Christians, why not 
be called by this title and no other? A rigid ad 
herence to this course would long since have endeu 
these divisions and sub-divisions which most pais: 
fully harass and perplex the church of Christ; but 
there are some who contend that the name Christian 
was bestowed upon the disciples at Antioch by their 
enemies, as an appellation of reproach. For this 
opinion I can find no evidence, either in the word 
of God or elsewhere. We may, therefore, conclude 
it to be a mere assumption. In opposition, however, 
to the notion that the name Christian was first ap- 
plied to the disciples by their enemies in a way of 


reproach, we will adduce two witnesses, whose 
authority in such matters will not be called in ques- 
tion. The first is Dr. Adam Clark, who, in his 
criticism upon the original word rendered in Acts 
11:26, were called,, expressed himself thus: 

It signifies in the New Testament, to appoint, -warn, or 
nominate by divine direction. In this case the word is 
used, Matt. 2:12; Luke 2 : 2G ; Acts 10 : 22. 

If, therefore, the name was given by divine appointment, 
it was most likely that Saul and Barnabas were directed to 
give it ; and, that therefore, the name Christian is from 
God, as well as that grace and holiness which are essen- 
tially required and implied in the character ! 

The Doctor continues, 

A Christian, therefore, is the highest character which 
any human being can bear upon earth; and to receive it 
from God, as these appear to have done, how glorious the 

The next is the pious and learned Mr. Davis, who 
wrote a sermon expressly on this subject, and in 
which he uses this language : 

The original, which is here rendered called, seems to 
intimate that they were called Christians by divine ap- 
pointment, for it generally signifies an oracular nomination, 
or declaration from God ; and to this purpose it is gener- 
ally translated. Hence, it follows that the very name 
Christians, as well as the thing was a divine original ; as- 
sumed not by a private agreement of the disciples among 
themselves, but by the appointment of God. In this view, 
it is a remarkable accomplishment of an old prophecy of 
Isaiah, 02 : 2. 

These view's have been submitted, not with a de- 
sign of impugning others, but for the purpose of 
exhibiting some of the reasons which influence us 
firmly and strictly to adhere to the Christian name. 
This rigid adherence to a name, may be a subject 
of sport or derision to some, and of contempt and 
scorn to others. But still, experience and observa- 


tion unitedly conspire to satisfy our minds com- 
pletely, that too great particularity, in religious mat- 
ters, even in external things themselves, can hardly 
be used. The Bible is the only criterion for regulating 
and guiding our course in relation to all religious 
concerns. No Christian man can esteem a strict 
and rigid conformity to its requisitions of little im- 
portance. What that book inculcates must bind the 
consciences of all true believers; and as we make 
this the standard of our religious opinions and faith, 
we dare not depart from it even in the selection of a 
name. Who but must wish that all the party names, 
which the circumstances of the church from time 
to time have given rise to, and the strife and con- 
tention which have accompanied them, were entire- 
ly obliterated, and their efforts forgotten forever? 
The religion of the New Testament, when divested 
of mysticism, is a beautiful and most interesting 
scheme, entirely adapted to the wants and circum- 
stances of fallen man. Its peculiar excellency con- 
sists in the simplicity of the means exhibited and 
insisted upon for their recovery and restoration. 
These means are, repentance towards God, and faith 
in the Lord Jesus Christ. Here no perplexity is 
presented. The conditions are plain and simple; 
and imply just what the awakened sinner feels to 
be the case — an utter inadequacy to save himself. 
When, by the grace of God, which is freely offered 
to all, the sinner feels the force and power of divine 
truth freeing him from guilt and sin, and renewing 
him in the spirit of his mind, and enabling him to 
cry, Abba, Father; it will then be his duty to make 
a profession of faith in Christ, and his subjection 


Editor Gospel Herald 

1843— 1S4G 


to Him. Now, in Scripture language, he has put on 
Christ, and as he has thus received Christ Jesus 
the Lord, so should he walk in Him; and he is ex- 
horted by the apostle not to return again to the 
weak and beggarly elements of the world. How 
incongruous that such a one should take upon him- 
self any other appellation besides the one descrip- 
tive of his connection with Christ as a follower and 
disciple! — First editorial ever written for the Chris- 
tian Sun. It appeared February 11, IS'i'i, and icas 
from the pen of Rev. Daniel W. Kerr, the founder of 
that paper. 

Excuses for Not Attending Church 

There is a class of individuals who never can 
prevail upon themselves to attend church, unless 
everything in nature, in their physical dispositions, 
and all the circumstances under which they may be 
placed, be decidedly propitious. 

The sky must be perfectly serene, the air balmy 
and soft, of a most happy and exhilarating tempera- 
ture, neither cool nor warm, neither dry nor very 
airy. The roads must be in a delightful condition; 
not a particle of dust to offend the eyes and soil 
the garments, neither must they be wet and heavy, 
lest they spoil the shoes, or occasion cold feet. 
There must not be the slightest cloud to indicate a 
change of weather in less than twenty-four hours. 
In a word, the elements must be in their gentlest 
mood, and nature must array herself in her most 
bewitching charms, to allure their reluctant foot- 


steps into the path which leads to the house of 

Then there is another consideration which bears 
an important influence. The wardrobe must be per- 
fectly adapted to the occasion, and indeed, this point 
is so essential that we are inclined to think it is 
generally satisfactorily settled in the mind of the 
party, before the state of the weather is taken into 
the account. 

We have known many contests between a lower- 
ing atmosphere and a new coat, or a fashionable 
shawl, and have frequently seen a pretty ribbon, or 
a bunch of feathers prevail over a rainy day. 

On the other hand an old hat, or other article 
of dress, that has seen some service, or is not al- 
together the thing, will obstinately resist the love- 
liest attractions of a May morning. 

Those sinners, the tailors and milliners, are often 
accessories to empty pews. It is dreadfully vexatious 
to the mind, that has been pleasing itself all the 
week, with the idea of making a display on the 
next Sabbath, to be obliged to endure the pangs 
of disappointment. On Saturday how often have 
we heard, and you too, reader, a pretty little Miss, 
with pouting lips, exclaim, "There, now, I cannot 
go to church to-morrow." 

It is too -bad to be compelled to listen, under the 
conviction that our personal appearance is some- 
what antiquated, and perhaps during the prayer to 
turn around accidentally and observe the Misses Van- 
horns are in the next seat and are looking so satis- 
fied under their leghorns. Is it wonderful that the 


resolution is immediately formed — "J will not go 
to church again till I get a new hat?" 

But besides the weather and dress, there is a vari- 
ety of other excuses resorted to by delinquents. 

We will mention a few, "feel indisposed" — "over- 
slept myself" — "church crowded" — "a little feverish" 
— 'dazy" — "expect company to dinner" — "got a back- 
ache' 1 — "a slight cold" — "hurt my foot" — "not 
shaved in time" — "new boots" — "don't like extem- 
pore preaching" — "don't like a written sermon" — ■ 
"dislike the preacher" — "don't like an organ" — 
"bad singing"- — and "cannot keep awake in church." 
These embrace the most prominent excuses, but oth- 
ers might be mentioned. 

We scarcely hear of them when an excursion of 
pleasure, a visit to different places of amusements, 
is proposed. 

In such cases all bodily infirmities disappear as 
if by magic, the eye brightens and the cheek glows 
with anticipated happiness, every little obstacle to 
enjoyment is promptly removed. An evidence that 
the objections stated in relation to their attendance 
on the worship of God, are in reality unfounded, 
or may be easily obviated. 

An old adage says, "Where there is a will, there 
is a way," and when a disposition exists in the mind 
to attend to the duties of religion, it will not be 
prevented by trifles. It is plain, therefore, that these 
excuses are occasioned by a criminal indifference to 
the exercise of the sanctuary. The more they are 
indulged in, the more habitual they become, until 
at last the mind becomes perfectly insensible to re- 
ligious obligations, which almost induces people to 


believe they are justifiable in neglecting the house 
of worship. — Rev. I. N. Walter, Gospel Herald, May 
15, 1845. 

An Address 

We should encourage young preachers and ex- 
horters, and endeavor to bring out the gifts that 
are in the church to profit. "The harvest is great 
and the laborers are few." But suffer me here to 
give a few hints to young teachers : 

First. Study the Scriptures prayerfully, and be 
sure to have the Holy Spirit of God in your own 
hearts. * 

Second. Humbly seek for your proper sphere., 
and keep in it; do not intrude your preaching upon 
popular assemblies, or those of high rank ; never take 
what is called a big text, in order to show yourself 
to be a great preacher; preach what you know, and 
live up to what you preach. 

The preachers may be covetous and desire more 
money than they really need; but, instead of this, 
it is often the case that they are obliged to leave 
their fields of labor, and choose rather to dig than 
beg. I have no opinion of making preachers rich, 
but the "Lord has ordained that they which preach 
the gospel should live of the gospel." It is just as 
unreasonable to engage a man to spend his time 
laboring in the gospel ministry for us and not give 
him a reasonable compensation, as it is to employ a 
man to work on our farm and withhold his hire. 
How often have preachers visited churches at their 


request and spent days and weeks, traveled scores 
of miles and faithfully preached the word to them 
without receiving as much earthly compensation as 
would have borne their expenses home; and the cry 
was still incessant, "Come ! come again !" The love 
of souls has led them to stay at home and provide 
for those of their own household; the churches have 
been left without a regular ministry. In such places 
the church seldom exists long before the "candle- 
stick is removed out of its place." But the time has 
been when there was some apology for such a state of 
things. For when we took our stand on the Bible, 
and rejected all human creeds, it was a time of 
excitement, and some enthusiasm ; and some of our 
preachers and exhorters declaimed against salary 
preaching, in a manner calculated to lead the peo- 
ple to think it wrong to give a preacher anything. 
They concluded if God had called a man to preach. 
He would not let him suffer. And some worldly 
minded, little-souled professors, thought it was a 
first-rate idea to get clear of Presbyterianism ; but 
this age of ignorance is fast passing by, and the 
people are beginning to learn that God works by 
means, and requires His children to do their duty. 
"Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, and 
prove me now herewith, saith the Lord of hosts, 
if I will not open you the windows of heaven, and 
pour you out a blessing that there will not be room 
enough to receive it." Mai. 3 : 10.— Rev. Levi Pur- 
viance, Gospel Herald, November 15, 181)5. 

122 T II E C E N T E N N I A L O F 

A Dissertation on Preaching 

There is some preaching which is less offensive, 
yet of little profit. It has a form of godliness, and 
it may be dressed in fine spun style, but if it 
imparts no life, it is speculative, and lacks the min- 
istration of the Spirit. Whereas, the pure testi- 
mony, the simple gospel, when preached (as Peter 
expressed it) with the Holy Ghost sent down from 
heaven, is the power of God unto salvation to the 
believer, "it is the joy and rejoicing of his heart;'' 
"more to be desired than gold, yea, than much fine 
gold; sweeter than honey and the honeycomb." — 
Rev. David Puiviance, Gospel Herald, January 15, 


Faith and Works — The Sun 

First. Faith is the bough on which all the Chris- 
tian graces grow. But faith itself must be deeply 
rooted in love. 

Second. Hope is the morning star, which ever 
invites us onward; encouraging us with the great 
recompense of reward. 

Third. Charity is the principle which assimilates 
us most to God. And though the devils have faith, 
and the hypocrites hope ; yet love — love unadulter- 
ated, ever has, and ever will, exist alone with the 

Fourth. Obedience ever was, and ever will be, the 
test of our fidelity to good. Our divine Lord seeks 
a peculiar people, zealous of good works. Nothing 

It E L I G I O U S J O II R N A LISM 123 

can be a substitute for personal righteousness — if 
we lack that, all is lost. 

Fifth. But grace saves ! We are saved by 
grace, through faith, and this (Salvation) is not of 
ourselves, it is the gift of God, not of works, lest 
we should boast. 

Sixth. We are saved by faith; by hope; by 
Christ; His blood; His name; baptism; preachers; 
by the gospel, etc. Still all these are but means. 
We are saved by grace! Unbought, unsold. Grace 
bestowed before the world was, — FREE grace. All 
is of grace. All of God. — Rev. N. Summerbell, 
D. D., Christian Palladium, August 28, 1847. 

Remember the Earth is the Lord's 

I do not know but what the cares of this world, 
and the deceitfulness of riches have made many pro- 
fessed Christians forget that the "earth is the Lord's 
and the fulness thereof." Surely we ought to give 
the Lord some rent or interest for the property he 
has blessed us with. What we give our ministers 
for laboring for our personal good, is but a reward 
for service received personally. Now this is not 
giving to the Lord. Let my good brethren take some 
of that portion which they are preparing for their 
children, and give $25 or $50 for the Lord's truth 
in the West, and set their children to earning that 
sum to refund it. In the end the children will be 
better off, God better honored, and sinners bene- 
fited. — Rev. Mark Fcrnald, Christian Palladium, 
December 4, 1847. 



Profane Swearing 

It is probably true of our whole race, that we, 
like ancient Israel, have "sold ourselves for naught," 
but in no sinful character does this truth stand 
out so conspicuously as in that of the profane 
swearer. Almost every crime which men commit 
presents to the mind of the perpetrator some motive, 
or semblance of motive, to move him to action. 
And the man, like the unwary fish, "sees the bait, 
but not the hook." But it would seem that the 
devil will get profane swearers cheaper than any 
other portion of his prey. They are caught with just 
NOTHING. For they, ever and anon, "bite at the 
naked hook." What practice can be more foolish 
and despicable, not to say sinful, than this trifling 
with the name of our Maker or Eedeemer? And 
yet how prevalent the foolish custom! — Rev. John 
Ross, Christian Palladium, July 1, 18^8. 

Scripture Investigation 

The Bible is in many respects an extraordinary 
book. It is with propriety called "THE BOOK." 
Its friends claim for it that it is of divine origin. 
It claims for itself that the holy men who wrote 
it were moved by the Holy Ghost. It is a succinct 
history of time, sufficient from the first day that 
dawned upon the world, to its final close, and the 
introduction of eternal things. It is the scoffer's 
jest, the sinner's dread, and the good man's hope, 
in the future scenes which it brings to light. He 
who is acquainted with its truths has a fund of 


Editor Christian Palladium 



knowledge of intellectual wealth of more value than 
the fine gold. He who can appropriate its promises 
has more wealth in possession than he who could 
control the whole world. That we may possess our 
selves of the knowledge it imparts we must study 
its pages, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. 
It is a question admitting of serious doubt, whether 
all the philosophical disquisitions of the age, or 
time, have added anything to the plain, common- 
sense understanding of the Scriptures. — Rev. Jasper 
Hazcn, Christian Palladium, May 12, 1849. 


The obligations which the world is under to Chris- 
tianity never can be fully known, and are far from 
being duly realized. As the riches of Christ are 
unsearchable, so the advantages derived from the 
gospel are incalculable. The poor and the weak are 
peculiarly benefited by the protection and assistance 
it affords them. 

Its foundation is laid deep — at the bottom of the 
heart. While other systems only regard the out- 
ward forms and acts of life, this regards the motive 
— the inward thought. While other systems seek 
to sweeten the streams, this changes the fountain, 
and purifies all the streams at once. 

Who can compare the advantages secured and 
the privileges enjoyed in Christian lands, and fail 
to thank God that he is so highly favored in his 
lot? Who would not dwell in a Christian country? 
Who would not be a Christian? 


Christianity is one and the same thing the world 
over. The being and perfections of Jehovah, is a 
sentiment at the basis, the root of all religion. 
Faith in the Son of God, the brightness of the 
Father's glory, and the express image of His per- 
son, is acknowledged by all who pretend to the name 
of Christian. The rewards of virtue and vice are ad- 
mitted by all Christians. 

The general course of life we are to pursue, as 
well-pleasing to God, and enjoined upon us by His 
word, is too plainly marked to admit of any doubt 
or uncertainty in the mind. Indeed, there is so 
uniform an agreement in this matter, that men are 
prepared to judge of the character of a man by 
the fruit he bears, throughout the wide earth. 

Were less attention paid to the mint and rue and 
anise and cummin, and more to judgment and mercy 
and the love of God, it would be favorable to the 
cause of Christianity, and better for those who are 
designed to be benefited by its holy principles. — Rev. 
Jasper Hazen, Christian Palladium, August 4, 181/9. 


This is a Latin word of the same signification as 
the Greek word Hercsis. The latter word is used 
by the Apostle Peter (2 Epis. II: 1-10), in speaking 
of false teachers who should arise, "who shall bring 
in damnable heresies (or sects) even denying the 
Lord that bought them and bring upon them- 
selves swift destruction." He adds that these, be- 


ing great lovers of themselves, are not afraid to 
introduce new sects. Here we arrive at the primary 
meaning of the word sect. By the other associations 
of religionists, the early Christians were regarded 
as a sect ; and they even regarded themselves as 
such in view of Judaism and heathenism. But the 
apostles most pointedly condemn any movement 
calculated to form sects among themselves. This 
could not be without a departure in some sense 
from the true spirit of Christianity; and hence any 
appearance of such a movement, met with a stern 

In the Greek word answering to sect, we arrive 
at the meaning of heresy, which was separation or 
sectarian division. It was an insubordinate or re 
fractory movement for division. Heresy did not 
consist in honest belief, but in a rigid, uncharitable 
demeanor, calculated to produce sectarian division. 
Then every rigid, uncharitable, sectarian, is, ac- 
cording to the original meaning of the term, a 
heretic. If any man wishes to dogmatize over the 
faith of others, as good and pious as himself, mak- 
ing his own judgment the standard of belief for 
others, he is a heretic. The people called Christians 
are not to be regarded as a sect. They claim to hold 
Christian union with all God's children. All whom 
God owns as His children, they claim to fellowship 
as their brethren. — Rev. David Millard, Christian 
Palladium, October IS, 1S',9. 

The Bible Is Our Rule 

Preach the word. Preach Christ in the language 
God has authorized ; in the record He lias given of 1 1 is 


Son. That will stand. Preach the future in the lan- 
guage God has given of it in His word. That will 
stand. Explain Scripture with Scripture. Hold up 
your rule, the blessed Bible. That has God for its 
author — we bow to that. Here is our strength ; and 
it is being strong in the Lord, and in the power of 
His might. 

Illustrate the Truth of God by a holy life. Live 
as the Word of God teaches. Let all who behold 
us witness a living exhibition of the gentleness of 
Christ. Live a living illustration of the love of 
God to men, by the benevolence portrayed in all the 
acts of life. We shall thus evidence the sincerity 
of our profession, and glorify God. 

The blessed Bible. This is our rale. It is good 
enough for us. Let us abide by this article of our 
faith, this sentiment of the Christians. — Rev. Jasper 
Hazen, Christian Palladium , January 11, 1850. 

Things I Have Never Seen 

1. I have never seen a preacher too punctual to 
his appointments. 

2. I have never seen members too punctual to 
attend meeting. 

3. I have never seen a congregation of profes- 
sors of the Christian religion pray too much. 

4. I have never seen a husband love his wife too 
much. (I would ride fifty miles to see such a sight) ! 

5. I never saw a man that would get drunk be a 
good Christian. 

G. I have never seen a preacher engaged in specu- 


lation to any amount without losing the spirit of 
preaching to some degree. — Rev. 0. Gordy, Gospel 
Herald, March 1, 1850. 

Order of Repentance and Faith 

Many commit a great mistake in gospel order, by 
a wrong and arbitrary arrangement. Thus, they 
place Faith, first ; ' Repentance, second ; Baptism, 
third, etc. This is wrong. We are to "'repent'' and 
believe. The' apostles taught repentance toward God, 
and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. John began 
to preach, saying, "repent.'' Jesus began to preach, 
saying, "repent." "God commands all men every- 
where to repent" — but "all have not faith." How, 
then, can they repent? All know that they have 
sinned and are convinced that there is a God — 
but this is not faith ; still it is a sufficient 
foundation for repentance. We could repent 
and believe — repent and be converted — repent 
and be baptized — repent and return to God. In 
short, repent and do every duty. No man will ex- 
ercise genuine gospel faith, until he first repents. 
Repentance is the great doctrine to preach to a 
sinful world. After repentance, faith, prayer, the 
Holy Ghost, conversion, baptism, and all may come 
in, and the true believer will generally have the or- 
der right. — Rev. A. Summerbell, D. D., Gospel 
Herald, June 1, 1S50. 

Our Cause 

I am now fully satisfied that as a denomination 
there is more union in feeling, in sentiment ami 


practice among us than any denomination with 
which I am acquainted. Our cause is one; our 
aims are one; our principles one; our feelings one; 
our interest one. In truth it may be said, ours is 
a union church. Christ is our HEAD — CHRIS- 
TIANS our NAME, and the BIBLE our GUIDE.— 
Rev. W. B. Wellons, D. D., Christian Palladium, 
November 30, 1850. 

The Bible Class — Count one 

Said a pious individual, "I would attend the 
Bible class whether I could study my lesson or not, 
for at least I could count one." So ought all to 
feel; for, at the worst, nothing can be lost by at- 
tending the Bible class. 

1. The study of the Bible is important. It is 
the Word of God — His voice to man. In it we learn 
our Father's will. It is the directory to our faith, 
the chart of our life. It is to teach us what is 
truth, and to guide us over the quicksands of life. 
We should study it as the mariner studies his chart 
when at sea. It tells of heaven and breathes its 
spirit; it tells of hell and warns us to escape it. 
"Search the Scriptures/' they testify of Christ. 

2. Conversation on Scriptural topics, especially 
when conducted in the Scriptural light, are always 
conducive of good. They are profitable both to be 
enjoyed and to be heard. It is profitable, then, to 
listen to the exercises of the Bible class, even if 
one is not prepared to take part in it. How much 
better would it be for many church-members and 


other adults, if the hour of Sabbath-school and 
Bible class was not spent in casual remarks about the 
weather, or in conversation on the business and 
topics of the week ! Many Christians have no idea 
of what is lost in this manner. 

3. One's presence "counts one." It shows to the 
world one interested in the study of the Bible, 
though worldly cares press hard. It is one giving 
countenance to the Sabbath-school and Bible class. 
It is one manifesting an interest to learn of God, 
and heaven, and eternal things. If for nothing 
else, the Bible class should be attended because you 
count one. 

But every one can give the lesson some study, if 
he tries. If you cannot study it so much as you 
would like, do not be ashamed to go and learn of 
those who have studied. Go to the Bible class and 
count one.- £ -Rev. J. H. Weston, I). IK, Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, May 29, 1851. 

Newness of Life 

The change in a sinner's state before God, through 
faith in Christ, involves a change in his character 
before men. Being renewed in the inner man, he 
walks in newness of life. His new views, his new 
desires and aims, affect the exhibitions of his tem- 
per towards (hose around him. They affect his 
conduct, sometimes in a marked degree, so that 
observers lake knowledge of such, and no longer 
doubl the reality of the change. "Old things have 
passed away, and, all things become new." The 


Scriptures are no longer a sealed book, they are 
read with avidity; discoveries are made in them 
never previously dreamed of. They are found more 
precious than gold. They reveal an inheritance that 
can never fade, and the way to attain to it. Prayer, 
after their conversion, is a most welcome duty 
and highly prized privilege. — Rev. Jasper Hazen, 
Christian Palladium, June 21, 1851. 

Christian Suffering 

The human constitution is such that very many 
of the seeming ills of life are conducive to the 
higher blessings. Thus, individual suffering is only 
the great crucible through which the soul that 
passes successfully, comes out purified and ennobled. 

The man who has never breasted the waves of 
adversity — who knows not the drink of the cup of 
sorrow, — is but feebly prepared to sympathize 
with the sufferings of the world, or to engage with 
energy in the great struggles of life. 

All are not benefited by suffering. The alloy, as 
well as the pure ore, goes into the crucible. The 
office of the melting-pot is to separate the dross 
from the pure metal, that the valuable may be saved, 
and that which is not, rejected — and hence, where 
evil in the individual predominates over the good, 
it may be to an extent that precludes his being 
perfected. There are degrees of virtue. 

There may be two causes, both of which are good, 
and yet one of these be better than the other — and 
so, though there be many good causes in the world, 


the cause of Christianity is the best of all, as it is 
the sum of all that is good, here upon the earth. — 
B. F. Summerbell, Gospel Herald, July 15, 1851. 

Life's Golden Grains 

Our years are hearing us onward with the swift- 
ness of the mountain torrent to a long eternity. 
Great is the work which we are all called upon to 
perform during the hours of our mortality. Life 
may be divided into little golden grains of which 
each moment is one. The riches of the miner who 
returns from the El Dorado of the West with his 
coffers filled with gold have accumulated by his 
gathering up the little golden grains, and preserv- 
ing them with the greatest economy. The more 
durable riches of righteousness and true holiness, 
can only be accumulated by improving with great 
economy the golden grains of life. Improve each 
hour. Do something for God's glory and the good 
of man, and study your own improvement each 
moment, and all is well. — Rev. Charles Bryant, 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, July 31, 1851. 

The Two Ways 

Our Savior in Tlis inimitable and instructive ser- 
mon on the mount, speaks of two ways exactly op- 
posite in character and final termination. The one 
is strait, entered by a narrow gate, found by but 
few, and it leadeth unto life. The other broad, the 


entrance wide, and leadeth to destruction, into 
which many go. 

In these two ways, and from free choice, are found 
the entire world of accountable beings. One class 
is seeking for glory, honor and immortality, which 
shall, (through grace) secure to them eternal life. 
The other is seeking for the honors, pleasures and 
riches of the world, and are "treasuring up unto 
themselves wrath against the day of wrath," that 
will ultimately drown them in destruction and per- 
dition. This is truly a solemn and momentous truth. 
Men may wrest this, as they do the other Scriptures, 
but Christ's meaning is clear and unmistakable and 
caviling will never alter it. 

Eeader, in which of these two ways are you found? 
Stop and ponder well this question. It is fraught 
with an eternal weight of interest. Eest not, I be- 
seech you, until in the light of God's truth you settle 
it. You are passing on to your journey's end. And 
O, where will it be? Think, O think, where will you 
spend eternity? What of all your gain, if heaven is 
lost? Neglect what else you may, in this matter 
you have no time to lose. — Rev. Seth Hinldey, Herald 
of Gospel Liberty, August 21, 1851. 

A Prepared Ministry 

You would not have a mechanic work upon your 
building without evidences that he was duly pre- 
pared, and skillful. You need a ministry prepared in 
the age, for the work and the wants of the age, to 
labor in God's husbandry, on God's building. 


May God prepare us, head, heart, and hand, to 
every good work. — Rev. Oliver Barr, Herald of Gos- 
pel Liberty, February 26, 1852. 

Is It Duty to Love Christians? 

The life principle of all religion is that divine 
love and goodness which arises from a pure faith 
in God and in Jesus the Savior, if we have formed 
a proper estimate of the things of God. Whoever 
seeks to promote peace, unity and love among Chris- 
tians, seeks to promote godliness and the will of 
God. Whoever seeks to promote discord, division 
and enmity among Christians, seeks to promote the 
weakness of the church, the desolation of Zion. and 
a leprosy upon the body of Christ. — Rev. A. G. Com- 
ings, Christian Palladium, May 8, 1852. 

Milk Diet 

And I. brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spirit- 
ual, but as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ. I 
have fed you with milk, and not with meat ; for hitherto ye 
were not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able. For 
ye are yet carnal ; for whereas there are among you envy- 
ing and strife and divisions, are ye not carnal and walk as 
men? For while one saith, I am of Paul; and another, I 
am of Apollos ; are ye not carnal? — I Corinthians 3:1-1/. 

The same state of things that Paul describes in 
these verses, exists at the present day. Envying and 
strife and divisions are still prevalent among mul- 
titudes who nominally are Christians. The Corin- 
thian sectaries boasted themselves, some in Paul and 


others in Apollos. Modern sectaries display the 
same spirit when they boast, one, / am of Calvin. 
another, / am of Wesley; a third, I am of Luther; a 
fourth, / am a Baptist, and I, a Unitarian, and I, a 
Universalist. Whenever men make their denomina- 
tional connections a matter of boasting, or pride 
themselves in their minister, or perpetuate divisions 
in the Lord's family, they would do well to pause 
and consider the grave question of the apostle, "Are 
ye not carnal and walk as men ?" 

It is unhappily the case that many believers have 
not been nourished sufficiently upon the simple nu- 
triment which the gospel provides for the babe in 
Christ. "As newborn babes" — says Peter — ''desire the 
sincere milk of the word, that ye may grow thereby." 
A young convert requires careful nursing in the first 
principles of Christ, that he may become humble, 
self-denying, prayerful, watchful and loving. He 
needs, first of all, the simple facts and the pervading 
spirit of the gospel brought to his affections, that 
they may entwine themselves around the living 
Christ. This gospel in simplicity is what the apos- 
tle calls milk. All the babes in Christ should have 
this milk diet. But, unfortunately, they don't all 
get it. There are so many "dry nurses" in the church 
— preachers of speculative theology rather than of 
Christ's gospel, that many of the "babes," as soon as 
they are born, are put immediately upon the strong 
meat of theology and dogma. Soon as the converts 
are made, many commence to indoctrinate them into 
the "mysteries" of the sect. Some fall to teaching 
them the "Trinity ;" others — not less mischievous — 
ply them with doctrines antagonistic to the Trinity ; 


the effect in either case is to draw away the atten- 
tion from Christ. And thus they cease to grow, 
they remain babes a long while — some always. The 
evidence that they are babes, even though they have 
been "professors" for many years, is to be found in 
their spiritual tendencies — their babyish contro- 
versies and squabbles about theological rattle-boxes 
and paper dolls. 

Oh ! ye that feed the flock, I pray you feed the lambs 
with "milk." When a "babe" is born into the family 
of Christ, do not feed it first of all with dogma — not 
of any kind. Don't teach it first the creed, or the 
catechism ; nor occupy its attention with Trinitarian, 
or Calvinistic, or Baptismal controversies; — not 
even with Abolitionism. Because the natural effect 
of all this high feeding is to derange the weak di- 
gestion of the babe. Babes are "not able to bear" 
meat; it sours their stomachs. And so, "babes" in 
Christ, who have been fed upon the meat of dogmatic 
and metaphysical theology instead of the "sincere 
milk of the word," usually possess very sour 
stomachs, evinced, now as of old, by the disposition 
to say "I am of Baul ; and I of Apollos." 

If the state of things in the Corinthian church 
made it necessaiw that the members should be fed 
with milk, does not the similar condition of multi- 
tudes at the present day call loudly for a milk diet? 
Away with your heavy, indigestible "pound-cake;" 
and let us have more "milk-men !7 

Surely we need a dispensation of the gospel, in 
which Greekish dialects and Romish polity shall 
have place (if they have place at all), far in the 
distance; while in the foreground the undivided, 


living Christ is presented as the vivifler of the spir- 
itual affections. Certain virtues of a humble sort, 
but greatly valued in the primitive church, are al- 
most forgotten in the heats of party controversy; 
such are meekness, patience, long-suffering, brother- 
ly-kindness, self-denial, charity. Would it not be 
well for the ministry to abstain for a while from 
dogmatic preaching — from the inculcation of sec- 
tarian tenets; and bend their united energies to 
the work of instructing the young, — the poor, — the 
simple, — the weak believer, in the principles of 
moral and spiritual life? "Milk," "milk;" my 
brethren, more "milk !" Some, we have, no doubt ; 
but there is so much disturbed electricity — so many 
thunder-storms in the theological heavens, that the 
"milk" is sometimes soured. — Rev. Austin Craig, 
D. B., Herald of Gospel Liberty, July 8, 1852. 

The Bible 

The Bible! Precious volume! What shall my heart, 
dictate; what shall my soul utter concerning the 
Book of books ! Too much cannot be said in praise 
of the Bible. We cannot lay it too near our hearts ; 
we cannot entwine our affections too closely around 

It comes to us with the knowledge of God ; it sat- 
isfactorily accounts for human existence; it dispels 
the dark clouds that shadow, and dissipates the 
doubts that agitate the soul. It proclaims that 
man is the offspring of the creation of God, and 
presents the Infinite as the Father of the human 


family — as caring for all his creatures — as desiring 
their happiness, and as providing all things richly 
for their enjoyment. It speaks to us of Jesus — of 
a resurrection — of immortal life, and of a heaven - 
home in prepared mansions, through Him that died 
for us. 

It comes to us with the love of God. Its mes- 
sages are of love; by the prophets, by angels, by 
His own Son. Yes ! God so loved the world that he 
gave His only begotten Son. Herein is love, not that 
we loved God, but that he loved us and gave His 
Son for us. Existence — life itself, the heavens 
stretched out o'er us, the sunshine and the clouds, 
the elements and seasons, the moments and the rain- 
drops, as well as oceans and length of days, speak 
of God's goodness ; but it is the gift of His Son that 
most proclaims, and establishes that God is Love. 
— Rev. B. F. Summerbell, Christian Palladium, May 
28, 1853. 

Education and Religion 

Education should never be divorced from pure 
religion. United they become the voice of heavenly 
wisdom, which "utters her voice'' loudly in our 
streets and plants the standard of Biblical Chris- 
tianity "in the openings of the gates," as the rally- 
ing point of safety for the youth of our country. — 
Rev. />. P. Pike, Herald of Gospel Liberty, May 3, 


Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 
1851— 1SGS 


Injured Influence 

There is no computation that can fully set forth 
the value of one's influence. It is always at work, 
and deathless in its advances. Once begun, it never 
stops or returns. It is always onward and as last- 
ing as eternity. Few, it is to be feared, stop to 
consider its tremendous power. But as tremendous 
as are its results, very small things act upon it to 
injure and destroy its power for good. 

A dishonest act, an improper word and an un- 
guarded phrase has ruined the power of thousands 
in their influence for good in the community where 
they reside. Many able ministers have, by one word 
or look or a simple act, destroyed their power for 
truth and righteousness. Christians should be on 
their guard at all times, but never should they be 
more guarded upon any one subject than that of 
influence. — Rev. D. P. Pike, in Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, August 23, 1855. 

Unworthy Church Members 
Nothing is more deprecated by the Great Head 
of the Church than the retaining of persons in 
church fellowship whose conduct is objectionable in 
the eyes of men and of God. 

It is very pleasant and encouraging to receive 
members, but few churches are strict and willing 
to enforce discipline among their members after 
the New Testament direction. For this neglect we 
have weak and sickly churches; weak and sickly 
in their influence. Some churches wink at members 


who are known to be dishonest; members that are 
often disguised with liquor; members that never at- 
tend the ordinances of the church ; members that at- 
tend other meetings, lending their influence, because 
of some selfish interest, to build and sustain other 
denominations, and members whose veracity is often 
questioned. Such laxity is injurious. Christ cannot 
be present to sustain those churches that neglect 
the duty of discipline. There are members who 
often feel unworthy and think they should leave 
the church because of their feeling of unworthiness. 
Generally such persons are not correct in their 
feelings, and are not the persons to leave the church. 
The truly unworthy do not often think of leaving, 
but seek to cover their sins and retain their posi- 
tion in the church. 

Every means should be taken consistent with 
right, to reclaim and restore the unworthy or back- 
sliders, but no leniency should be indulged because 
of the offender's position. No matter if a rich mem- 
ber does wrong, he must not be excused any more 
than the poor offender. Discipline should be im- 
partially administered. Churches and ministers 
should awake to this subject in good earnest. There 
should be an immediate reform in respect to this 
great duty among many of the New England church- 
es. — Rev. D. P. Pike, Herald of Gospel Liberty, Sep- 
tember 6, 1855. 

The Great Business of Life 

There are thousands of professed Christians at the 
1 tresent day, who have utterly mistaken the great 
object and business of life. Tn all their plans and 


schemes and actions, they make their worldly ad- 
vantage the first great object, and their religious 
duties and privileges secondary to it. This is re- 
versing the order which Christ himself has given for 
our guidance, and is an unmistakable evidence of 
the covetousness which is idolatry in the sight of 
God. "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and His 
righteousness'' — is the command given to all men, 
but thousands who profess the name of Christ seek 
His kingdom and His righteousness last. They toil 
hard. They are active, industrious and enterpris- 
ing in their habits and calling — but it is all for the 
world and themselves ; not for Christ and His cause. 
They are diligent in business, selfish in spirit, serv- 
ing Mammon — but not "diligent in business, fervent 
in spirit, serving the Lord." They do with their might 
what their hands find to do — but they seldom, or 
never, find the right thing to do. They lay admira- 
ble plans, and start new enterprises to promote their 
worldly interests — but they never contrive a scheme, 
or start an enterprise, for the glory of God. In all 
that they do, they are governed by the interests and 
considerations of a worldly character, with little 
or no regard to their spiritual advantage or im- 
provement. They look constantly at the things 
which are seen and temporal, and not at the things 
which are unseen and eternal. 

Such professed Christians must be an abomina- 
tion in the sight of God. Their conduct almost con- 
stantly belies their professions. They have solemn- 
ly declared, before God and men, that they had re- 
nounced the world and all its vanities, the devil 
and all li is works — and yet, they are governed in 

Editor Gospel Herald 


all things chiefly by the prince and spirit of the 
world, which they profess to have renounced. They 
have solemnly covenanted with God to obey and 
serve Him, but thev obey and serve Him not. They 
have solemnly sworn allegiance to Christ who hath 
bought them with His blood, but they deny Him be- 
fore men, and oftentimes put Him to open shame. 

The great business of life here is, not to serve 
Mammon, nor to try to serve God and Mammon. It 
is not to toil and drudge and sweat to pile up a 
heap of glittering dust — to add house to house and 
field to field — or to gain honor, fame or power among 
men. The great business of life is, to promote the 
glory of God and the welfare of man — to lay up 
treasures in heaven — to do justly and love mercy, 
and to "labor not for the meat which perisheth, 
but for that which endureth unto everlasting life." 

The great error and guilt of many professed 
friends of Christ is that they make that secondary 
which God has made their first duty. They reverse 
the moral order of things which God has estab- 
lished, and attend first and chiefly to their secular 
affairs and interests, even though it be at the sac- 
rifice or neglect of their higher interests in the 
world to conic. Business first, and religion after- 
wards, seems to be the maxim which governs them ; 
whereas, it should be, religion first and business 

It is right to be active, enterprising, and dili- 
gent in business. It is right to labor for a home 
and competence for ourselves and families. But it 
is not right to make this the great object and busi- 
ness of life, to which every other interest and duty 


must 3'ield. The man who has so much business that 
he cannot attend to his religious duties, has too 
much, and is in danger of losing his soul. The 
man who prosecutes his secular business because 
he loves to make money rather than to serve God, 
may succeed in laying up treasures on earth, but 
he will have no ''title clear to mansions in the skies." 
To all, therefore, we say — be diligent, active, sober, 
vigilant in your calling, — "Provide things honest 
in the sight of all men," for yourselves and fami- 
lies. — But remember that the first great business of 
this life is, to "fear God and keep His command- 
ments ; for this is the whole duty of man." — Rev. 
James Williamson, in Gospel Herald, September 8, 

Ministerial Apologies 

Thinking men cannot but be disgusted when listen- 
ing to the introduction of a sermon consisting of 
useless and unnecessary apologies. It is most sick- 
ening to hear a minister of Jesus Christ, when about 
to address his fellowmen upon the great subject of 
religion, say that he "is unprepared," "did not think 
of speaking until entering the pulpit, and shall 
speak but a few minutes from the following text." 
This apology is useless and it is often partially 
false. The text may have been preached from a 
dozen times. The idea of being unprepared is whol- 
ly beneath the dignity of a minister of Christ. If 
he has nothing to say, then he should not attempt 
to preach ; and if he has something to communicate, 
then he should say it, and when it is said, stop. Tt 


is most becoming to let others judge of our produc- 
tions, and they can make all the necessary allow- 

The force of many sermons is entirely lost by 
foolish and unnecessary apologies, especially when 
the preface promised a short sermon, but the sequel 
was a sermon over sixty minutes. If ministers 
could but feel how their apologies are generally 
regarded they would be ashamed and never make 
another. — Rev. D. P. Pike, in Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty, October J/, 1855. 

Wages of Sin 

We think a good man has no more reason to 
dread death, than the Israelites had the passage of 
Jordan to possess Canaan. He should regard it as 
a part of the economy of a merciful God, and as 
necessary to the end which he contemplates. He 
should no more regret that state, than the agri- 
culturist does the ripeness of his crops; true, his 
fields look very differently from what they did when 
"every plant was gay and green;" and a dolt might 
deplore the change, but the wise husbandman sees 
in it his crowning interest. 

In what does death consist? Not alone in The 
last throes and agonies of dissolution; but in its 
certainly, in all that produces it — its harbingers 
and attendants. In this sense the king of the 
Amalekites (i Sam. 15:32), could say that the "bit- 
terness (the worst part) of death is past." be- 
fore his execution commenced. This view is sus- 


Associate Editor Christian Palladium 



tained by reference to the following passages : God 
said to Abimelech, "thou art hut a dead man," etc. 
Not that the king of Gerar was already, or entirely, 
dead; but the evil into which he had fallen, rendered 
death certain. "Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, 
my sin only this once, and entreat the Lord your 
God, that he take away from me this death also." 
(Ex. 10: 17.) Not that the plague of the locusts had 
already produced the actual death of the proud 
Egyptian monarch ; but he saw in it the certainty 
of his death. "Arid the Egyptians were urgent upon, 
the people, that they might send them out of the land 
in haste; for they said, We he all dead men.'" 
Dead in that their death seemed certain, with- 
out a merciful interposition. Of the same char- 
acter, manifestly, are those texts in lite New Testa- 
ment: "The wages of sin is death;" etc. What 
death? The death of the soul— the "second death." 
Xot that it is really executed at any time during 
our mortal life: bu1 (without forgiveness) \t is ren- 
dered certain. And not only rendered certain; but 
its influences upon the soul, are, even now, in fear- 
ful harmony with the experiences of the final ex- 
ecution of the sentence. "Dying thou shalt die," 
most emphatically expresses the dreadful influence 
of unforgiven transgression upon the soul from 
the conception of lust, — the bringing forth of sin, 
(Jas. 1:15), and the concluding act of this grand 
drama according to Rev. 21:8. — Rev. 1. C. Goff, I). 
/>., in Christian Palladium , Ortohrr .'??', 1855. 


The Christian a Philanthropist 

The gospel of Christ is a gospel of peace and love. 
It brings comfort to the sorrowing, restoration to 
the captive, and freedom to the slave. It clothes the 
naked, feeds the hungry, and relieves the distressed. 
The same spirit that Christianity breathes also 
characterized its Founder — and surely, the spirit 
that marked the life and is manifested in the teach- 
ings of the Master should also govern His disciples. 
Hence the Christian should be always active in 
works of philanthropy. He should visit the sick and 
administer comfort to them in their suffering. He 
should relieve the poor, console the bereaved and 
cheerfully welcome the fleeing fugitive from op- 
pression and help him on to freedom. Like his 
divine Master, lie should go about doing good. He 
should never be indifferent to sorrow, nor pass the 
distressed by "on the other side." In the line of 
true benevolence, whatever his hands find to do he 
should do with his might. — Rev. D. E. Millard, 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, February Uj, 1856. 

Light in Dark Places 

The darkest place of which we have any knowledge 
on earth, is the unregenerate heart. The greatest 
light of which we have any knowledge, is the gospel 
of Christ. This is the light of the world's dark 
places. One power alone can illumine them. The 
Holy Spirit may silently penetrate these dark re- 
cesses by the frequented path so often trodden, and 
shed ray after ray of gospel light, until the dark 


cavern of the soul is full of light and heaven, and 
the wilderness shall rejoice and blossom as the 
rose. — Rev. B. F. Carter, Herald of Gospel Liberty. 
April 10, 1856. 

Unseen but Yet Enjoyed 

The Christian has an unseen Savior, who is the 
object and source of his soul's richest enjoyment. A 
living presence — Christ in us the hope of glory ; 
but yet invisible. 

The mind of man lingers, and is lost at seasons 
in silent communings with distant friends, whom the 
eye sees not, and ear hears not; and yet the spirit 
may find greater delight in this, than it does in com- 
munion with the visible. 

So of Christ. We love Him for His labors and 
sacrifices for us. We delight in Him for the present 
peace which He bestows upon us, and for the hope 
with which .He gilds the future. We love Him 
for His spirit and life in us. We delight in Him 
for what He has wrought out for us. 

He is the present joy and future hope of the 
Christian. Christ is all in all to him. He is his 
living and his dying song. His eyes, opened to be- 
hold the celestial day of heaven, shall see Him as 
He is, and find everlasting joy in His presence. — 
Rev. Charles Bryant, Herald of Gospel Liberty, Sep- 
tember IS, 1S5G. 

The Christian Church 
The Christian Church was organized eighteen 
hundred years ago by a Teacher sent from God. 


Weak and feeble apparently, in its elementary state, 
many expected to live to note its extinction. But 
their hopes were not realized. They passed away, 
but it remained. It witnessed the downfall of the 
various nations, religions, philosophies and systems, 
which were existing in their vigor at its birth; and 
since their overthrow it has witnessed the rise and 
fall of empires, the birth and annihilation of na- 
tions, the overthrow of newer systems, and the 
downfall of later religions; and still it exists. 
Exists, and shall exist when all the present empires, 
kingdoms, philosophies and systems shall have de 
cayed and been forgotten ; it will exist. Sects may 
disturb its peace for a time ; but sects must pass 
away. Creeds may mar its beauty for a time ; but 
creeds wax old and perish. Human laws and dis- 
ciplines may lead the weak to serve other masters, 
or to worship other gods ; but human systems will 

Yet the church exists; exists by the fiat of Him 
who said, "The gates of hell shall not prevail against 
it" preserved by Him through the immortality 
conferred upon her, in the grace of a heavenly 
character, and not by the wisdom of men. She was 
not founded in man's wisdom, nor will she be pre- 
served by man's wisdom. Neither was she founded 
to subserve the designs and desires of man, but for 
the humbling of his pride and his reconciliation to 
God. No wonder then that man does not find her 
heavenly laws adequate to his desires, when her de- 
sign and his aim are so different ! He may turn a 
fraction of her onward rolling flood from its high 
destination, but still her course will be onward to 


accomplish the great design of Him whose love gave 
her birth. — Rev. N. Summerbell, D. D., Gospel Her- 
ald, May 28, 1857. 

The Prayer=Meeting 

Christians, how is it with the prayer-meeting 
among the people with whom yon associate? Do 
yon attend regularly? Is your voice heard in 
prayer, and your example noted as being commenda- 
ble? If so, it is well! If not, what reason can you 
assign for your neglect? 

What a volume of excuses might be written per- 
taining to this matter! Excuses which would make 
a truant schoolboy blush, if he was obliged to render 
them for absence from school. One man is absent 
because he does not know when or where the meet- 
ing is held; and yet the regular appointment has 
been given each Sabbath for years. Attentive hear- 
er, indeed ! But another attended once and the 
meeting was dull. True; but whose fault was it? 
A third is too tired when night comes; but he can 
go to the lodge, caucus, lyceum, or show. What a 
reasonable excuse! 

Is such conduct right? Who is responsible be- 
fore God and the community for the prayer-meet- 
ing? Certainly it is not expected that the minister 
will sustain such a meeting. You cannot expect the 
unconverted to sustain it. Indeed, if is appointed 
for the especial improvement of the brethren, in 
their social capacity; and on them rests the sole 
responsibility. The Christian who may be at the 


Editor Gospel Herald 

1856— 185S 


prayer-meeting and is not, ought to feel that he is 
a truant; hunted and reproved as a delinquent by 
every man whom he meets. 

Reader, are you negligent in this matter? May 
the Holy Spirit call you to duty, till the voice of 
your confession be heard at these gatherings. — 
Rev. B. F. Carter. Herald of Gospel Liberty, June 
IS, 1857. 

God — Nothing 

The name of God means power, and we may read, 
Power said, "Let there be light, and there was light." 
The infidel denies that God, or power, created all 
things, but admits that nothing produced all things. 
Thus the unbeliever is driven to the absurdity that 
his nothing is greater than all worlds — is as power 
fnl as power itself. The infidel, therefore, is more 
credulous than the Christian, ascribing his own, 
and all other existences, to nothing; and as the pro- 
ducer is at least equal to what it produces, he is 
at least nothing, and by his own probabilities, is 
in a fair way to make himself less than nothing. 
— Rev. 0. J. Wait, Herald of Gospel Liberty, August 
6, 1857. 

The Plague Spot 
It is said that when the terrible plague was rag- 
ing in London, sweeping off hundreds daily, that 
Ihe awful disease made its first appearance in a 
dark spot on the skin. This was called the plague 
spot, and it was the seal of death. Tims, there is 


the plague spot of sin. When you see a young man 
early in the morning or late in the evening, slip- 
ping into the back door of a hotel, or a baker's 
shop where there is a secret bar, it is the develop- 
ment oh' the plague spot of intemperance: it evinces 
the existence of this frightful disease. When a 
professor of religion shows a hankering for the ball- 
room it reveals the terrible plague spot of sin, and 
is the seal of spiritual death. When a Christian 
neglects the prayer-meeting and spends his evenings 
in idle company, it shows a great departure from 
Cod. It is one of the plague spots of sin, 
and reveals the fact that he is on the road to 
death. When a member of the church neglects the 
house of God, and spends the Sabbath in reading 
political papers, or in visiting his neighbors, it shows 
the existence of spiritual disease. — -Rev. James 
Maple, D. /)., Gospel Herald, September 24, 1857. 


It must be a strange and solemn experience, when 
we find ourselves beyond the reach of human aid. 
Our friends stand around us, ready to obey any wish 
of ours ; ready, if it were possible, to fly to the ut-. 
termost parts of the earth for our relief; but no 
relief can come to us. We must sink, while hun- 
dreds stand ready to help us. We stretch out our 
hands for aid, but none can aid us. We have drifted 
beyond the help of human arms. We feel their 
sympathy, but they are as powerless as ourselves. 
They have accompanied us to the ship, and have 
kneeled down upon the shore and commended us 


to God. But now, we must launch out into the 
mighty deep alone. Our cable is cut, our anchor 
that held us to earth, is taken in. Whither are we 
going? Here is where we shall feel the need of 
Christ, whose voice once came through the darkness 
and the storm saying, "It is I. he not afraid." But 
what is death to the Christian? It is crossing a 
stream to a happy and beautiful country lying be- 
yond it. Just putting aside a garment of clay, to 
wear a robe of immortality. It is forsaking an old. 
worn out tenement, the roof broken in, the timbers 
decayed, the doors unhung, and going into "a house 
not made with hands, eternal in the heavens." 

Jesus said to His disciples, ''I go to prepare a 
place for you." Jesus Christ has gone before us, 
and has passed through the shadows of the grave 
His footsteps are in all the valleys. He stands upon 
the other shore, and waits to welcome those who 
have trusted in Him, and conquered in His name 
The first hand that shall be stretched forth to meet 
the ascending spirit, will be that of Jesus Christ. 
And how cheering it will be to know that a friend, 
so powerful and so dear, will meet us on that mys 
terious shore, and welcome us with His smile. Let 
us then make Christ our friend. — Rev. W. 0. Cash 
ing, Christian Palladium, May 8, 1858. 

The Cross 

The cross of Christ — blessed emblem of death to 
sin and life to holiness. The day was when the 
cross was only the instrument of shame. Tt was 

'Resident" Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 
1S5G— 1SG2 


reserved for criminals of the worst grade whose 
crimes were such that they must be distinguished in 
the wretched manner and instrument of their death. 

The Jews did not want Jesus stoned — that would 
be too respectable a form of death — hence they 
clamor against Him, and say "Let Him be crucified !" 
'Twas done! Yes, the wretched deed was done! 
But Christ redeemed the cross. Taiil preached the 
cross; he became conversant with mental crucifixion; 
he gloried in the cross by which the world was 
crucified to him and he to the world. 

The cross is the boast of the Christian and the 
glory of the church. From it the perishing sinner 
receives the first ray of hope, and in it he sees the 
first sign of promise for him. At the foot of the 
cross the wanderer finds his long lost Lord ; here 
angels wipe away his tears and bind up his 
gaping wounds. When men are convicted of sin and 
seek for aid — for life and salvation — we point them 
to the cross for help, and teach them the importance 
of being crucified by it. It is exceedingly interest- 
ing to contemplate the cross in connection with the 
day before Christ's suffering, and the subsequent 
Christian day. Now the cross waves in the ban- 
ners of the armies of Christian nations, — under it 
they fight. It crowns the dome of many sanctuaries. 
It is wrought in jewels as a personal ornament. It 
is carried about the persons of many as if it was 
a personal safeguard, or a charm. 

However much of superstition may be associated 
with this, it shows deep reverence for the cross, 
and the wide-spread power of Christian sentiment. 
The idea only wants to be spiritualized so that the 


man shall be crucified to the world. The cross needs 
to be regarded as the sign of a power rather than 
the power itself. The onward march of Christiani- 
ty will do this, by and by. We see bnt the shadow 
of good things. — Rev. B. F. Carter, Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, July 15, 1858. 

The Christian Name 

How pleasant is the name Christian ! It is ex- 
pressive of much which is of interest to us. It is 
worn out of respect to the great Redeemer — Christ, 
the Anointed — anointed to be a Prince and a Savior. 
The name is adopted as expressive of peculiar at- 
tachment to Christ, and of humble dependence upon 
Him for salvation. No other name can be equally 
expressive of the same idea. 

Friend is a name which may express friendship 
with Christ and man. Disciple may intimate that 
one follows, learns of, and loves Christ. Rut Chris- 
tian comprehends every idea embraced in the others, 
ami also has this advantage — under no circum- 
stances can its import be mistaken. The Christian, 
like the Lord, is anointed from above. The spirit 
and power of the Highest is given him, by measure, 
from above. He is anointed for the especial work 
of saving the lost world, and bringing it back to 
God. He is in the world, though not of it; but, 
in a higher sense, he is in Christ — dedicating him- 
self, body, soul, and spirit to Him in whom he 

Probably many true Christians have adorned other 


and sectarian names. It is a misfortune, however. 
They are not expressive of Christian sentiment or 
work. Take the name Congregational — it only ex- 
presses a democratic idea — that the majority is 
right, but is awfully destructive of everything which 
is Christian, if the majority is wrong. The name 
Baptist comprehends but a single idea — immersion 
in water. But the name Christian covers the idea 
of full faith in all which Christ said, did, or suf- 

Another thought — the name was divinely given as 
the distinctive family name of the Church. The 
child who discards the name which his father gave 
him does not show particular respect to the father 
in so doing. He calls in question a father's judg- 
ment. Is not the judgment of God questioned when 
His people forsake the name He gave them, or make 
another of their own adoption more prominent? 
Let us reflect! — Rev. B. F. Carter, Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, February 17, 1859. 

Why I Love the Christian Church 

Nothing seems more unseemly to me, though 
nothing is more common, than to support an in- 
stitution simply because (without any agency or 
even consent on our part) our lot has been cast 
there. The denominations which have, or will, bless 
or curse Christendom, are by many thought to be 
in number GGG. These all have their separate in- 
terests and opinions to advance and advocate, and 
it will be for us to consider whether the Christian 


Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 

1876— 187S 


Church has any peculiar claims upon us. If she 
has not, we will be acting a wise part to abandon 
her, as quickly as possible ; for many are the ad- 
vantages in this world, to be gained by adherence 
to the fashionable religions of the day. There, is 
the popularity. There, the dominant party. There, 
the prevailing opinions. There, the chance of pre- 
ferment. There, the educational opportunities. 
There, the stereotyped literature. There, the 
entailed property; and there, the power. There, 
the colleges are established, the schools in operation, 
the congregations consolidated, the churches al- 
ready built and ministers educated. There, the libra- 
ries, endowments, encouragements; and were heaven 
confined alone to this present life, and consisting 
simply in popularity, wealth, and earthly advan- 
tages, I would advise all to join the worldly church- 
es, the fashionable party. Cut when we consider 
that this life is only the beginning of our existence 
— a moment compared to eternity, we esteem it bet- 
ter far to sacrifice to the truth now, than ill-pre- 
pared, to lose a fraction of future joy for the transi- 
tory good of time present. 

I prefer the Christian Church, because she is a 
Biblical church. She has no stereotyped phrases by 
which she affirms her faith ; no human creeds to set 
for her doctrine. Her language is the language of 

T prefer the Christian Church, because in asking 
only conformity to the Bible, she confuses us not 
with contradictory dogmas, and by requiring exact 
conformity to it, she brings us into the closest 
reconciliation with God, and prepares us for heaven 


by teaching us to do God's will on earth, as it is 
done in heaven. Thus while others are sectarian- 
ized, and with much care cast into forms of doc- 
trine unknown to God's word, and alienated from 
God, and from each other, becoming more exclusive 
the longer they live, cultivating those systems less 
and less prepared to enter into heaven, in any 
reasonable conformity to God's will, or conformity 
to each other; the Christians cultivate that system 
of religion which best prepares them for both. Who 
does not see that a new conversion from sectarian- 
ism to Bible truth, charity, and forbearance will be 
needed, between death and the resurrection in all 
these, unless we suppose heaven to be filled with 
sects, battling each other, — conflicting creeds ; people 
marshalled under divers leaders, and following vari- 
ous systems. 

I prefer the Christian Church, because she puts 
no book into my hands but the Bible; points me to 
no leader but Christ; teaches me to recognize as my 
brethren all God's people, no matter how erring or 
weak in faith. How T have pitied ministers when I 
have seen them writhe and struggle because I have 
quoted opposition to their sayings, the doctrines of 
the Westminster Confession ; Calvin, Campbell, 
Wesley, or some other human erring leader. Who 
could thus trouble the Christians? What man could 
be pointed out as their leader? None! absolutely 

T prefer the Christian Church, because her prin- 
ciples are divine and apostolical. They are neither 
new, nor novel. Her faith in God is the faith 
taught to Adam, Noah, Abraham and Moses. (Deut. 


6:4.) By Jesus and His apostles. (Mark 12:30; 
Luke 10:27.) That her doctrine concerning Christ, 
and all the principles of her systems, are those rec- 
ognized by the church 1800 years ago ; and because 
they are such as will not grow out of date in the 
Millennium nor obsolete in heaven. But eternal in 
their nature, they will last while man exists or 
reason and justice hold the throne of the Empire 
of the Universe. 

I love the Christian Church, because she teaches 
that God is love, — that '"God so loved the world that 
He gave His only begotten Son ;'' and depends upon 
the word of Truth for the salvation of our race. 
True, she speaks of the terrors of the Lord, of the 
thunders of Sinai, of hell fire ; but as such was not 
the burden of the Savior's preaching, so it is not 
the burden of her's. She teaches that God is a spirit, 
that God is love, that God is our Father, that love 
is the fulfilling of the law, that the tree is known 
by its fruit. 

I prefer the Christian Church, because she does 
not restrict the plan of salvation. I of late heard 
one calling himself a Christian —but surely a "coun- 
terfeit" — "proclaiming" that there is but one plan 
of salvation, viz., "Faith, repentance and immer- 
sion." Only to think of it! The one only plan of 
salvation, leaves out all! — All infants, all godly in- 
clined heathen, all Quakers, all Pedo-Baptists, all 
souls converted who fail to reach the baptismal 
water. I love the Christian Church, because she 
has God's own plan — a platform broad enough to 
take in all who are accepted of God. 

T prefer the Christian Church, because she en- 


courages a growth in grace, and a knowledge of 
God's word — because she teaches "all prayer," and 
"supplications for all men." Because she cherishes 
a godly spirit, and holy motives, and pure desires. 
Because she teaches the cultivation of all Christian 
graces, and righteous dispositions — because that in 
her the soul has all its natural liberty, and the mind 
can put forth all its strength. Xo Chinese shoes are 
upon her feet, nor sectarian helmet upon her head. 
She has no "bed shorter than a man can stretch 
himself on it," no "covering narrower than a man 
can wrap himself in it." 

But her platform is as broad as God's grace, and 
her principles as pure as the waters of the river 
of life, which proceed out of the throne of God and 
of the Lamb. 

1 prefer the Christian Church, because she has 
God for her God, and Christ for her Savior, and 
advancing toward heaven, or the millennial state, 
she need change neither her God or her creed, but 
all others must come to her principles. — Rev. N. 
Summerbell, D. D., Gospel Herald, July 23, 1859. 


How sweet it is to rest, when we are tired and 
weary. We think that natural rest is a great bless- 
ing to the human family — to the working class of the 
community; but the idler never can enjoy its sweets. 
It is not in the nature of things that he should, for 
he is very tired all the time of resting; then, how 
can he enjoy the luxury of rest? How refreshed we 


feel after a calm night's rest, and how invigorating 
seems every passing breeze; ever reminding us of 
the eventful morning that dawns on the night's rest 
of the grave. We have ever viewed the rest of the 
grave as an inviting spot to the weary-worn traveler 
of earth who has sought, and found, rest in "the 
Rock of Ages, cleft for me." 

How beautifully the Savior invites ns to come 
unto Him and rest : ''Come unto Me, all ye that 
labor, and I will give you rest." We must labor 
through life's day in the cause of God and humanity, 
to the best of our ability, then the better shall we 
enjoy the glorious brightness of that eternal dawn- 
ing of the saint's hereafter. The idle Christian can 
never feel this invigorating power in the morning of 
the resurrection ; no more than he who spends his 
day in doing nothing, and going to his couch, like 
one whipped to his task, can expect to rise with 
new vigor, and hail the morning with joy and de 
light. — Mrs. Caroline D. Ellis, Gospel Herald. 
August 13, 1859. 

Our True Position 

Have the Christians. South, always occupied the same 
position that your recent controversies show that they now 
do? Were they not Unitarians in sentiment, at one time? 
Have they always believed in the divinity of Christ? 

These questions were recently propounded to us, 
and we choose to answer them through the columns 
of the Sun, as well as privately. As far as we know, 
or have been able to learn, the Christians, South, 
have always occupied the same position that they 


Editor Christian Sun 
1S54— 1S7G 


now do upon this subject — certainly for the last 
thirty years. They never hate been Unitarians or 
Socinians in sentiment, and the divinity of Christ 
has never been denied by any intelligent man among 
them. And yet strange to say, as far as they are 
known, this charge of heresy has been rung against 

When we separated from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, it was not on account of doctrine, but 
church government alone. The reformers were op- 
posed to an Episcopal form of government, and to 
all creeds and confessions of faith, at all calculated 
to bind the consciences of men. The right to think 
for one's self on all matters pertaining to the soul's 
salvation was declared not only a privilege but a 
duty also. Having severed themselves from all 
men-made creeds and confessions of faith they soon 
learned to cease using the terms used in the creeds to 
express certain doctrines and to use the language 
of the Bible in their stead. Unscriptural names, 
doctrines and expressions were all discarded. The 
terms used in the creeds to express the doctrine of the 
Trinity and the name Trinity, not being found in the 
Bible, were all discarded; not that in discarding 
these unscriptural terms they intended to deny 
their faith in God the Father, in His only begotten 
Son, our Savior, and the Holy Ghost which came 
forth from the Father and the Son to sanctify and 
cleanse us from all sin and unrighteousness; nor 
that they intended to become Unitarians, for Unity 
and Trinity and Unitarian and Trinitarian are alike 
unscriptural names. They did not intend to run from 
the use of one set of unscriptural phrases info an- 


other set equally objectionable. But such was the 
construction placed upon their course, and the cry 
of heresy was raised by one of their opponents and 
has been shouted through the whole encampment, 
and Unitarianism has been sung by every opponent 
of the church in all places and everywhere. A 
more unjust and censurable course has never been 
pursued toward any people. 

We hesitate not to say, that the Christians be- 
lieve firmly in everything that is said in the Scrip- 
tures concerning God the Father, the Lord Jesus 
Christ and the Holy Spirit, and when the peculiar 
phraseology of the creeds is laid aside and the 
Bible students come together and notes are com- 
pared, the Christians will be found as free from 
heresy as any other denomination in the land who 
are as free to think for themselves and to express 
their honest sentiments when, where, and to whom 
they please. 

But have you not changed your own private opinions on 
this subject? 

Thus inquires a good brother whom we highly 
esteem. We are glad to have an opportunity of 
answering the question publicly. We have not 
changed. We hold the same views now that we 
did in 1845, when we first joined the Conference, 
and received license to preach. We preached the 
same doctrines, on this subject, the first year of 
our ministry that we do now. When we entered the 
ministry of the Christian Church, the denomination 
had been so long misrepresented on this subject, and 
so little effort had been made to disabuse the public 
mind, that all Christian ministers were represented 


by their opponents as being unsound in reference to 
the divinity of Christ. This error in public senti- 
ment, we have labored to correct from the first year 
of our ministry until the present, and now that 
we have succeeded, in a very great degree, in ac- 
complishing the object aimed at, and the denomina- 
tion stands forth before the world in its true char- 
acter, many are ready to ask if the Christians, South, 
have always occupied the same position that they 
do now? — if they were not Unitarians in sentiment 
at the one time — if they always believed in the 
divinity of Christ? and if we have not changed our 
private opinions on the subject? 

To all we answer, no change in our position has 
been made. The true light now shineth, while here- 
tofore men were in darkness in reference to our 
true position. — Rev. W. B. Wellons, D. D., in Chris- 
Han Sun, December 9, 1859. 

Two Scenes — Earth and Heaven 

It was evening, and the beautiful day was slowly 
passing into the solemn stillness of night. The 
bright sun was quietly sinking down to rest behind 
the western hills, and fringing the fleecy clouds 
with rainbow tints, while the evening zephyrs were 
chanting a solemn requiem over the departed day. 

The evening star shone brightly amid the gather- 
ing stillness of twilight's sacred hour, and nature 
seemed in her holiest mood. 

With a subdued, yet chastened spirit, we beheld 
an earnest mother fondly bend over the low couch 


of her dying child; ejaculating with fervent ten- 
derness, "If it be possible, O my God, let this cup 
pass from me, that I do not drink it ; yet neverthe- 
less not my will, but thine be done." The cup did 
not pass, but she drank it, to the very dregs. We 
saw the little hands droop, and those innocent, sweet 
eyes close up in the darkness of death ; for the terri- 
ble struggle with the little sufferer was over, and the 
flickering life-taper went out. That grief-stricken 
mother bowed in sadness, weeping the loss of her 
first-born ; yet we distinctly heard her say, "God 
gave," "God has taken," "God doeth all things well." 
Friend after friend assembled at the house of 
mourning, speaking words of comfort to a sorrow- 
ing spirit, and the minister of Jesus came, rehears- 
ing the sayings of Christ, "I am the resurrection, 
the way, the life," "thy brother, thy child shall rise 
again." A little grave opened in the churchyard 
near the house of prayer, and a sweet little form, a 
casket that once contained a priceless gem, was 
laid down to its resting place in the tomb; and the 
mournful drama closed. 


I looked again, and the portals of glory were 
opened, and a vision of bright angels stood before 

The spirit of the dear departed one, released 
from its prison house — the grave — where I had just 
seen it consigned, and fashioned like unto an angel 
of light, appeared in their midst. A rainbow of 
immortal beauty was about his head, as he walked 
amid the never fading flowers of Paradise, and sung 


in seraphic sweetness, the anthems of undying love. 
The tree of life was there, which bore "twelve man- 
ner of fruits, yielding its fruit every month, whose 
leaves were for the healing of the nations." The 
thornless rose, long sought on earth, but never 
found, there bloomed in untold beauty, and sent 
forth its richest fragrance. And there were crystal 
founts, and purling streams, and birds, and brooks, 
and flowers, and angels, and seraphs, and the spirits 
of the just made perfect, and the glorified body of 
Jesus, and God the Judge of all, and blooming 
groves, and silvery bowers, and elysian fields, and 
cloudless suns, and enchanting skies. And there, 
too, was a host of infants, from all nations under 
heaven; pure, harmless, holy, undented, with voices 
tuned celestial, singing the song of "redeeming grace 
and dying love.'' 

The myrtle and the rose mark the resting place 
of the earthly form, but the spiritual, the immaterial, 
freed from earthly ills, rests in Abraham's bosom. 

O! could that bereaved mother have seen her 
precious boy, a companion of angels himself, his 
tiny feet treading the flower-clad walks of Paradise, 
she would dry her tears, and rejoice that she was 
counted worthy to add one to the angel-bands of 
glory. — Rev. John Ellis, Gospel Herald, August 4, 

An Hour With Jesus 

To be with Jesus, in any proper sense, is to be in 

sympathy with Plim. it is "to know Him and the 

power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His 

suffering, being made conformable to His death." It 


is to possess His Spirit, "be renewed in the spirit 
of our mind," be "crucified with Christ," and have 
"Christ live in us." To be thus with Christ is to 
be in harmony with all the good in the universe — 
the highest attainment of a human being, or of 
created intelligences. In the earthly pilgrimage 
of Jesus, as a messenger of mercy to a lost and 
perishing world, there was one special hour when 
he solicited the presence with Him, and the watch- 
fulness of a select number of His disciples, sufficient, 
according to the divine law of evidence, to estab- 
lish any fact, of which they were cognizant. It 
was His hour of suffering in "Gethsemane." It was 
about the period in which Jesus said to His enemies, 
"this is your hour, and the power of darkness." 
At this eventful period, this crisis in the work of 
human redemption, Jesus says to His disciples, 
"Tarry ye here and watch with me." How many 
have volunteered, unasked, to watch with dying 
friends in their last moments, and anticipated their 
wants by the faintest signals. But Jesus, who "trod 
the winepress alone,'" invited His own watchers. 
And why? Was He so made in all things like unto 
His brethren that even the manifestation of human 
sympathy, in watchfulness and prayer, was some 
solace to the troubled soul? Did it ease the bosom 
of the suffering Jesus to say to Peter, James and 
John, "My soul is exceeding sorrowful even unto 
death?" Was it that, by calling three of the most 
favored and trustworthy of all the disciples to this 
post of honor, this labor of love, to watch and pray 
with their suffering, dying Savior, they might evince 
their weakness and depravity, by falling asleep in 


the hour of peril, and thereby merit the gentle, 
though severe reproof, "What! could you not ivatch 
until me one hour?" Was it that they might be 
competent witnesses of this crowning act in the 
earthly life of the world's Deliverer? Doubtless 
this last was the great idea, whatever else was in- 
cluded. To be with Jesus in Bethlehem, in Egypt, 
in Nazareth, in Galilee, in Jerusalem, on Mount 
Olivet, or the Mount of Transfiguration, is profitable 
and delightful. But, without watching with Him 
this last hour, we have no clear views of the depth 
of human depravity, or the grand scheme of human 
redemption. — Rev. John Ross, Christian Messenger, 
January 3, 1861. 

The Divine Existence 

Faith in the existence of God is a first principle, 
lying at the very foundation of all religion ; for if 
this be removed, all obligations to virtue and piety 
are swept away with it. This was fully demon- 
strated in France, when infidelity, reaching its 
climax, unblushingly asserted, "There is no God," 
pronounced death an "eternal sleep," and in the 
madness of Atheism, enthroned and worshiped a 
courtezan as the goddess of reason, giving themselves 
up to unbridled licentiousness and unmitigated cruel- 
ty. Atheism, denying the existence of God, is forced 
to deny the human spirit — to maintain a gross ma- 
terialism — regarding man as a mere animal, the off- 
spring of chance — the sport of fates whose end is 
annihilation. It thus destroys all sense of responsi- 
bility to God, removes all obligation from the con- 


science; all restraint from the passions; makes the 
belly the god, and leads to sensual gratification and 
carnal pleasures, as the most suitable object of 
pursuit. — Rev. Moses Gummings, Christian Messen- 
ger and Palladium, October 2Jf, 1861. 

Bad Signs, Read and Reflect 

First. It is a bad sign when we see a minister 
striving to tickle the ears of his audience with 
smooth words, elaborately drawn similes, fine-spun 
rhetoric and nicely rounded periods, instead of urg- 
ing upon them the soul-strirring truths of the gos- 
pel. It is an indication that he was never called to 
the work, or else has wofully misconceived the spirit 
and nature of his mission. We have heard of one 
such minister who would not repeat the word 
"Christ" in his pulpit, because it contained harsh 
consonantal sounds. Such men never mention hell 
to ears polite. Nay, instead they read to drowsy 
audiences beautiful essays upon the "Dignity of 
Human Nature," "The Science of Esthetics," "The 
Excellency of Virtue," etc., etc. Their preaching, 
like the moonbeams, may be beautiful, but it is de- 
void of the least heat. 

The devil delights in such ministers, and hell will 
be populated with them and their deluded followers. 
How different the conduct of Paul the apostle when 
he "reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judg- 
ment to come." Plain, earnest, forgetful of self, 
armed with the might of God, he pierced the heart 
of his royal hearer, as with a keen two-edged sword. 


If men have God's truth burning in their hearts, 
will they not give it expression in good, strong, 
solid, unvarnished Saxon? Will they not preach 
"Christ crucified" to lost men, rather than seek to 
display their own talents, and oratorical powers and 
graces? Will they not, in Christ's stead, persuade 
men to be reconciled to God, rather than enunciate 
in polished phrase, the speculations and soft senti- 
ment, as destitute of saving efficacy as an iceberg 
is of vital warmth? Alas! alas! that men "will not 
endure sound doctrine," but turn away their ears 
from the truth, and are turned unto fables. 

Second. It is a bad sign when a professed min- 
ister of Jesus Christ finds his associates, admirers 
and adherents, among irreligious and ungodly men 
rather than in the church among Christians. It is 
infallible proof that so far from being a true herald 
of the cross, he is one of Satan's daubers with un- 
tempered mortar. For since "the carnal mind is 
enmity against God," plain, spiritual truth, the gos- 
pel in its purity, is uniformly distasteful to the unre- 
generate heart. Hence those who love the truth, 
and whom the truth has made free, will cluster 
around the messenger of truth, and will be his 
intimate friends, associates and confidants, while 
unconverted persons, though they respect and esteem 
God's minister, will rather avoid than seek intimate 
acquaintance with him. The well-known adage, 
"Birds of a feather flock together," is strictly true 
in this case. Hence if the minister preach a smooth, 
velvety gospel, if he cry "peace, peace, when there 
is no peace," if he disturb not the repose of the 
wicked, he will be applauded, admired, and courted 


by worldlings, while Christians will mourn in secret 
over the desolations of Zion. Woe to the minister 
when ungodly men. instead uf the saints of the Most 
High, are his intimates and confidants. In such 
case he is a ■■dumb dog," an unfaithful watchman, a 
blind leader of blind. •'For if ye were of the 
world, the world would love its own." etc. 

Third. It is a bad sign when we see a minister 
acting the fop, putting on airs and graces. 

What, shall a man laden with the weightiest mes 
sage ever borne by mortals, spend his precious time, 
and employ his talents in playing the dandy? God 
forbid! It is no less inconsistent and unseemly 
than if our ambassador to the imperial court of 
Russia should debase himself to act the part of a 
clown for the amusement of the Czar and his 
courtiers. If the minister feels the weight of truth, 
if lie realizes the value of the soul, if he appreciates 
the infinite magnitude and importance of eternal 
interests, his attention will not be occupied with 
trifles, decorations, or useless elegance. 

Xeatness of dress and propriety of manners are 
in the highest degree commendable, but foppery and 
prudery are execrable in a minister, and contempti- 
ble in all places. — Rev. John IT. Hayley, Herald of 
Gospel Libert}], April 3. 1862. 

Love Your Pastor 

Reader, are you a Christian? ami have you a 
pastor? If so. love him and be kind to him. He 
comes to you as the servant of the Most Hisdi God, 


and holds a commission from the high courts of 
heaven. To you lie is a God-given treasure. How 
disinterested his love for you? What though the 
world hangs out its glittering baits to allure him 
from the lowly work of a minister of Jesus? Whal 
though fame sounds her trumpet in his ears? Will 
he leave the sacred desk, and his pastoral walks. to 
seek for perishable honors? Never! for on his great 
warm heart, heating witli a divine and holy love, 
plowing with a hope which grasps the unseen and 
the eternal, he hears you in fond remembrance daily. 
The eye of his faith has looked beyond the pageantry 
of earth: beyond the stream of death, and seen a 
crown of fadeless glory. Think of his labors and 
anxieties for you. Docs his pale face and care-worn 
look never attract your attention? You have no 
idea of the greatness of his work. He may not toil 
with his hands, but his mind is overworked, perhaps 
wearing out his mortal system. He .spends his life 
blood, necessarily, in the region of thought and deep 
meditation. He needs your sympathy. Do not 
think he is so much above you that you cannot 
reach him. He does not feel above you. His heart 
craves your love. To him. the heart-felt "God bless 
von." the look of love and kindly regard, the firm 
grasp of the hand, is worth more than the praise 
of men. Prize him while you have him. When his 
mission is accomplished the Master will take him 
up on high. Up from the thorny path of earth to 
the flowery walks of heaven ! Away from this scene 
of toil, where his brain is often burdened, and the 
scalding tears roll in silence down his cheek! Ah, 
could vou see him in his studv. in his lonelv hours 


Editor Gospel Herald 



of solemn thought, could you mark the gathering 
paleness on his brow as his hand falters, and his 
pen is laid in weariness away, you would feel he 
needed your sympathy. The writer is not pleading 
for himself. He knows the lines have fallen to him 
in pleasant places. But he pleads for the pastor, 
wherever he may be, wearing his life away in the 
service of Christ. Give him the heart's warm affec- 
tions, the smile of friendship, the look of love, and 
the kind salutation, and God will bless you, And 
when his form shall vanish from the walls of Zion 
and his tongue no more shall sound the gospel, you 
can feel that you helped strew his weary way with 
flowers. — Rev. N. Day, Herald of Gospel Liberty, 
May 22, 1862. 

The Christian Church 

The meaning of the word church is the same 
as that of "congregation," or "assembly." In this 
sense, there may be a good or a bad church. But 
the specific meaning of the word church, at the 
present time, is a body of worshipers, united to- 
gether (generally) in one place. 

From the time of Christ, "church" has been a 
very common name, and has been used to designate 
the followers of Christ. For three hundred years 
from the time of our Savior, there was but one 
Christian Church, and with the exception of a few 
schismatics, here and there, all of the members 
agreed to disagree. For no one, for a moment, 
would assert that all the Christian fathers held 
the same views in regard to what they taught of 


the Christian doctrine. Alexandria, in Egypt, was 
the place where the first great division was made in 
the Christian Church. 

It would be useless here to follow the Christian 
Church through the wilderness of the dark ages. 
Suffice it to say, the priests saw fit to take the 
Scriptures away from their followers, and taught 
them verbally what was true and what was false 
in doctrine. This was the state of the church when 
Martin Luther, of Wittenberg, in Germany, acci- 
dentally came across a copy of the New Testament. 
Luther knew there was something wrong, but could 
not tell what. One thing he was convinced of, that 
the sale of indulgences, or selling the right to sin, 
for money, a practice very common then in the 
Catholic Church, was wrong. He challenged the 
indulgence agent to a debate, and Luther soon had 
debates enough. The ground that Luther and his 
associates took at this time was, that no person 
was bound to believe anything of the doctrines of 
religion, unless taught in the Bible, and that any- 
thing taught in the Bible must be believed, Popes, 
Councils, or Fathers, to the contrary, notwithstand- 
ing. Furthermore, Luther insisted that not only 
the preacher, but the layman also, had a right to 
read and judge what the Bible taught, each in- 
dividual for himself. Although, perhaps not in the 
same words, yet in substance, Luther taught in the 
sixteenth century the same right of private judg- 
ment that the fathers of the present church taught 
in 1'ie nineteenth century, in North Carolina by 
O'Kelly, in New England by Smith and Jones, and 


in Kentucky by Stone, Dunlavy, Purviance, and 

We will not trace the fluctuation of parties in 
the church during the following two hundred years 
from Luther. We will only say, it was a con- 
stant effort of the one part to give the priest the 
power which he had lost, and on the other to grant 
the right of private judgment to every man. In 
all the struggles of Calvin and Servetus, Henry 
VIII., of England, and Charles V., of Germany, 
Cranmer and Wolsey, Wesley and Whitefield, and 
especially the Exodus of the New England Puritans 
— all the church movements of this time were 
brought on by this contest. — Rev. E. W. Humphreys, 
in Gospel Herald, May 23, 1863. 

The "Will Not" 

God's wish is to bless all men ; but all men do not 
choose to be blessed. And this is the difficulty. 
Jesus says to those whom he would bless, "Ye will 
not come unto Me that ye may have life." There 
was a "will not" on the part of those who heard 
Him. Here is where the road is lost that leads to 
heaven. This is the voice that turns men from the 
track, and sends them wandering into by and for- 
bidden paths. Jesus wept over Jerusalem, and said, 
"0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I have 
gathered thy children together, as a hen doth gather 
her brood under her wings, and ye would not." Thus 
does the Savior long to bless and save the perishing 
souls of men, and gather them to His sheltering 

REV. II. Y. RUSH, D. D. 

Editor Gospel Herald 


Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 



fold to give them eternal rest. But all God's divine 
love can avail nothing, so long as the human will 
is unsubdued and contrary to the divine will. God 
cannot save us without repentance on our part. 
God is "not willing that any should perish, but that 
all should come to repentance." True repentance 
will save us, but nothing else can. Jesus can die for 
us, but He cannot repent for us. — Rev. W. 0. Gush- 
ing, Gospel Herald, November 25, 1865. 

Long Sermons 

Sermons should be so delivered as to attract, in- 
terest, instruct, please, rest, and refresh the hearer. 
There are individuals and whole families who dread 
the Sabbath, as if it were a day of penance, or of 
funeral rites. Long hymns, long prayers, long ser- 
mons, long sighs, long faces, are not the natural 
accompaniments of piety. They are generally the 
lurking places of the devil. Indeed, too many ser- 
mons invoke the evil spirits by their wearisomeness, 
thus making the minister a sorcerer, rather than a 
messenger of God. We know of churches from which 
a man might stay away by authority of that prayer, 
"Lead me from evil." Some men squirm and frown 
more, and harbor more bad thoughts under a point- 
less and endless sermon, than they do all the week 
in driving oxen and balky horses. 

Long, dry sermons ! It makes one sigh to think 
about them; but the thought is paradise compared 
with the hearing. Long sermons — brethren nodding 
— sisters dozing — boys snoring — babies crying — 


Satan laughing — magnificent specimen of Christian 
worship ! 

The minister who intends to drag out his days in 
long preaching, would better go to fighting steam, 
electricity, and civilization. When these are con 
quered, he may have the rest about his own way. 

Sermons must interest, and not disgust; rest the 
hearer, and not weary him. The benediction should 
he pronounced upon smiling hearers, and not upon 
frowning ones. 

The audience should leave the house desiring to re- 
turn again, rather than preferring ever to stay away. 
—Rev. H. Y. Rush, D. />.. fiosfel Herald. February 
10, 1866. 


There are few things nobler in this world than 
a man standing up in the grandeur of a true in- 
dividuality. There is calmness, self-reliance, God- 
likeness there. I have stood on the shore of the 
ocean and watched the seaweed as it was rolled up, 
tangled and flung helplessly on the beach by the 
billows. Turning from this, I have looked at the 
rock dashing back the waves in snowy spray — there 
it stood on the borders of the deep — unmoved, un- 
changed; it was the same, pelted by the storm, or 
crowned by the sunshine; the mountain surges were 
swung against it by the tempest in vain. 

Sometimes we see a man thus fixed, unmoved ; some- 
times one like Luther, facing the rude storm of an 
opposing world, saying to the entreaties of fear and 
the threatenings of power. "Here I stand — I cannot 


do otherwise, God help me." O brother, be the rock, 
standing in the strength of God amid the changes, 
the calms and the storms of time; not the pliant 
weed, though pearls are tangled in its meshes. 

Manliness finds its perfect ideal in Him who, for 
the regeneration of the world, made His advent in 
a manger and His exit on a cross; who pleased not 
Himself, but that He might bless and save the sor- 
rowing and the sinful, endured the cross and de- 
spised the shame. — Rev. Warren Hathaway, D. D., 
Gospel Herald, January 26, 1867. 

Ministerial Changes 

As a general rule, I think frequent changes in the 
ministry and churches are not desirable or calculated 
to build up our cause. Societies may sometimes be 
come careless and neglect to exert themselves to do 
what they have ability to do for their pastor, and 
ministers may get behind the age and not study 
enough to make their discourses very profitable or 
interesting. All these conditions may make changes 
necessary sometimes, but in the long run, a settled 
ministry is best for pastors and people. Let friends 
look at the work of the ministers who have become 
settled, and compare the strength of such churches 
and the colonies that have grown from them, and 
place in contrast the history of churches where con- 
stant change takes place, and they will find no dif- 
ficulty in drawing a conclusion. — Deacon J. /.'. 
Brush, Gospel Herald, February 9, 1867. 


Editor Christian Vanguard 

1891— 1902 


An Earnest Plea * 

We ought to weigh well our words and our 
actions, for this is an historic time. We make 
history to-day. The future of the Christian de- 
nomination in Canada, is to bear the mark of our 
decision ; it is to take higher or lower ground from 
this period. God grant us wisdom, Christian for 
bearance and love. 

Just let me say, before I close these remarks, that 
the dread, we, as a denomination, have felt in re 
gard to organization has not been without excuse ; 
this power has been abused, hundreds of hearts 
have been crushed by it; yet we must not condemn 
all co-operation because it has been used by bad 
men for selfish ends. We cannot obviate this dif- 
ficulty by setting our foot upon government, and 
upon order, that we may rid the country of igno- 
rance and selfishness. Rightly directed, the very 
government, that once seemed to grind the people 
by its cruelty and tyranny, will become the means 
by which the liberty, happiness and prosperity of 
the people are secured. Have not thousands con- 
cluded that religion itself is a bad thing, because 
bad men have used it for superstitious, ignorant 
and immoral purposes? It is as unwise to con- 
demn one as the other. Such reasoners have con- 
demned education because educated men have been 
powerful in evil. The very instrument that can be 
used for evil can be used for good. The fault is 
not in the instrument, but in the heart of him who 
uses it. 

* Closing words of an address delivered as President of the 
Conference of the Christian Church in Cannda, June 22, 1867. 

192 T H El C E N T E N N I A L O F 

This thought leads us to our concluding remarks. 
No system will secure us from the evils we dread. 
Freedom from system will not secure us. The truth 
is, system is a great power, and if in the hands of 
good and wise men, it is powerful for good; if in 
the hands of bad men, it is just as powerful for 
evil. Even in the hands of ignorant and supersti- 
tious men, whose hearts are pure, it may be used 
for evil ends. Nevertheless we must not reject the 
power. When we discover the cause of the evil 
we must remove that, and then the power will bless 
the church and mankind. 

How important then is love, faith, holiness of 
heart ! We want the true love of God shed abroad 
in the heart. We not only want the head, but the 
heart right. An animal all head would not be a 
man, nor one all heart. We not only want the body, 
but the soul ; they must go together ; let no one 
sunder in his ignorance what God designed to go 
together. A church with ever so much piety will 
he comparatively weak, without order. A church 
all order, all system, and no piety, would be worse; 
let these two go together, and we have the God- 
ordained church, the true church. — Rev. Thomas 
Qafbutt, Christian Magazine, 1867. 

There Must Be Friendship 

There must be friendship, kindness and deference 
among the ministers of Jesus. One must not be 
puffed up to pay no attention to others. Learning, 
looks, position or privilege must not exalt one man 


above another. And as the great must not look down 
upon the small, neither must the small look up 
meanly and unscripturally to superiors. Says Elihu, 
"Let me not, I pray you, accept any man's person, 
neither let me give flattering titles unto man. For 
I know not to give (to greet or address men) with 
flattering titles; in so doing my Maker would soon 
take me away." Job 32 : 21, 22.— Rev-. H. Y. Rush, 
D. D., Herald of Gospel Liberty, January 31, 187%. 

Our Doctrine 

How clo the Christians stand in regard to doctrine and 
principles with the Christian world? Please answer and 
oblige. — Many Readers. 

Reply: The Christians hold what may be called 
"conservative orthodoxy." They strip so-called 
orthodox doctrines of all popish dress, and hold 
them in Biblical truth; but HOLD them. We do 
not encourage, or tolerate attacks on the Bible; we 
stand or fall with the Bible. If the Bible be true, 
as we affirm, it is the foundation of all truth ; if 
(which is impossible) the Bible were not true, we 
have no business as a church, and should disband. 
Only impostors will call themselves Christians, to 
preach against Christianity and use the Bible to 
combat its truth. When I say that we hold the Bible 
true, stripped of popish pollution, I mean that we 
hold them in Bible language, just as the prophets 
did, and as Jesus did, and as the early Christians 
did. The things which we have to assure our faith 

1. We hold the truth in its normal and Scrip- 


tural form, as it was in the beginning, is now, and 
ever shall be. 

2. We hold it in the words in which God gave it, 
prophets wrote it, Christ spake it, and the apostles 
taught it. 

3. We will neither add to the words for popery, 
nor give them up for liberty. If the improved forms 
are taught in the Bible, it must be in the Bible 
language. If that is the way God chose to teach 
them, that is the way we choose. If we can learn 
them iu Bible language, we have no need of formulas ; 
if we cannot, then we did not learn them in the Bible. 

4. We know that we are right, because all de- 
nominations admit what we say. The only doubt is 
upon men's additions. 

There is one God. All respond, ''Correct." 
Christ is the Hon of God. "Correct." 
The Holy Ghost is the Spirit of God. "Correct." 
The Bible is the Word of God. "Correct." 
The Mediator is between God and men. "Correct." 
The Bible is the only perfect creed. "Correct." 
Jesus died for all. "Correct." 
We must repent. "Correct." 
We must believe. "Correct." 
We must be converted. "Correct." 
We must obey the Lord. "Correct." 
Immersion is baptism. "Correct." 
We pray for union. "Correct." 
We fellowship all saints. "Correct." 
We must hold out faithful. "Correct." 
There is judgment after death. "Correct." 
And eternal life. "Correct." — Rev. N. Summerbell 
D. 73., Herald of Gospel Liberty, September 8, 1877. 


There Is and Can Be no Antagonism 

There is and can he no antagonism between God. 
Christ, the Bible, and Conscience. They are all on 
the same side. Beader, which side are you on? If 
you are on that side, you are then on the side of 
victory and everlasting blessedness. But if you 
oppose these, then be forewarned of the dreadful 
fact that it is but a question of a little time when 
you will be overwhelmed in irretrievable ruin. — 
Rev. Thos. M. McWhinney, D. D., Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, November 30, 1878. 

Christian Union 

We may formally receive a man into the church, 
and give him the right hand in token of fellowship, 
but unless we believe he is a Christian, it is not 
Christian fellowship, but mere church fellowship. 
That is, we fellowship him because he is a member 
of our church, and not because he is a Christian. 
Many indeed make baptism a test of fellowship. 
but it cannot be Christian fellowship, for they know 
many who have been baptized, besides Simon the 
sorcerer, who, like him, were not Christians; and 
a church made solely on those two tests would not 
be a Christian church, but a creed church, or a 
Baptist church. In Christian fellowship we 
fellowship a man solely because he is a 
Christian, and not because he adopts our 
creed, nor because he has been sprinkled, or 
immersed, or baptized at all. To be consistent, 
if we make immersion the test, we must Hold, as 
many do, that there are no unimmersed Christians; 
and yet they, themselves, would not baptize a man 



unless he professed to love God and believe in the 
Lord Jesus. Now John says, "Every one that loveth 
is bom of God, and knowcth God." I. John 4:7. 
And "Whosoever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, 
is born of God." I John 5:1. Is he not then a 
Christian when he is born of God, and that before 
they will baptize him? Now what will become of 
the loving believer in Jesus, if he dies before he is 
baptized? If he goes to heaven, according to this 
theory, an unpardoned sinner goes there. And if 
he goes to hell, according to John, a child of God 
goes there. Let us blush at a test that is so ex- 
clusive, unreasonable, unscriptnral, and dishonora- 
ble to God. For if true, it would consign to per- 
dition many of the most pious and devoted men of 
our race who have been a blessing to the church anrl 
to the world, and who, in the service of Christ, have 
suffered the tortures of the rack, joyfully embraced 
the stake, and triumphed over death through faith 
in their dear Redeemer. — Iter. Elijah Williamson, 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, May 1, 1880. 

Secret Prayer 

But thou, when thou prayest, outer into thy closet, ;iml 
when thou hast shut thy door, pray to thy Father which is 
in secret, and thy Father which seeth in secret shall re- 
ward thee openly. — Jesus. 

Here is a command and a promise given to the 
children of men. All may claim them, but there are 
many who reject them and live without prayer and 
the Father's blessing. However, we esteem it a 
grand, precious, heaven-given privilege to enter into 


it " mJL 


' -• '^: .< " » ""- 

K tt) 






Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 
1S7S— 1881 


the closet and there humbly bow in the presence of 
the Father and unbosom all the desires of our heart. 
We could not do this in the public congregation; 
not but what we may and do pray with as much true 
devotion and fervency of spirit as when in secret, 
but there would be impropriety in revealing all our 
heart-yearnings and the confidence reposed in us by 
those who have so earnestly besought us to remember 
them at the throne of grace. 

The sick and the afflicted, the sad and weary, the 
lonely and bereaved, the oppressed and distressed, 
and the mourner in Zion, all find great comfort in 
secret prayer. And why not? For the Father is 
there, Jesus is there, and the comforting influence 
of the Holy Spirit is there — it is a sacred place. 
The Father verifies His promise — strength and peace 
and blessing are given to those seeking souls. The 
Father whispers, "7 love thee;' "I will strengthen 
iiiid bless thee" "7 am thy God and will still give 
thee aid." Tears may fall, and nature weep, but a 
sweet peace fills the heart — a heavenly peace, that 
which passeth understanding. Oh, how we love 
the sacred words that fell from the Savior's lips! 
— Rev. Rebecca Kershner, Herald of Gospel Liberty, 
August 28, 1880. 

The Christian Life 

The Christian life may truly be characterized as 
a continual prayer to God. The soul that is full 
of Ihe love of God, and has come into reconciliation 
with Him through faith in Jesus Christ, has no 
loftier ambition, no higher aspiration, no purer de- 


Editor Christian Sun 



sire, than that of continual personal communion 
with God. — Rev. Thos. M. McWhinney, D. D., Herald 

of Gospel Liberty, January 21, 1881. 

Evidences of the Right 

The long and rapid steps of our present Chris- 
tian civilization are but the measure of increased 
charity for those who differ in Bible interpretation. 
And this fact is a standing miracle in favor of the 
proposition that the broad Christian charity of 
the "Christians" is Christlike, and hence calls loud- 
ly for the friends of such charity to rush to the 
rescue of our God-honored undertaking. Every 
grand movement which tends directly to advance 
the heavenly kingdom, works alike to increase in- 
telligence and broaden the charities of our being. 
Only "let there be light," for our cause to be loved 
has but to be seen. — Rev. Thos. 31. McWhinney, 
D. D.. Herald of Gospel Liberty, February 10. 1881. 

Too Small to do Anything 
As a denomination we have despised the day of 
small things. Because we could not send a Spnr- 
geon or a Beecher to our cities, we have sent no one. 
Because we could not send missionaries to China, 
Japan and other places, we have been contented to 
send them nowhere. Because we cannot have an 
Oxford or a Yale, we thought that it was demanded 
by self-interest that our children be sent to the 
schools of another denomination. After a few years 
some of our young men of promise have concluded 
that we sent tliem to the right place and they have 
cast in their own lots with others. 


We have shamefully neglected the various enter- 
prises on which the success of our church depends. 
We seem to have forgotten that the single cell is 
capable of more development than the already de- 
veloped series of cells — that there is such a thing 
as self-growth and that this is nature's plan of de- 
velopment. The highest type of life is the result 
of the self-growth of the single cell. One cell grows 
until it divides into two, and the two divide into 
four, and so on, until the result is the full grown 
plant or animal. The church must develop in the 
same way. One church grows until it develops into 
two, the two into four, and so on. One active enter- 
prise opens the way for another. One live man in 
an enterprise arouses others to activity. Self- 
growth begins and the result is a flourishing organi- 
zation. We have failed to develop our own organi- 
zation. We have traveled, preached, and labored, and 
others have reaped largely from our harvest fields. 
It is commendable to aid others, but unpardonable 
to neglect our own church. — Rev lb. T. Walker, 
Christian Sun, September 16, 1 881. 

The Pulpit 

Among the many responsible positions of life, 
that of a gospel minister stands pre-eminently at 
the head. Those who strive to maintain the majesty 
of the law by securing justice and equity to all 
men are in a noble calling. He who seeks to make 
wholesome laws and a salutary government is a 
benefactor to his race. That .profession whose ob- 
ject is to unfold and disseminate knowledge and 
truth is productive of great good. Each of these, 


together with others, are important factors in good 
government; but the calling of the pulpit outshines 
them all in the bent and luster of its objects. In 
the conflict with atheism, skepticism, agnosticism, 
and the isms that engage men's thoughts, the pulpit 
stands almost alone in waging a defensive warfare. 
To-day it stands the most potent, the most inde- 
pendent, and the most erective agency against the 
bold attack upon Christianity and the Bible. Stand- 
ing at the head of all great reforms, it makes an 
unceasing war against all forms of immorality 
and vice. The paramount object of the pulpit is 
to preach the sublime principles of Christianity — 
principles that furnish the highest incentives to 
moral and upright actions. — Rev. W. H. Orr, Herald 
of Gospel Liberty, June 9, 1881. 

The Aim of the Christian Movement 
Every successful religious society, or organiza- 
tion, must have some well-defined purpose which 
it seeks to accomplish. An aimless movement falls 
to pieces for want of common interests and common 
ends. An end that is at all worthy of being attained 
can be reached only by overcoming opposing forces. 
There is always something to oppose as well as 
something to favor. He who opposes nothing, fav- 
ors nothing. Sin and evil in all their forms stand 
opposed to righteousness and truth. It is a peculiar 
and universal characteristic of sin that it seeks to in- 
trench itself within the camps of those who claim 
to be the Lord's hosts, and to wage its deadliest 
battles beneath the standard of (he Lord's anointed. 
Jesus' severest conflicts were not with publicans 


Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 



and harlots, but with the scribes and the Pharisees 
— with sin and wickedness that had intrenched it- 
self in the ecclesiasticism of the times. The early 
church found its bitterest foes among the leaders 
of the prevailing religions of the world. Neither 
the violent bigotry of Judaism nor the heartless 
cruelty of heathenism was able to stay its progress 
nor hinder its growth. It was not until Christiani 
ty had acquired so much of power and position in 
the world as to make an alliance with it desirable 
as a means of power and influence that its opponents 
began to ask for compromise. After the compromise 
was once commenced it progressed with wonderful 
rapidity. To Christ was given the honor of the 
name, while He and the apostles were made the 
chief heroes. In the spirit and the forms of wor- 
ship the pagan influence largely predominated. 
When Luther nailed his theses to the door of Wit- 
tenberg, his conflict began not with men who made 
no profession of faith in Christ, but with the pope 
and his cardinals, who assumed to be the vicar of 
( !hrist and the guardians of His church. Protestant- 
ism was a protest. It could get itself place in the 
world only by shoving something else aside. Sin 
in all its forms is insidious and plausible. It wants 
no better victory than a truce. The white flag is 
the signal of its triumph. — Rev. Asa W. Goan, 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, January 5, 1882. 

The Spirit of the Truth 

There is a skepticism that is apparently honest, 
and strong in its argumentative antagonism to the 
Bible, the church, and religion. There is an un- 

REV. C. J. JONES, I). D. 

Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 



belief which may be voiced by careful moral men 
like Eobert Owen, of Scotland, or by reckless blas- 
phemers like Ingersoll ; but you will observe that 
their opposition, for the most part, is directed 
against the inconsistencies of professors, the haughty 
arrogance of the priestly class, the spirit of sectism, 
and the narrow intolerance of the popular systems 
of theology. 

We risk nothing when we challenge the world to 
produce a man who can rationally and philosophical- 
ly maintain his opposition to the spirit and genius 
of the gospel of Jesus Christ. If it be true that a 
man cannot oppose freedom, tenderness, helpful- 
ness, wisdom, truth, and love, as these are imperfect- 
ly manifested among men, without dishonor and 
disgrace as an irrational babbler, and an enemy to 
society, how can he antagonize the perfect freedom, 
universal tenderness and helpfulness, infinite wis- 
dom, truth, and love, which breathes all through 
the gospel, and at the same time escape the charge 
of mental imbecility on the one hand, or insane 
malignity upon the other? — Rev. C. J. Jones, D. D ., 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, February 26, 1885. 

Picking Bones 

A friend of mine related a little incident that I 
thought would be good enough to put in type. He 
said lie knew a skeptic who one day encountered a 
gospel minister of his acquaintance, and, as usual, 
he began to pick flaws in the Bible. The minister 
said to him : "When you go into a restaurant and 


call for fish, do you occupy your time — especially 
if you feel hungry — in picking over the bones and 
leave the nicely cooked food?" The skeptic had 
to admit the force of the illustration. How strange 
it is that any one can be so foolish as to reject a 
loving Savior who so earnestly desires to convert 
them from evil ways to purity and holiness, without 
which we are told no one can see God. — J. E. Brush. 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, March 5, 1885. 

A Religion That Can Be Felt 

We often hear the expression made, in common 
parlance, "I would not give a cent for a religion 
that I cannot feel." We are convinced that many 
persons have false conceptions of religion, growing 
out of a mere sensational feeling forced upon them 
by their immediate surroundings, which, like seed 
sown among thorns, is choked by the cares and 
trifling things of earth, and produces no fruit. 

A religion that is felt by reason of deep-rooted 
love in the heart for that which is pure and holy, 
and a continuous walk with God day by day, so 
that the inbreathings of the heart are, "Nearer, my 
God, to Thee, nearer to Thee," is a religion that pro- 
duces the fruits of the Spirit, which are love, joy, 
peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, 
meekness, temperance. This is a religion that is not 
only felt, but that, when passing through the cru- 
cible of the world's trials and persecutions, will 
only brighten. This is a religion that brings us 
nearer to God and to humanity ; that bows us down 


to human woe and human suffering, and lends them 
a hand to lift them up, and pours the oil of glad- 
ness into the sad and despondent heart. This is a 
religion that so unites us with the good of this world 
and the world to come "that neither death, nor 
life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor 
things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor 
depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to sep- 
arate us from the love of God which is in Christ 
Jesus our Lord." — Rev. W. C. Smith, Herald of Gos- 
pel Liberty, March 19, 1885. 

The Kind We Don't Want 
When a minister is in search of popularity and 
a big salary, I don't blame him for leaving the 
Christian Church and going to some other denomi- 
nation. He can't be a success in the Christian Church, 
and is not needed among us. We want ministers 
whose chief aim is to save souls — ministers who are 
willing to preach the gospel to the poor, even for 
a small salary. Men who are after large salaries 
may get their reward. I honor the minister who 
labors to save souls, and will not leave a field of 
usefulness for "filthy lucre's sake." — Rev. H. M. 
Eaton, Herald of Gospel Liberty, August 27, 1885. 

Baccalaureate Address 

Live in Christ, for Christ, and like Christ. The 
doctrine of physics is that the pulsation on the 
atmosphere occasioned by the human voice, will 
never cease. Not a word has escaped from mortal 
lips, whether for the defense of virtue or the per- 
version of truth, but is registered on high. The 

Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 
1888 — 1894 


light ever true to its mission daguerreotypes the 
movement and attitude of man. Late discoveries 
prove that a similar process is going on in the 
dark hours of night, as certainly as at noonday. 
Thus nature daguerreotypes every smile which 
passes over the face, and every position we assume, 
whether asleep or awake. The secrets of men's 
hearts are likewise preserved. Our uttered thoughts, 
animating the body, send an electric charge along 
the nerves and impress themselves upon the ma- 
terial world around us. In view of such facts we may 
exclaim with the apostle. "We are a spectacle unto 
the world and to angels and to men."' We live in a 
sounding gallery, in which reverberate perpetually 
the echoes of our words, and along whose walls hang 
the pictures of our actions, the truthful photographs 
of our lives. We cannot live to ourselves. Every 
life is a constant force molding men into the like- 
ness of Jesus, or developing in them the attributes 
of evil. To develop the Christian, its principles, 
its power must be in the soul. A" positive, earnest 
life, not a hollow imitation, is the want of our 
times. Do not turn back to the past and select any 
human life as a pole-star to guide you in your 
course. Let them serve as pointers in finding ''the 
bright and Morning Star." — Rev. D. A. Lour/. D. D„ 
LL.D., President of Antioch College, in Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, September 3, 1885. 

The Weight of the Word 
There is a possibility that on some lines too 
much may be said for the Holy Bible, but we would 
rather see an exaggerated praise of the Book, if such 


praise were possible, than to see an underestimate 
thereof. We doubt if any harm can come of intense 
admiration for the Book as a whole, and we would 
not by a hair's breadth lessen this hold of the Book 
on the heart of the world. 

We regard the Bible as God's Book to man, both 
the Old Testament and the New, and while we so 
accept it, we so urge it upon our fellows. Only as 
the Book is so regarded by a people, do we believe 
it possible for them to lift the world out of its 
moral degradation and into the active service of the 
holy life. Abandoning this agency as inherently 
divine, we think they are without a lever for human 

The ancient civilizations wrought without the Word 
as an agency, and they failed to lift man, either 
into a knowledge of the true God, or into the high- 
er walks of the moral life. Some, we know, 
have an intense admiration for the refinement of 
Greece, the glory of Borne, and the wisdom of 
Babylonia, but if we may judge these civilizations 
by their fruits, they surely were wanting in those 
higher moral elements which characterize the civili- 
zation of our age. 

The aged were often without care; the child 
might live or die as the father pleased to decree, 
and he of another nation, taken in war, was a 
slave and subject to death itself at the will of his 
master, while woman had little favor save as the 
slave of man. Very few of the legislators of Bome 
could say. "My hands are innocent of human blood." 

Infidelity is no moral lifting power. It can bring 
the night, but it cannot waken the dav. It can 


open the grave and bury the form without a word 
of consolation, or ability to wake the soul into one 
hopeful aspiration. It can do nothing for man — it 
has never done anything for him. 

But the Bible, God's Book and man's guide, com- 
fort and illumination — this can soothe his sorrow, 
lighten his gloom, lift him out of sin and its con- 
demnation, bring to light life and immortality, and 
waft the soul at last on angel wings through gates 
of pearl into streets of gold, where companionship 
with the redeemed may fill the soul with an abiding 
ecstacy. The blessed Book ! God's Word and man's 
chiefest treasure! Praise the Lord for it! The 
worth of the Word cannot be told ! — Rev. J. P. Wat- 
son, D. /)., Herald of Gospel Liberty, March 5, 

The Train That Follows 

Our actions in this world do not fall lifeless 
to the ground to be seen and heard of no more. 
They are used to make up a train of miscellaneous 
cars, either of happiness, or woe and misery, ac- 
cording to the deeds performed. 

As the wicked man adds new acts of evil, his 
train grows longer and more desperate in its on- 
ward course. But as the righteous take on from 
God's stations the holy commands given from above, 
their train increases in length, and more smoothly 
runs toward the heavenly station, taking on bright, 
singing passengers all the way. 

On this railroad to the future world, whenever 
the wicked are turned to the past by memory's cord, 


Editor Christian Sun 


they see and hear the desperate trains coming with 
the passengers on board, drinking, cheating, gamb- 
ling, cursing and veiling after the man in front. 
And every one has his own train after him. If they 
continue on this track of sin, they will finally land 
in the lake that burns with fire and brimstone with 
all this hellish train of misery falling headlong upon 
them. And there can be no end to this suffering, 
but always on the increase; for every engine is pull- 
ing a train of cars of some kind behind it. 

The only way for the wicked to escape from the 
miserable train which they have tied to themselves, 
is to pull out the coupling pin and jump on the 
other track. They are now on the trade of sin. 
Let them cut loose and swing in on the track of 
righteousness, and they will dart into heaven leav- 
ing the train on the other track. 

The idea mentioned above respecting the wicked, 
gives birth to a thought of the most pleasant kind 
on the other hand. As the righteous look back 
on the train that follows them continually, they 
see acts of kindness and mercy being done, benevo- 
lent institutions going up, and the hungry fed. 
Moreover, they hear singing and praise going up to 
Him who so loved us as to give His only begotten 
Son to redeem us. 

At heaven's gates, as the saints come, every one 
brings a glorious train. And as we stand out on 
the top of some mansion, we see these saints con- 
tinually passing in, bringing new trains of honor and 
glory. And as we are mutually dependent upon 
each other here, so all these trains running into 
heaven are in some way connected by various threads 


of influence by some means interwoven among them- 

When we see ourselves thus united together in 
love as one grand whole, we get a better idea of 
the followers of Christ being one. May we always 
remember that as the nerves permeate every part 
of the body, so the threads of Christian influence 
run all through the body of Christ, and the church. 
— Rev. W. G. Clements, in Christian Sun, March 17, 

The Men of Pisgah 

Can you think of some veteran preacher, resting 
by reason of age and weakness within his home, 
who may have faithfully served you in years gone 
by? Sit down in the spirit of a grateful love and 
cheer him in his loneliness by telling him of your 
sweet memories of his faithful and blessed work. 
There is no sorrow to the veteran of the cross like 
being laid aside while he is waiting for the Master's 
coming. Think of him ! Write him a letter of love, 
and you will kindle a flame of joy in a weary heart. 

It is one of the saddest things imaginable for the 
churches to turn aside from their old men who are 
yet competent to serve them and are ambitious to do 
so. Who can preach the gospel as the men of 
Pisgah? With tenderest sympathy and a love im- 
measurable, they look back upon the wilderness 
plains no less easily. Why should not the churches 
comfort the veterans by listening to their words of 
love and wisdom ? Should the love happen to abound 
beyond the wisdom, then all the sweeter their speech. 
No pulpit should be sealed against the bright- 


minded and warm-hearted veteran of the cross. — 
Rev. J. P. Watson, D. D., Herald of Gospel Liberty, 
March 24, 1892. 

Life Interpreting Life 

Our perception of the qualities of God and our 
love for Him grow always in proportion to our 
growth in the character of God. We appreciate 
that only of which we find some interpretation in 
ourselves. It is talk against time to preach poetry 
to one that has no poetry in his own soul. He does 
not understand you. Here is a man that has the 
artistic instincts in a very full measure. He is in 
a frenzy to utter himself in forms of art. He denies 
himself, starves himself in every other direction, 
that he may give himself to his one great passion. 
But the people around him are of a different mind. 
They are for material gain and luxury; they appre- 
ciate only objective thrift; and they wonder at the 
eccentricities of the artist. His life seems idle and 
useless to them. They cannot understand him any 
more than the man born blind can understand what 
you mean when you talk about colors. 

Or here is one whose emotional nature is like a 
delicate stringed instrument, giving forth exquisite 
music. He is as sensitive as an Aeolian harp. He 
is open, generous, pitiful, pouring himself forth in 
ail beautiful and tender services. His neighbors 
are differently constituted. They are cold, calcula- 
ting; they are all head, and their natures are angu- 
lar and forbidding. They have no point of view 
from which to understand him, and he remains a 


Editor Herald of Gospel Liberty 


mystery to them. It requires soul to interpret 
soul. Heart responds to heart. 

We cannot understand that which is above us, ex- 
cept as it comes into our experiences. We know 
anything only as it becomes a part of ourselves. 
This runs all through life, and is everywhere mani- 
fest. It is not worth while for any one to fret be- 
cause some persons do not appreciate his finest as- 
pirations. He must be content, if need be, to stand 
alone on the side of the angels. 

We love God just in the degree that we have 
risen in our characters to a resemblance to Him. 
We may be told that God is love and patience and 
magnanimity, but these things will be meaningless 
to us unless we have felt them in our own lives. 
God reveals Himself to men, not arbitrarily, but by 
living into them. The pure in heart shall see God. 
— Rev. George D. Black, Herald of Gospel Liberty. 
March 23, 1893. 

"For All His Benefits" 

"What shall I render unto the Lord?" 
If I must make a return for his benefits as a 
mass, I am simply overwhelmed with confusion. 
For I have nothing to set over against his infinite 

If I consider them severally, the items bring me 
into similar confusion ; for each benefit seems to 
baffle my sense of fairness, if I would try to com- 
pensate God for the gift: I cannot pay him for 
the light, the water, the food, the insight into truth, 
the endowment of affection, the circumstances of 


civil and spiritual law. If I would render to God 

some compensation for the flowers that delight my 

eyes, I find that in the plucking of them I have broken 

their petals, and they wither while I prepare to 

make them an offering unto God. He gave them to 

me perfect, sweet, lovely; I return them to him 

faded, odorless, and broken. He gives me an apple , 

I bite it, even while I offer it back to him. Mighty 

wealth he gives me, and I, in my pride, call the 

attention of men to my liberality to God, if I give 

him back a tenth ; I keep nine-tenths for myself, 

and feel that I am rendering something to God for 

all his benefits, if I give him one share, — "for all 

his benefits." 

Realizing the futility of efforts to give anything 

to God, in return for his mercies, the poet sings : 

Here, Lord, I give myself away ; 
"lis all that I can do. 

But even in that we might be considered as mak- 
ing a sorry mess of our "rendering" unto God. For 
lie gave us pure hearts, white as snow, clear as the 
sunshine. We "give ourselves away," when we are 
desperate; our hearts stained, sore, bruised by sin, 
defaced by many transgressions, poisoned and dy- 
ing. In sheer desperation we make our gifts to 
God, when we "give ourselves away :" we have no 
other hope; we are lost. 

Wonderful compensation to God ! 

God owns us, anyhow. In giving ourselves to 
him, we have only been tendering him his own; 
but so soiled, so injured, so hideous to behold; so 
unlike our natural selves, so unlike our child-begin- 


Surely God will not feel that this is compensation 
for all his benefits, and that our obligations are 
discharged ! 

Let us drop the commercial idea ; let us cease to 
think of rendering an equivalent to God "for all 
his benefits." 

What then can we do? 

Remember God's disposition; his loving nature. 
It pleases him for us thankfully to receive his 
benefits, without thought of compensating him. He 
is so great. How can we surely please him? 

Well, if we have had nine benefits, let us take 
the tenth. If we have had ninety-nine, let us take 
the hundredth. If we have had nine hundred and 
ninety-nine, let us take the thousandth ; all the time 
stretching forth our hands for anything that is 
left. Let us clamor like children. Let us besiege; 
let us be importunate ; let us "be instant in prayer." 
That will please him: how delightedly he will feed 
us; how he will smile when we take his food. 

He does not wish to deny us one thing. 

We arc liis heirs, needing one blessing so much. 
Oh! here is the cup offered us, the one thing; the 
tenth added to the nine, the hundredth added to the 
ninety-nine, the thousandth added to the nine hun- 
dred and ninety-nine! — the "cup of salvation." And 
"for all his benefits'' I will "render unto the Lord" 
this additional thing; that "I will take the cup of 
salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord." 
IPs. 116:12-13.) 

It; is safer to take something more, from so loving 
a being, than to try to pay him for what we have 


received. — Rev. J. J. Summerbell, D. D., Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, July 2, 1896. 

The Resurrection of Jesus Christ 

The resurrection of Jesus Christ confounded the 
popular church of the time. 

It was the incentive to the conversion of thou- 

The church that believed it was a church of 
prayer, of preaching, of success in winning men 
from sin. 

That church was thoroughly alive. 

The church that doubts it is dead. Its regalia 
are burial shrouds; its solemnity is of the funeral, 
and its grand organ music but a funeral march. 

The church that doubts the resurrection may 
boast a service of pomp, substituting operatic 
screaming for the praise of God, poetry — "essays 
for sermons," and a complicated ritual for worship ; 
but it will "measure its success, not by the number 
of its converts," but by "the payment of its preach- 
er's salary." 

Come out of the tomb. Cast aside your grave- 
clothes of worldliness, and come forth to a new life 
in Christ, the Son of God. — Rev. J. J. Summerbell, 
D. D., Herald of Gospel Liberty, March 80, 1899. 

A Great Need — The Holy Spirit 

Be filled with the spirit. Epli. 5:18. 

How much more shall your heavenly Father give the 
Holy Spirit to them that ask Him. Luke 11:13. 

Every true Christian must feel something of the 
great need that exists in our home churches and 


mission fields for genuine revivals, revivals that 
shall cause a "shaking among the dry bones;" that 
will drive back the high tide of worldliness and 
materialism that is engulfing so many Christians; 
that will break up the dead formality that in too 
many cases characterizes religious services, and in- 
fuse new life into the churches, making them real 
"lights in the world" and soul winners for the king- 

During these winter months many pastors, evan- 
gelists and churches, are engaged in special services 
for the quickening of the church and the salvation 
of men. Let there be humiliation, heart-searching 
and waiting before the Lord for a larger indwelling 
and manifestation of the Holy Spirit. To every 
faithful watchman and spiritually-minded Chris- 
tian it must seem more and more evident that 
Christianity, in this materialistic and exciting age 
and in our complex and exacting civilization, can 
succeed only by its supernatural power. As preachers, 
missionaries, churches, or individuals, we may sug- 
gest, plan, organize, and muster our forces, and 
work as we may, but the power of God is the one fac- 
tor without which there can be no real success. This 
fact is not realized as it should be. Human agency 
must be used ; but human agency must be coupled 
with, and made subservient to, the divine agency. 
It was only when the apostles "were filled with the 
Holy Ghost," "endued with power from on high/' 
and "spake as the Spirit gave them utterance," 
that the people were moved as by one mighty im- 
pulse to cry out, "Men and brethren, what shall 
we do?" and multitudes were converted. (Acts 


2:37.) In that Pentecostal revival there was 
doubtless some excitement. With them it was not 
a mere quiet meditation, neither was it a gentle 
sobbing, but "they were pricked in their heart," 
and cried out, "What shall we do?" Suppose there 
was some excitement ; it seems to us that if there 
is anything in this world that is calculated to make 
one tremble, and fall down, and cry out, "Sirs, what 
must I do to be saved?" (Acts 16:29, 30.) it is 
when the Spirit carries conviction to one's own 
heart that he is a sinner and under the condemna- 
tion of death. (John 16 : 8, and 3 : 18) . And, then, 
why should it be thought strange, if when one's sins 
are forgiven and he is made every whit whole and 
the joy of the Lord comes into his soul, he should do 
a little "walking, and leaping, and praising God." 
(Acts 3:8). But this was not all mere excitement, 
for these Pentecostal Christians "continued stead- 
fastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and 
in breaking of bread, and in prayers." Spirit-born 
Christians are likely to be in the mid-week prayer- 
meetings following the revival. 

A service in which the power of God is manifest 
may possess some things counted irregular and out 
of the usual order. The Spirit of the Lord is not 
bound to work according to our human rules and 
methods. It is a criticism of many church serv- 
ices of to-day that they have nothing unusual, but 
always the same routine, prosy and tame. No fire. 
No enthusiasm. God is the God of life, and where 
His children are dominated, inspired and led by 
the Holy Spirit there will be life, and this life may 
express itself in a variety of ways and forms. Like 


the lightnings that play in the heavens, shooting 
this way and then that way, so the Spirit of God 
operating in the minister and the congregation, will 
refuse to be tied down by human customs and regu- 
lations. When these last named assert themselves, 
holding check on all manifestations of vigorous life 
and action, Christian effort will remain, as in many 
places it now is, powerless to combat the tide of 
worldly interest, excitement and prosperity that is 
now reducing Christianity to a profession, and the 
church to a clubroom or a place of entertainment. 

What is more interesting, more enlivening, more 
inviting, more stirring than the realization of divine 
power in connection with religious work? The 
writer heard Dr. Willingham, of Richmond, Va., 
tell of a brother minister who held special meetings 
the week previous to taking their missionary offer- 
ings. Much time was given to prayer that they 
might be filled with the Holy Spirit, and their 
hearts prepared for the contemplated offering. 
Their prayers were offered (Luke 11:13); the 
Spirit was given. While in the meeting there was 
a marked stillness, there was a deep feeling; the 
souls of the people were full ; hearts were melted ; 
and tears of joy flowed from the eyes of believers. 

A man of the world was present who seldom 
attended religious meetings, and with astonishment 
exclaimed: "I never saw the like of this before. Is 
this religion? If this is religion it is just what the 
world wants." Ah, yes; it is a religion of life. 
warmth and {tower that the world needs and the 
world wants. * 

A thousand dollars was the missionary offerin;: 


Paul was a missionary, an evangelist, a builder 
of churches. He was a learned man. a philosopher, 
a logician, a Scripturian, a tln j olo^ian. While these 
gifts ami graces were doubtless all helpful to him, 
he depended on none of them. He says: "My speech 
and my preaching was not with enticing words of 
man's wisdom, lair in demonstration of the Spirit 
and (if ] H >wer.*' 

In. Wayland's ministry was spiritual and fruit- 
ful in conversions almost weekly. One Sunday 
morning while the organist was playing the open- 
ing voluntary, iia j pastor failed to enter the pulpit 
by the side door from the study below, as was his 
usual custom. One of the brethren, fearing some- 
thing was wrong, went below and found the minister 
prostrate mi the floor in pleading prayer. The bur- 
den of his prayer was for the manifestation of the 
presence and power of the Holy Spirit in that 
service. After a time having obtained assurance 
of the answer, lie entered his pulpit, and twenty 
souls were converted under that sermon. 

fur a ministry set mi fire of the Holy Spied 
Ami lei Tim pew cry out: '"'Though we have eloquence. 
culture, wealth, social standing, all these are naught 
unless God manifests Himself in our midst." Given 
these in our churches and mission fields, there will 
In- revivals, souls saved, churches built up. and God 

Tii, he would gro.n1 yon b l>< strengthened with might 
by his spirit in th< inner man: that < hrist may dwell in 
your hearts by faith. Eph. 3:1G. 17. 

Then the people rejoiced, for tha day they offered will- 
irgly. because with a perfect he rt they offered willingly 
unto the Lord. I Chron. 20:0. — Rev. J. m Bishop, D.D., 
i ',', i ifitian Missionary. Jan uary, l . ■" .' 


One of the Greatest Hindrances 

One of the greatest hindrance's to the general enterprises 
of the church to-day is localization. 

For a long time we have realized this fact, and 
have endeavored to bring about a change, to the 
end that all our general work might take on new 
life, and that the cause of Christ might be more 
materially strengthened. 

It is "centrifugal" rather than "centripetal'' ef- 
fort that widens our influence and increases our 
field of activity in the Master's service. Certainly. 
we should centralize rather than dissipate our ef- 
forts, but the centralization should be upon the 
general rather than the local good. Look after the 
local work, to be sure, but mainly as a means to a 
larger end. If we, as a church, would but realize 
this fact we would see such a quick, vigorous, luxuri- 
ant growth in all phases of our work as we have 
never seen before. 

We have preachers who always subordinate the 
general welfare of the church to that of their own 
local organizat ions. They quote and twist To suit the 
occasion a; id their inclinations that old adage, * k < 'hari 
ty begins at home," and they live up to it more rigid- 
ly than they do the precepts of the Bible which 
l hey profess to follow. We have no patience with, 
and no faith in, that pastor who says: "I just can't 
get up anything much for home missions, foreign 
missions, education, and the like — we have just 
about all we can stand up under to keep up the 
work in our own church" — meaning by this the 
little Ideal organization which he is pretending to 
serve, and which very properly keeps him always 


"in a fidget" about his salary. He is not worth a 

We have heard of preachers who go to conference, 
and even parade the fact that "every cent of my 
salary has been paid," and can sit still, without a 
blush, and hear their church letter read showing 
a deficit, many times a very large one, in the funds 
brought up for the various enterprises of the church. 
Yea, more than this, some time ago we heard of a 
preacher in our church boasting of the fact that 
his local church had "over-paid" his salary — and a 
reference to the conference records showed that this 
church, that same over-paying-salary church, had 
in every instance fallen short, far short, in the 
amounts contributed to the various enterprises of 
the church. Now, we do not know that we were 
correctly informed; let us hope that the brother 
who told us was, by some means, mistaken. But, 
if it is true, God pity the church, and God pity the 
preacher. They are "local" sure enough, narrowly, 
selfishly, so — and eventually both will die of self- 
love, life literally burnt out by the fires of selfish- 

And again, there are laymen who profess great 
love for their local church — and perhaps they do a 
little something for it — but you never hear them 
mention the general enterprises of the church. 
They are narrow, self-centered and selfish; and are 
seemingly content to go through the world without 
feeling even the faintest thrill of that larger life 
that comes to him who loves somebody outside of 
himself, outside of his own immediate family; who 


loves humanity, and who strives for the advance- 
ment of Christ's kingdom rather than his own. 

We believe the tidal wave has been started in the 
right direction by those broad-minded, large-hearted, 
humanity-loving ministers who have studied and 
worked together for the general good, and from their 
labors there will pour henceforth an ever-increasing 
stream of influence for the cause of Christ and His 
church into our conferences and churches that will 
help to purify them of some of the narrowness and 
selfishness that has crept into them through un- 
worthy channels. 

If your pastor is interested in, and labors for, the 
local church only, or disproportionately, you had 
better make a change — his salary is the thing that 
is uppermost in his mind. If your church is only 
local in its interest, and you, as pastor, cannot 
teach it the lesson of larger life and duty, you had 
better leave it, and go where your talents may be 
better employed — "Ephraim is joined to his idols." 
Their vision is bounded by four walls, and their 
ideas are in their pocketbooks. 

Let us love our local church and work for it with 
a zeal that becomes an interested and worthy mem- 
ber. And on the other hand, let us love the general 
enterprises of the church at large and labor for 
their strengthening as becomes a Christian who loves 
his fellowman and his God as Christ has loved him. 
— E. L. Moffitt, LL. />.. in the Christian Run. 

Not by Might nor by Power 
There is in our generation a growing idolatry of 
military glory and conquest. We desire to be the 

Editor Christian Vanguard 



possessors of the vastesl empire that has been — one 
upon which the sun never sets. We ought to be- 
ware of this lust of imperialism, for it is not the 
great militant empires that have contributed most 
to the world's progress. A small nation may possess. 
if not the arms thai conquer, the ideas and resources 
that lay the universe under tribute. Such is the 
lesson of history, and over and over again have 
aggressive kingdoms been forced to repent in sack 
cloth and ashes. 

It is one thing to admit that there are certain 
causes for which a Christian may properly unsheath 
his sword; it is another thing to claim that war 
in itself is better for a nation than peace, and that 
we ought to look chiefly to mighty armaments on 
land and sea as the great instruments for the 
spread of civilization and Christianity. No nation 
needs to sacrifice life in Avar to be truly great. 
Rather do the ravagings and cruelties of war ob- 
literate the divinity that is the birthright of all 

The forerunner of -lesns Christ was not Samson, 
but John the Baptist. The kingdom of God cometh 
not wiih observation, with acquisition, nor with sub- 
j ligation. If ;ill the territory of this great round 
earth were to-day subject to one conquering em- 
peror, no matter though the cross were blazoned on 
his banner and on his throne, the kingdom of 
heaven would not be one whit nearer. "Not by 
might nor by power, but by "my Spirit saith the 
Lord of Hosts.*" Thai is the message of Chris- 
tianity. A literature that is Christian must ex- 
act love and that loyal obedience that springs 


Editor Christian Messenger 


R E L I ( i IOUS J O U R N A L1SM 233 

therefrom. It must check and reprove the thirst 
for conquest as well as the confidence of brute force. 
It must firmly vindicate and commend righteous- 
ness, and fair dealing and kindness. The simple 
proclamation of the truth must be depended upon 
to bring nigh a better age and teach all the tribes 
of the earth to dwell together in peace. 

"By the soul, only, the nations shall be great 
and free." — J. N. Dales, in Christian Vanguard. 

Character Self=Revealing 

Character is self-revealing, and men are known by 
their manner of life. Our human names and our 
way of doing things become synonymous. We can- 
not hide our real selves; and to speak a name is 
to recall that for which the life is given. Rocke- 
feller and money, Napoleon and war, Shakespeare 
and literature, Lincoln and freedom, Jesus and 
righteousness, is the order of the world. The teach- 
er knows her pupil by his work; the nation knows 
the citizen by his care for its interests; and the 
church knows its members by their attitude towards 
Christian work. 

If this is true, it becomes us to make our manner 
of life worth while. We need to hold fast to the 
good that has been given room in our lives in the 
past. Many fail in this. The child loses its in- 
nocency, and the young man neglects to practice the 
virtues of his early training, and begins the down- 
ward way. Every one who plans to succeed, must 
tighten his grip on the virtues already his. He 

>34 T HE ( ' E N T E N N I A L r » F 

must do more. He must plan to widen his useful- 
ness. This is the method of the Bible. Jesus so in- 
vites us. and every accepted invitation is a decision 
to enter a larger life. David's watchers knew 
Ahimaaz by The way he ran. Our gait should reveal 
our discipleship with Christ. And since we cannot 
change the Gospel to fit our lives, we should take 
great care to make our lives meet the Gospel meas- 
ure, both in the work we do, and in the way we do 
it. Tt is something to know the exact nature of 
the things Jesus did. and to give our strength to 
like deeds : but it is more to know His manner of 
life, and To do our own work in the Christ-like way. 
—Eev. Frank H. Peters, The Christian Messenger, 
Sent. 7, 1906. 

A Splen r "i:I Challenge 

Doors are ajar everywhere. But what of it? 
Why so much fuss about it? Men and women, if 
you did but realize it. just this recital of places 
where so much work waits the doing is the most 
splendid challenge and appeal to us the Master 
has ever presented. It challenges us to self-mas- 
tery, that we may lay aside the ••weights*' of every 
sort and lit ourselves for the accomplishment of 
;i Christian's mission. It challenges us to self-denial, 
the catling off of needless indulgences and fur- 
belows. It challenges us in the name of humanity 
to hasten to humanity's rescue, when to turn a deaf 
ear can bear no other interpretation than criminal, 
unchristian indifference, both to duty and humani- 
ty, and God's will. It challenges us to attempt 


something worthy of manhood and womanhood; 
for we have long enough pampered ourselves, served 
our own lusts, centered our attention on chattels 
and things and materiality. This is not worthy 
living. But to make all else subsidiary while Ave 
serve men, while we develop character and civiliza- 
tion, that is worth the effort of true men and 
women. And finally, these open doors all over the 
world challenge us to share in the ultimate con- 
quest and victory of Christianity and the kingdom 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. — Rcr. M. T. Morrill, in 
Christian Missionary, January, 1907. 

With Whom Do You Make Your Investments? 

"If you give the Lord pennies and the devil dol- 
lars, what can you expect in return?" Man's in- 
come is in proportion to the amount invested; where 
he invests his pennies, he receives a penny's reward: 
where he invests his dollars, he receives a dollar's 
reward. A dollar to the devil, a penny to the Lord! 
How many in this world make their investments 
in this proportion! And alas! how many draw their 
interest in the same proportion! How- many pay 
twenty-five, fifty, a hundred, dollars a year for 
whiskey, and — nothing for their church paper, noth 
ing For their college, nothing for their church. Sold 
out to the devil, and signed the contract with your 
own blood! Will not the devil own your children? 

/:. L. Moffltt, LL. IK, in Christian Sun. 


A Policy and a Plea 

It is sometimes asserted that the Christians, as 
a denomination, have no definite policy, stand for 
no definite thing, and represent no specific propo- 
sition ; that we advocate everything in general and 
nothing in particular. 

All such accusations are far of the mark. They 
have in truth no foundation in fact. We are a free 
people, a people who dare to think, speak, and act 
on our several and individual accounts. But the 
Christians nevertheless have a policy, stand upon 
a platform and preach a creed — yes, a creed. This 
editor would not dare to speak for all the churches, 
nor b} T any means for all the brethren. Neverthe- 
less, of all those called Christians we have never 
yet found one who did not at least believe the fol- 
lowing to be true and steadfast, to-wit: 

1. The Lord Jesus Christ is the Head and the only Head 
of the Church. 

2. The name Christian is sufficient and preferable to all 
sectarian names. 

3. The Holy Bible is a sufficient rule of faith and prac- 

//. Christian Character should he the only lest of fellow- 
ship and of church-membership. 

5. The right of private judgment and the liberty of con- 
science is a privilege that should he granted to all. 

What is our creed? The Christ of our Holy 
Bible. In Him is our life centered and He is our 
Head and Master. From Him we would take our 
name, and living in His life we would all be breth- 

Now there are individuals belonging to "the dif- 
ferent churches who may believe more than the 
above; but we have yet to find one who does not 


believe as much as the above. Many believe more; 
none believe less. 

Is there anything indefinite, vague, unreal, im- 
aginary about this? We think not, no more than 
there is about the Word of God itself. That Word 
is broad, liberal, inclusive, full of loving friendship. 
So should all Christians be. 

Because our preachers do not deliver denomina- 
tional discourses, doctrinal and creedal sermons, let 
no one be deceived. We have a belief, we are a 
denomination, advocate a doctrine — that of the Bible 
— and preach a creed — the Word of God. Somehow, 
over a century ago now, these people had enough 
of sectism and doctrinal dogma, and they pursued 
peace and found it. — Rev. J. 0. Atkinson, D. D.. 
in Christian Sun, April 3, 1907. 

Let Us Keep to the Main Line 

A church that shows itself to be a church of 
Jesus Christ must guard well its tendencies — it 
must keep to the main lines of its great purposes. 

The church as an organized institution may have 
important enterprises to foster, but her chief work 
must be found reaching out in four distinct direc- 
tions : 

1. The Church must be Spiritual, or it can be a 
church only in name. If it has only a name, it is 
a dead failure as representing the Lord Jesus Christ 
in the matter of the salvation of the world. The 
day may yet come when churches which are not 
spiritual may be called "clubs," for that is about 

23S T HE C E N T E N N I A L O v 

all they are. The true church., however, will never 
become a "■club," but will go about its work, seeking 
to save the people from sin through Jesus Christ. 
It is essentially spiritual, and as such its chief 
work must ever be along the way of spiritual needs. 
2. The Spiritual Church will be a revival 
church — a soul-saving agency. In this sphere it 
will arise and shine and show forth the glory of 
God in Christ in the winning of the world to Jesus. 
This is a wide field, and to all practical ends, it 
comprehends the fulness of the work of God among 
men. If there is one need above another at this 
time, among us as a people, it is that we become a 
flame of revival fire — pressing to the ends of the 
earth with the gospel message for all men. But 
to do this the church must go forth as a lamp that 
burnetii. This she can never do till she is herself 
baptized with the fire of the Holy Ghost. She must 
burn with His consuming power before she can 
set others afire with the divine flame of His love. 
The altar on which this flame must be kindled is the 
altar of prayer. If the church would see the world 
brought to the altar of prayer, she herself must 
first go there, and she must there abide till power 
is given to her from on high — then shall she go 
forth to spiritual warfare as an army with ban- 
ners mighty in God. This is the battle-ground of 
the church, and she may as well center her main 
efforts here, for till she is victorious here, she can 
never have power for great conflicts and great vic- 
tories in bringing the world to Christ. Here she 
must take her stand, here she must fight her great 


battle for' her right to have dominion over the 
hearts and lives of the lost. 

Victory on this field, will mean victory every- 
where, and it is just as true that defeat here will 
mean largely defeat in every sphere of action. 

.'!. The Spiritual Church will he a missionary 
church. There is no qualifying clause to he worked 
into that statement — it is the naked truth, unless 
it is possible to have a spiritual church that is 
ignorant of its obligations and the needs of the 
world. It may be possible that a deeply spiritual 
church might be kept for a short time ignorant of 
(lie Lord's rail to His people to give the gospel to 
all men. If this be possible, the situation would 
soon Ik 1 relieved, for a deeply spiritual church could 
not a great while be kept in this state of ignorance. 
am! with the bonds of ignorance broken, she would 
'soon speed away with the gospel message. Let the 
I rue church know her duty and she will be hard to 
keep from the fields of missionary service. 

A. The Spiritual Church will be an educational 
church— she. will never be content to yield the reins 
to the hand of ignorance. Christian Education, not 
merely in name, as seems to be true in many in- 
stances, be,! in fact. An education whose basis is 
Christ, whose main thought is Christ, whose highest 
cini is I*, glorify Cod in the lives of redeemed men 
and women, and everywhere shed forth the light 
of the Sun of Righteousness on a dark ami dismal 
world (his is the Christ church. 

Mere we have the four corners of the great and 
widening field of the church in service. 

Let ns catch up the situation and make it the 


rallying cry of our daily service through the gen- 
eration in which we live and serve, and dying leave 
it a precious legacy to our children and the world. 
A spiritual, revival, missionary and educational 
church — that is the church of the future upon which 
the blessings of God will rest in great power and 
unto much fruitfulness. — Rev. J. Pressley Barrett, 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, March 7, 1907. 

Origin of the Name Christian 

There is absolutely no use for any secular history, 
or mental speculation, as to the origin of the name 
Christian. The writer of Acts, one of the most 
graphic and vivid historians of all the ages, makes 
the matter clear enough for the most indifferent to 
see and understand. Follow the account of the 
Acts just briefly and you shall see. 

If you will turn to Acts chap. 6, ver. 7, you will 
read that the church was confined to Jerusalem. 
''The number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusa- 
lem." Now turn to chap. 8, ver. 1, (just after the 
death of Stephen), "And there arose a great per- 
secution against the church which was at Jerusalem ; 
and they were scattered abroad throughout Judea 
and Samaria, except the apostles." The apostles 
were not scattered. They remained in Jerusalem, 
and preached there. Now turn to chap. 11 : 19, 20, 21 : 

They therefore that were scattered abroad upon the 
tribulation (persecution) that arose about Stephen traveled 
as far as Phoenicia, and Cyprus, and Antioch, speaking the 
word to none save only to Jews. But there were some of 
them, men of Cyprus and Cyrene, who, when they were 
(•dine to Antioch, spake unto the Greeks also, preaching the 
Lord Jesus. 

R E L I G 1 O D S JO D R N A LISM 241 

Now at Antioch, not at -Jerusalem, you find a 

company of Jews and Gentiles increasing to such 

an extent that they soon want a pastor. When they 

finally decided upon a pastor and leader for that 

flock, they did not send off to Jerusalem for Peter, 

who up to this time had been chief spokesman and 

leader, but instead they sent down to Tarsus to 

fetch Paul. Now read ver. 26, chap. 11: 

For a whole year they were gathered together (not 
gathered now as Jews, but gathered together, Jews and 

Gentiles) with the church and.... the disciples were 

called Christians first in Antioch. 

Here was a new collection of people — be- 
lieving Jews and Gentiles. Here was a new lead- 
er, Paul. And here is established a new 
religious center, Antioch, and such a new 
organization must have a new name. There 
was nothing else like it under high heaven and never 
had been. And they were called Christians. What 
else could they choose as a name for their new order 
and organization? They could not be called Gen- 
tiles, for there were Jews. They could not be called 
Jews, for there were Gentiles. My conviction is 
that by divine direction they wilfully chose this 
new name for themselves, — Christian. Their name 
is a consequence of the teaching of Paul and Bar- 
nabas, the teaching about Christ. There is absolute- 
ly no proof anywhere that it was given as a stigma. 
It was the most natural name in the world. Paul 
taught them, both Jews and Gentiles, at Antioch, 
about Christ. They learned of Him, accepted him 
as their Savior and Redeemer. Why, then, should 
they not be called Christians, and Christians only 
from the name of their Master and Leader? 



And, by the way, it was from this same center, 
Antioch, and not from Jerusalem, that Paul, the 
great missionary, went out on his three famous 
missionary journeys. Our Savior and the eleven 
began at Jerusalem and went out from there. As 
soon as the Gentiles are admitted, the center of 
religious influence shifts from Jerusalem to Antioch, 
and from there Paul went out to preach the gospel 
inviting all men to accept Christ and become Chris- 
tians. — Rev. J. 0. Atkinson. D. I)., in Christian 
Sun, March J,, 1908. 




An Appreciation 

President of Palmer Institute-Starkey Seminary. 

Tlie religious denomination in America known as 
the Christians owes its origin directly to the leader- 
ship of six men, who lived and labored at the close 
of the eighteenth and the opening of the nineteenth 
centuries. Strangely enough they fall into three 
groups, separated widely in geographical situation; 
one in Virginia and North Carolina, one in New 
England, and the third in the new land of Ken- 
tucky. More strangely still, they were all follow- 
ing the same general lines of work and teaching, 
although for some years each group was ignorant 
of the existence of the others. 

It is of prime importance to the younger people of 
our churches to gain a more intimate acquaintance 
with the personality of these men, and with their 
work, inasmuch as the qualities which insured their 
success are those which confer leadership in all 
situations and for all time to come; and further, 
inasmuch as such knowledge will give a better un- 
derstanding of the Christian Movement itself, and 
a more profound respect for the principles for 
which it stands. The intimate view of great men 
engaging in a great work in a great way is always 

246 T 1 1 E E N T E N N I A L O F 

an inspiration to nobler living, and the possibility 
of reading in their achievements the outworking of 
great and enduring convictions is a satisfaction to 
every judicious mind. 

The period at which these men appear was one 
of great ferment in the political and social world. 
France had discarded her kings, and although the 
excesses of the Red Terror were to make place for 
a Bonaparte and a recall of the Bourbon, the mon- 
archical system was destined to give way to the 
rule of the people for the people. Tn America in- 
dependence had been achieved, and the new nation 
was expanding westward, and winning in the con- 
quest of forest, and stream and mountain, a freedom 
of thought, the ultimate consequence of which it 
was incompetent to measure. All life is the out- 
come of actions and reactions. The sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries had been a storm center of 
religious controversy, with Luther, Calvin, Knox 
and Wolsey pitted against the Pope and the So- 
ciety of Jesus. The eighteenth century applied 
the theories of religious conflict to the political 
realm, and the argument which had been potent 
against the domination of lords spiritual was turned 
against the tyranny of lords temporal, the sword 
that had smitten bishops and prelates now cutting 
into the pretensions of provincial governors and 

Now as the nineteenth century approaches the 
reaction turns toward the religious realm. Ameri- 
ca, as it happened, became the special battle-ground 
of contending forces. The Old World churches had 
planted themselves in the new land. Roman Catho- 


lies had settled Maryland, and owned the strongest 
centers of the Mississippi valley. Puritanism was 
entrenched in Xew England and the English Church 
in Virginia. Holland had set her Dutch churches in 
Xew York and Albany. Roger Williams had made 
Rhode Island and the Providence plantations a cita- 
del for the Baptists. William Penn had built Phila- 
delphia as a Quaker colony, and Scotland was send- 
ing Presbyterianism into every settlement where 
her stalwart sons made their home. 

Put America was young and enterprising. The 
wild was calling to the venturous. And to add to 
the expansive forces of states the soldiers of the 
Revolution were collecting their back pay by help 
of land warrants, which they realized on by sale to 
others, or by actual settlement. From Maine to 
Georgia the frontier line was pushing westward, and 
new hamlets were springing like magic from the 
depths of the forest. 

With this migration of homes came also the 
rivalry of churches. Which should prevail in each 
new community, the Boston Platform, the West- 
minster Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism, or 
some other of the struggling faiths? Each stream 
of emigration carried its own worship, and where 
the streams met one found the eddying currents of 
confusion. Preachers and teachers on the frontier 
felt it imperative to soundly indoctrinate their 
hearers in order to retain the territory they had 
preempted, or to gain over adherents from a rival 
worship. Thus there came to pass a most strenuous 
doctrinal warfare. What the spear and battle-ax 
are to the soldier, such are dogmas to the religious 


partisan, the weapons of his hand-to-hand battle. 
•On every side the voice of controversy was blatant. 
Arminianism accused Calvinism, Adult-baptism 
smote Pedo-baptism ; Predestinarianism belabored 
Freedom of the Will ; Free Grace trampled upon 
Election. Every pulpit was an entrenched redoubt, 
from which safe spot to deliver hot shot, well aimed, 
not so much against sin and sinners, as against 
the pulpit across the way. What the ministers ex- 
pounded the deacons and the people elaborated. 
Theological debate was rife, in the parlor, in the 
kitchen, in the tavern and in the blacksmith shop. 
Church-members, or unregenerate persons, all had 
the language of dogmatic contention, and all were 
naming their adversaries reproachfully, and con- 
signing them to the nethermost perdition. To com- 
plete the picture of the period one must remember 
that on the frontier line there was no lack of primi- 
tive vices. Brawling, Sabbath-breaking, profane 
cursing, drunkenness and profligacy were so com- 
mon that the letters of the period, as well as the 
sermons that have come down to us, all have their 
wail at the prevalence of iniquity. 

Into a society like this, of sinners sinning exceed- 
ingly, and of saints quarrelling contumaciously, 
came the six men whom we have in mind, declar- 
ing the sinfulness of sin, and proclaiming every- 
where that men should repent, and that Christians, 
without respect to their opinions, should serve the 
same Christ, and live together in brotherly fellow- 

Now, at the distance of a full century, we must 
note the greatness of these men and something of 


the value of their contribution to the welfare of the 

We have right to deem them great in the power 
of their influence. Their attitude was hopelessly 
foreign to the prevailing conditions of church or 
of social life, and the truths they taught were a 
full half-century in advance of their fellows, and 
yet such was the virility of these men, call it mag- 
netism if you will, that they forced a hearing from 
a gainsaying world. They preached to growing 
congregations, they established living churches and 
they left to their successors a heritage of abiding 

We esteem them great also in the earnestness of 
their consecration. They believed in God, and felt 
that they were accountable to Him for every act. 
They believed that God called them to preach the 
gospel, and they dared not shirk the obligation. 
They felt themselves commissioned to save souls, 
and they must be in baste lest they fail of good ser- 
vice. So they taught on Sabbath days and week 
days. They preached to congregations of hundreds, 
or to a congregation of one. They forsook their 
homes and traveled on missionary journeys for 
scores and hundreds of miles, facing perils of 
tempest, perils of flood, perils of ungodly men, and 
in the case of the Kentucky pioneers, the -perils of 
redskin savages. 

Nothing daunted them, for they were messengers 
of the Word, and the Word must go. 

We may call them great also in the power of 
their religious culture. It is an error to imagine, 
because these men traveled much in waste places, 

250 T HE C E N T E N N I A L O F 

that they must have been illiterate. On the contrary, 
Abner Jones of Vermont was a physician and a 
writer of ready pen. Elias Smith of New Hampshire 
was a gifted orator and a writer of no mean repute. 
To him belongs the credit of establishing the first 
religious newspaper, of which he was proprietor and 
editor, and which is now, after a hundred years, 
still the official organ of the Christian people. 
Barton \Y Stone and David Purviance of Ken- 
tucky were trained in the learning of their time, 
and both on occasion earned their bread as teachers 
of academies, imparting their own learning to 
younger minds. James O'Kelly of Virginia and 
Rice Haggard of North Carolina were able speak- 
ers and writers. O'Kelly had Thomas Jefferson 
and Patrick Henry for classmates, and he held such 
rank among the ablest preachers of his day that 
Thomas Jefferson once had Congress adjourn to 
enable O'Kelly to preach them a sermon, and there 
in the meeting-room of Congress he preached so ten- 
derly as to bring many of them to tears. 

But we may call them great again in the power 
of insight. Others were students of the Bible, but 
these men had the vision of proportion. 

While others were bothering themselves with the 
husks of the gospel, they had the solid grain. They 
perceived that it was far more important that men 
should be good and true than to perplex themselves 
with questions which no one could solve with ab- 
solute certainty and so, while others were contend- 
ing about dogmas and making schism in the Body 
of Christ, they were teaching that character was 
a better test than creed, as all the world at last is 


finding- out, and that all Christians ought to be 
brothers. The churches are coming to that posi- 
tion now, but a hundred years ago the most of 
them were stone-blind to any such proposition, and 
the men who were then able to see the truth were 
wise above their peers. 

Accordingly, we claim thai the world owes these 
pioneers a debt of gratitude which it will never be 
able to discharge. But we are able to give them 
the benefit of appreciative remembrance, and grant 
them the honor of having blazed a path through a 
trackless maze, which presently all earnest and 
honest disciples of the Master will be glad to tread, 
as they march triumphantly toward the Holy City. 

Lalcemont, N. Y. 



My first mental alarm was not through the blessed 
means of preaching, but by the hind illuminations 
of the invisible Holy Spirit. I saw by this divine 
light, that I v:as without God, and destitute of any 
reasonable hope in my present state. 'Now, being 
moved by faith through fear, I attempted to fee the 
wrath to come and seek a place of refuge! But, 
ivhat violent opposition did I meet with! After 
many sorrowful months I formed one resolution. 
With a low cadence of voice and fearful apprehen- 
sion, I ventured, like Queen Esther who approached 
the king's presence at the risk of her life, so I 
ventured in a way of praj/er, to speak to the Al- 
mighty! With the Bible in my hand, 1 besought 
the Lord to help me. and during life that sacred 
book should be my guide, and declaring that at 
the close, if I am sunk to perdition. 1 will say, 
: 'Just. God! yet dreadful! But if Thy clemency 
and divine goodness should at last rescue me from 
the jaws of a burning hell, this miracle of grace shall 
be gratefully remembered by me. a Monument of Mer- 

The things which followed , which were such things 
as belonged to my peace, the inexpressible change, 
the instantaneous cure. I am incapable of speaking 
of; but 0, my soul was lodged in ImmanueVs breast, 
the City of Refuge — the Ark of my Rest. And in 
those days God sent preachers into our dark regions, 
who were burning and shining lights. 




A Champion of Christian Freedom 


Rev. James O'Kellv was bom in Ireland, in 1734 or 
1735. He was a descendant of Cellach, Chief of Hy 
Many, who was fourteenth in descent from Main Mor. 
The O'Kellys derive their surname from Cellach, and 
the annals of the family go back as far as A. D. 960. 
The members of the family have held important 
places in the localities of Gallagh and Tycooly for 
generations, and many have been church workers 
and church builders. 

James was the son of William O'Kelly, who had 
married into the Chetewode family. On his moth- 
er's side several members took Holy Orders, his 
grandfather being a Doctor of Divinity. Thus we 
see on one side his family had been church builders, 
and on the other preachers. 

History is almost silent concerning his early. life. 
He says he was born of poor parentage. Regarding 
his education we know very little. From his will 
and books we would judge he had some educational 
advantages in his youth, and perhaps studied Latin 
and Greek, and he was fairly well read in history. 

We are not informed what occupation he followed 
before he began to preach. In early life, having 
worked his way over on a vessel from Ireland, he 
settled near Moring's Post Office, in Surry County, 
Virginia. Here he lived a worldly life, being fond 


in the First Christian Church, Greensboro, N. C. Planned by 

Rev. E. I. Cox, first pastor of the Greensboro Church. 


of prize-fighting and of his fiddle. About this time 
he became acquainted with his lifelong friend, John 
Moring, with whom he later moved to North Caro- 

Here he met Miss Elizabeth Meeks, his future 
wife. Her family was one of the oldest in the colony, 
having settled near Jamestown in its infancy. They 
were soon engaged and were married about 17G0. 
She proved a faithful helpmate and through his 
long and checkered career shared his joys and 
divided his sorrows. She would go with him to the 
prize-fights, and when she saw enough had been 
done, she would ask him to stop and he would al- 
ways obey her. 

To this union two sons were born — John and 
William. The date of John's birth is not known. 
William was born April 23, 1763. To the influence 
of this son the father perhaps to-day owes his prom- 
inence. When William was eleven years old he 
was converted, and was instrumental in his father's 
conversion. William desired to preach. This is 
said to have greatly affected his father who thought 
he was too young for such a calling. William did 
not preach, but became a statesman, and sat for 
many years in the North Carolina Legislature, and 
some say he was once in Congress. 

In the summer of 1774 dames O'Kelly turned his 
attention to religious matters and was soon con 
verted. As to his conversion, see page 252. 

After his conversion everything irreligious was 
abandoned. His iron will knew no half-way ground; 
he deliberately laid his fiddle on a huge fire and 
burned it. 


Elon College, X. C. ■ 
The only living great-grandson of Rev. James O'Kellj-. 

* Dr. Herndon's mother was a granddaughter of James O'Kelly. 
In early life he was a very successful physician. Later he entered 
the ministry, serving as pastor with good success. In a crisis 
in the financial affairs of Elon College, he was sent by the 
Southern Christian Convention among the churches to raise money 
for the relief of the college, when great success attended his 
labors. He then went as a missionary to the Virginia Valley, 
where lie did a great work, organizing several churches and 
building several houses of worship, greatly encouraging the work 
there. He is now doing evangelistic work. _ Last year he wit- 
nessed over 600 professions of faith in Christ. 


He joined the Wesleyan Societies, and on Jan- 
uary 2, 1775, be was licensed a Methodist lay-preach- 
er, and traveled in that capacity until 1784. His 
name appears first in the Minutes of the Leesburg. 
Virginia Conference in 1778. The first mention 
that we have of his preaching in Methodist history 
was in an old colonial church, in southern Vir- 
ginia, about 1777. Perhaps this was in the old 
brick church near Moring's, Virginia. 

One writer noticing this early work of Mr. O'Kelly 


The people flocked to hear him and great was the work 
of God under his powerful exhortations, and earnest pray- 
ers. In spite of the curate's violent opposition he continued 
to preach in the chapel for more than a year with increas- 
ing success. 

He was a man of ability, and soon took a high 
stand in the ranks of Methodism. His first official 
station was on the New Hope circuit in North 

In order to fully understand James O'Kelly's 
early work, we will have to take a bird's-eye view 
of the conditions in Virginia in 1778. The Meth- 
odists had been in the state six years. English laws, 
manners, and customs prevailed. The Episcopal 
Church was the state church, and in many instances 
it had become very corrupt, and many of its min- 
isters were poor examples of morality, yet they op- 
posed other sects. The Methodists, seeking a closer 
walk with God, regarded themselves as a part of 
the Episcopal Church np to the year 1784. The 
Revolutionary War was on, and the Virginians were 
down on everything having the English stamp on it. 
Rev. John Wesley had sent over Rev. Francis As- 


bury as a missionary. Mr. Asbury was ambitious 
to leave his name at the head of American Meth- 
odism, while republican ideas were shooting in the 
popular mind, and the people were demanding the 
greatest possible freedom in church government. 
The subjects most discussed in the conferences were 
regarding the ordinances, baptism, the Lord's Sup- 
per, marriage, and the burial of the dead. No Meth- 
odist could administer these rites. Episcopal min- 
isters were few, many having returned to England, 
and those left paid little attention to the Methodists, 
so that in some places the Lord's Supper had not 
been administered for years, and thousands were 
unbaptized. The Methodist ministers and laity felt 
the thrill of free American air, and demanded that 
the ordinances be administered by Methodist preach 
ers. Mr. Asbury with a few others opposed this. 
This was the issue that first started the movement 
that led to the organization of the Christian Church 
in the South. 

James O'Kelly championed the cause of religious 
freedom, and the sufficiency of the Scriptures as a 
rule of faith and practice. This displeased Mr. 
Asbury and the Northern brethren. This theme in 
some form was discussed in almost every conference 
until 1702, when the separation took place. 

We will now look at another side of his life. 
While the Revolution was on, he stood his draft 
as other men did. Once he put in a substitute, 
once he marched on foot as far as he was able, and 
was honorably discharged at the close of the war. 
During the war he was captured and robbed by 
the Tories, but was retaken by the Whigs before day. 


He was captured by the British. He refused a 
bribe, and was starved out, and came near dying, 
but he remained true to his adopted country, and 
at last made his escape. This proves he was true 
to America. 

Rev. John Wesley called the Christmas Conference 
for the American Methodists to set up a form of 
government for the societies. They were directed 
to follow the Scriptures and the primitive church, 
and to stand fast in that liberty wherewith God 
had so strangely made them free. This was Mr. 
O'Kelly's idea exactly, and had that idea .been car- 
ried out no separation would have taken place. 

This conference met in Baltimore, December 24, 
1TS4. The representative Methodists of America 
were there. The time-honored plan of Wesley could 
no longer be carried out in America with no Estab- 
lished Church. The Conference was held with closed 
doors, and nothing was put to the vote. The so- 
cieties were organized into the Methodist Episcopal 
Church of America, though Mr. O'Kelly and many 
others wanted the word Episcopal left out. He did 
his uttermost to prevent its being used, but could 
not prevent it. 

On Sunday, January 2, 1785, Rev. James O'Kelly 
with twelve others were ordained elders, by Dr. 
Thomas Coke, Revs. Francis Asbury, Richard 
Whatcoat, Thomas Vasey, and P. W. Otterbein. 
Then and there James O'Kelly ceased to be a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal Church, ceased to be a lay 
Methodist preacher, and became an elder in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church of America. 

When the organization was completed it was a 


church of ministers, by ministers and for ministers, 
with Eev. Francis Asbury at its head in truth, if 
not in form. Mr. O'Kelly with others did not like 
this form of government, but could only express 
their disapproval, and hope that the time would come 
when it could be changed to a free and untrammeled 
church, and the subordinate preachers get their 
rights, and still be Methodists. 

In organizing, they departed from the New Testa- 
ment principles — the equality of the brethren — -the 
parity of the ministry — and a hierarchy was in- 
evitable. Virtually every official from the highest 
to the lowest was an appointee of the bishop. 

Mr. O'Kelly's influence in his district was great, 
and when he returned home he set about to instruct 
the people, and show them the weaknesses of the 
plan of government adopted, and to try to have it 
remedied. Eev. Francis Asbury did not like this, 
for he thought a layman should pay. pray, and obey. 

Mr. O'Kelly is put down in Methodist history as 
one of the strong men in the great revival in Vir- 
ginia, in 17SS. This lasted for about a year. It 
is added that he was a man of great powers of en- 
durance, mighty in prayet*, full of the Holy Ghost. 
He was accustomed to arise at midnight and pour 
nut his soul to God in prayer. 

He attended the Council in Baltimore in 1789. 
This meeting was to try to remedy some of the 
things adopted in 1784. He saw that the measures 
applied did not suit the case and would have nothing 
to do with its workings when he went home. Mr. 
O'Kelly was working for religious liberty and Rev. 
Francis Asbury was riveting an autocratic, or 


aristocratic, form of church government on the Meth- 
odist Church. One instance of this we give. In 
1790, Bishop Asbury turned out nineteen God-fear- 
ing, pious and devoted ministers, because they would 
not adopt his plans, and only two voted for the 

About this time Mr. O'Kelly began to correspond 
with the leading Methodists, both in America and 
England, and made a powerful impression on them 
for a more liberal polity for the church. He won 
over Dr. Coke and had a General Conference called 
November 1, 1792, and to-day some say the Meth- 
odists owe this most important part of their polity 
to James O'Kelly. 

The purpose of this conference was to revise the 
plan of government for the church. After discussing 
other things, on the second day. Mr. O'Kelly of- 
fered the following resolution: 

After the Bishop appoints the preachers at conference 
to their several circuits, if any one thinks himself injured 
by the appointment he shall have the liberty to appeal to 
the conference and state his objection, and if the conference 
approve his objection the Bishop shall appoint him to an- 
other circuit. 

A long and stormy debate followed, lasting nearly 
a week. The ablest men of Methodism were arrayed 
against each other. At first it seemed that the reso- 
lution would pass without much opposition. The 
resolution was at length divided and the discussion 
begun anew. Sunday intervened and Mr. O'Kelly 
preached in the city. Monday the discussion was 
continued until bedtime, when the vote was taken 
and the resolution lost. 

^Yllen the motion was lost. Revs. James O'Kelly, 


Rice Haggard, William McKendree and others, 
left the conference, and Mr. O'Kelly wrote a fare- 
well letter to the conference. English Methodists 
had passed a similar resolution a few months before, 
bnt Mr. O'Kelly did not know of it. 

Bishop Asbury and Dr. Coke at once set about 
to try to reconcile Mr. O'Kelly and his associates. 
They were asked on what terms they would return. 
The answer was : "Only let an injured man have an 
appeal." This would not be granted. Mr. O'Kelly 
and friends then went home. Bishop Asbury sent 
messengers to him beseeching him to return, and 
telling him how he valued him. The Methodist 
pulpits were left open to him, if he would keep 
quiet, and he was to receive his usual pay. This, 
however, was never paid. 

When he was leaving Baltimore the false report 
was started that he denied the doctrine of the Trin- 
ity. Did space permit it we would give evidence to 
show how he was slandered. His account of his 
conversion, and the form of ordination of his min- 
isters, shows where he stood. 

Mr. O'Kelly and his brethren met at Reese Chapel, 
in Charlotte County, Virginia, in 1702, to look over 
the situation. Another meeting was soon held at 
the same place. At these meetings the seceders 
strove hard for union with the Methodists, and sent 
messengers with their petitions to Bishop Asbury. 
They only asked for some amendments. These were 
not granted. Mr. O'Kelly then drew up an humble 
petition pointing out a few of the evils he saw in 
the government of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and prayed for union. The Methodists were not 


allowed to sign these petitions under pain of ex- 

The seceders next met at Piney Grove in Chester- 
field County, Virginia, on August 2, 1793. They 
now asked permission to meet the Bishop in confer- 
ence that the Methodist Episcopal Church govern- 
ment might be examined by the Scriptures, and 
amended according to the Holy Word. Bishop 
Asbury's reply to this request was : 

I have no power to call such a meeting as you wish ; 
therefore, if five hundred preachers would come on their 
knees before me, I would not grant it. 

Two courses were now left, to separate, or to 
slavishly submit. They chose the former. Here 
is where Rev. James O'Kelly ceased to be a Meth- 
odist Presiding Elder, and became the first Chris- 
tian minister. This was at a conference at Manakin- 
town, Powhatan County, Virginia, December 25, 

Here the plans were laid for a free and untram- 
meled church, with the Bible as a creed. The min- 
isters were to be on an equality, the laymen were to 
have votes, and the executive business was left 
with the church collectively. Another conference 
was called before inaugurating the new plan. They 
called themselves "Republican Methodists." Mis- 
sionaries w r ere sent out and did wonderful work. 

The next General Meeting was held August 4, 
1794, at Old Lebanon, Surry < 'ounty, Virginia. It was 
held with open doors thai all niiglil see and learn. 
A committee of seven men was appointed to de- 
vise a permanent plan of church government. Final- 
ly they determined to lay aside every manuscript, and 


follow the Bible as their guide, and have no govern- 
ment besides the Scriptures as written by the apos- 
tles. The question of a name then came up again. 
Eev. Rice Haggard arose, holding a copy of the New 
Testament in his hand, and said : 

Brethren, this is a sufficient rule of faith and practice. By 
it we are told that the disciples were called Christians, and 
I move that henceforth and forever the followers of Christ 
be known as Christians simply. 

The motion was carried. 
Mr. O'Kelly says: 

At this conference the blessed Jesus was proclaimed 
King and Head of the people without one dissenting voice. 
The holy qualifications of an elder as laid down by St. 
Paul were read and explained. Then after prayer we pro- 
ceeded in the following manner to ordain ministers : In the 
name of our Lord Jesus Christ, by the authority of the Holy 
Scriptures, with the approbation of the church, and with 
the laying on of the hands of the presbytery, we set apart 
this our brother to the holy office of Elder in the church of 
God: In the name of the Father, and the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost. 

There were about thirty ministers with 
Mr. O'Kelly at the organization ; prominent among 
these were Revs. Rice Haggard and Burwell Barrett. 
The organization completed, aggressive work was 

O'Kelly's Chapel, in North Carolina, was organ- 
ized the same year, and he began his preaching 
tours afresh, and planted churches in the destitute 
places. For something like thirty-three years he 
labored faithfully to establish the Christian Church 
in the South, and before his death he saw it well 
established in the minds and hearts of the people. 
Prior to his death he asserted that he believed the 
cause of full religious liberty would finally triumph. 


He often held open discussions with the enemies 
of the new church, for they were many. One of 
these was in the Methodist Church in Portsmouth, 

He was a firm believer in baptism by sprinkling 
or pouring. 

At the General Meeting of 1807, at Raleigh, N. 
C, he baptized Rev. Joseph Thomas, the "White 
Pilgrim,'' by pouring. 

In Mr. O'Kelly's day the territorial limits of the 
Christian Church in Virginia and North Carolina 
were as large, if not larger, than they are to-day. 
Commencing at his home in central North Carolina, 
it extended from there to Norfolk, Virginia, then 
up the Chesapeake Bay shore to the neighborhood 
of Mt. Vernon, from there to Winchester, Virginia, 
and then it seems that there were some churches in 
southwest Virginia. From this we get an idea of 
the size of his circuit, for he visited all the churches, 
and while riding in his gig he wrote most of his 

It is said that he was an intimate friend of 
Pad-irk Henry and Thomas Jefferson, and perhaps 
visited these distinguished persons on his preaching 

While visiting in Washington, 1). C, Mr. Jeffer 
son is said 1o have secured the Hall of Representa- 
tives and invited Mr. O'Kelly to preach. He did 
preach twice, and on the second occasion Mr. Jef- 
ferson was the most delighted man in the audience. 

Bishop Asbury has this to say in regard to the 
las! meeting with Mr. O'Kelly near Winchester. 
Virginia, on August 23, 1802: 

Monument over the grave of James O'Kelly, the hero of "the three 
month's circuit," on the O'Kelly farm in Chatham County, N. C. 

"When spring returns, with dewy fingers cold, 

To deck the sod that wraps his mold ; 

She there shall dress a sweeter sod 

Than fancy's feet have ever trod ; 

By angel forms his dirge is sung, 

By forms unseen his knell is rung." 


We met in peace and asked of each other's welfare, talk- 
ed of persons and things indifferently, prayed and parted 
in peace. Not a word was said of the troubles of former 

James O'Kelly is said to have preached Ave ser- 
mons at different places in one day and none of 
these bore any sameness. The strongest Methodist 
preachers followed in his track to win back those 
who had joined the Christian Church. 

He was the author of several books. We mention 
the following: The Author's Apology for Protesting 
against the Methodist Episcopal Government, A 
Vindication of an Apology, Divine Oracles Con- 
sulted, Christicola, Church Government, The Chris- 
tian Church, Annotation on His Book of Discipline, 
Letters from Heaven Consulted, A Tract on Bap- 
tism, Commentaries on the Books of the Neio Testa- 
ment, Hymns and Spiritual Songs Designed for the 
Use of the Christians, and The Prospect Before Us. 

Hope did not desert him in age and feebleness 
extreme. He gave testimony to those around him 
at the close of his life that he went down to the 
grave satisfied with the past, and peaceful ami 
trusting 'with respect to the future. He had a long, 
white, flowing beard, and continued to preach after 
he was unable to stand, sometimes silting while he 

He passed away at his home in Chatham County, 
North Carolina, on the 16th of October, 1826, in 
the triumphs of a living faith, after a painful and 
lingering illness which he bore with Christian forti- 
tude and a perfect resignation to the Will of Heaven. 
He was in the 92nd year of his age and had been a 


minister of the gospel over fifty years. He was 
buried in the family cemetery on the farm. 

For twenty-eight years it seems that no shaft was 
erected to his memory, but in 1854 the Christians, 
South, erected to his memory a monument bearing 
this inscription : "James O'Kelly. Champion 
of Christian Freedom." This short sentence sums 
up the life work of the organizer of the first free and 
untrammeled church in America. He lived far in 
advance of his time, and he will be admired more 
and more as the years go by, until his creed shall 
become that of the Protestant world. He served 
his day and generation well. 

Suffolk. Va. 




Rice Haggard ivas the herald to the church, and 
of the church, "coming up out of the wHderness." 

At midnight Rice Haggard uttered the cry, "Be 
hold, the Bridegroom cometh ; go ye out to meet 
him." He was the herald, calling on the bride to 
take the name of the Bridegroom. He also insisted 
on the full purity of the bride's principles. This 
will appear by the history I will relate. 

Rice Haggard was born in 1769, and died in 1819. 

The following matter is condensed from a letter 
of Joe Berkley Green, published in the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, June 29, 1905 : 

J. J. Suminerbell, Dear Brother : — I have traveled hun- 
dreds of miles in quest of information in regard to Rice 
Haggard. — Since writing to you, I have visited his old 
home in Cumberland County. Kentucky. Part of the house 
in which he lived is still standing. It stands at the forks 
of Kettle Creek, the Logan fork on one side and the Wells 
fork on the other. 

In the neighborhood I found a copy of the Christian 
Hymn-book published by him in 1S18. 

Rice Haggard was born in the eastern part of Virginia. 
His mother's maiden name was Rice. He was born in the 
year 1709. and was ordained to preach the year he was 
twenty-two. in the year 1791, by Bishop Asbury. The 
license is still in existence. It was written on parchment 
and signed by Bishop Asbury, a copy of which I have before 
me at this writing. 

Haggard was appointed to a work in Kentucky, where 
he served about two years, then returned to Virginia, sever- 
ed ln's connection with the M. E. Church, attended the Re- 
publican Methodist Conference at Lebanon, Surry County, 


Virginia, in 1794. proposed to them to take the name "Chris- 
tian" to the exclusion of all sectarian names, and the Bible 
as their only creed, which they agreed to do. 

He and his brother. David Haggard, labored in connec- 
tion with James O'Kelly and others in Virginia and North 
Carolina for several years, in which time he married the 
Widow Wiles, widow of Samuel Wiles. She was the 
daughter of Captain William Grimes, of Norfolk. Virginia. 

Rice Haggard's oldest sou was born in Virginia. He 
was named James O'Kelly Haggard. 

About the year 1S03 or 1S04 he settled on Haggard's 
Branch, near Burksville, Ky. We find him at the meeting 
of the Springfield Presbytery. June, 1S04, and Elder Samuel 
Rogers says it was Haggard first who suggested to Stone 
the propriety of taking the name '"Christian" as that divine- 
ly given at Antioch (Autobiography of Elder Samuel Rogers, 
p. 101) ; and B. W. Stone says that the presbytery pub- 
lished a tract by Haggard on the name Christian. (Biog- 
raphy of B. W. Stone, p. 50). 

Haggard sold his farm on Haggard's Branch, and moved 
to the forks of Kettle Creek. It seems that his labors ex- 
tended as far west as Simpson County, Kentucky, as far 
south as Alabama, and as far north as Champaign County, 
Ohio. He died in Champaign County. Ohio, while on a 
preaching and business trip, and was buried there in 1819. 

I have a copy (if his will, written on his death-bed in 
Champaign County, Ohio. 

His daughter-in-law thought he was probably carried to 
Xenia and buried there. 

I have a list of twenty-five congregations in the field of 
his home labor that existed before 1831, one of which. 
Bethel, on Marrowbone Creek, was probably the oldest in 
southern Kentucky ; but I find no trace of local church or 
organization among them until 1819, the year of Haggard's 
death, only among the Christians called Mulkeyites, a move- 
ment of Christians coming out from the Baptists in 1S09. 
under the leadership of John Mulkey. The movements 
were independent of each other at the start. Thus it 
seems that in his later years Haggard was opposed to both 
local and general church organizations. 

Some of the members at Old Bethel were members be- 
fore in North Carolina, and I heard of an old brother who. 
when called a Campbellite, would laugh and say. "My 
mother was a Christian before Campbell was born." 

Having twice carefully inspected the foregoing 
matter of J. B. Green, (at the time of his writing, 


at Pope, Allen County, Ky.,) I find it bearing all 
the tests of truth that I can apply. As to Haggard's 
influence on the movement in Kentucky, in which 
Stone, Purviauce, Marshall, Dunlavy, M'Nemar and 
Thompson received the credit of being leaders, I 
hud the statement of Brother Green corroborated 
in part by that passage in the Biography of Stone. 
to which he refers, as follows : — 

Under the name of Springfield Presbytery we went for- 
ward preaching, and constituting churches ; but we had not 
worn our name more than one year, before we saw it sa- 
vored of a party spirit. With the man-made creeds we 
threw it overboard, and took the name Christian — the name 
given to the disciples by divine appointment first at An- 
tioch. We published a pamphlet on this name, written 
by Elder Rice Haggard, who had lately united with us. 
Having divested ourselves of all party creeds, and party 
names, and trusting alone in God. and the word of his grace, 
we became a by-word and laughing stock to the sects 
around; all prophesying our speedy annihilation. Yet 
from this period I date the commencement of that reforma- 
tion, which has progressed to this day. Through much 
tribulation and " opposition we advanced, and churches and 
preachers were multiplied. 

That Stone and his companions were influenced 
to adopt the name Christian by the instruction and 
influence of Haggard, as represented by Brother 
Green, is easily understood, also, when we remember 
that Haggard was the man who. on August 4, 1794, 
at Lebanon, Surry County, Virginia, had made the 
motion, which was unanimously carried, for the 
adoption of the name Christian. For Haggard was 
a minister of great success in persuading men to the 
truth. He was a good man, an able leader, an 
author of various productions; and in 1804 pub- 
lished one work entitled "Union of All the Fol- 
lowers of Christ in One Church," of which F. W. 


Humphreys said, it "created quite an excitement 
among friends and foes." 

It is thus seen that the brethren of the west were 
indebted to Rice Haggard for light on the true 

It is interesting to observe that Brother Green, 
who had made investigations among the localities 
and congregations remembering Rice Haggard, at- 
tributes to him in his later years a spirit of op- 
position "to both local and general church organi- 
zations." It is evident that his logical, philosoph- 
ical, and independent habit of thought, compelled 
him to recognize that the New Testament did not 
place any approving emphasis on ecclesiastical or- 
ganization or government, but wholly on individual 
spiritual life and Christian conduct. 

Had Barton W. Stone possessed equally accurate 
insight into religious truth, he would never have 
made his so-called union with Alexander Campbell. 
But Stone seemed to feel that organization, in the 
human sense, was to be cultivated. As result came 
disaster to the cause of truth. Members of Stone's 
congregation where the so-called union had been 
effected, have personally told me (J. J. S.) how in 
his latest years Stone would sit in the audience 
weeping with pain, listening to human doctrines, 
that cut off from the promises of the gospel all 
sprinkled Christians, arbitrarily preached by Camp- 
bell's followers in the pulpit made sacred by Stone's 
labors; Stone, too late perceiving that his organic 
union with Campbell made him seem to approve, 
in the name of union, a narrow, unscriptural, un- 
spiritual, dogmatic sectarianism. But Stone's tears 


could not wash away the negotiations to which he 
had been a party ; and year by year he was less hon- 
ored in the locality where he had been diplomatical- 
ly duped. Now he is made a saint by the succes- 
sors of those who tricked him. 

Rice Haggard, apparently, made no such mistake. 
He was more like a prophet. But whether he opposed 
"organization 1 ' in such a spirit as to paralyze 
growth, I have not yet discovered. But I have seen 
no proof of it. It was Stone's ecclesiastical "union" 
with Campbell, years after Haggard's death, that 
injured Bible Christianity in Kentucky and south- 
ern Illinois. 

But on the subject of the name, Rice Haggard's 
work was so effective that the momentum of it 
continued for twenty years after his death ; for as 
late as 1839, in number (9) nine of the "Millennial 
Harbinger," we find that Alexander Campbell, the 
founder of the denomination, Disciples of Christ, 
theologically termed Campbellites, wrote the fol- 
lowing article, whose perversions of truth I do not 
now take space to name, but call attention especial- 
ly to the vehemence with which he argued that 
a denomination had sprung up in various sec- 
tions, already calling themselves Christians. The 
following is Alexander Campbell's article; showing 
that Rice Haggard's influence had been mighty : — 

OrR Name. — Into what, or into whom have we been 
immersed? Into Calvin, Luther, Wesley, Campbell, or Refor- 
mation? If not, then why nickname us, or we nickname 
ourselves, when we assume or choose designations? 
Shall we be called Disciples of Christ, or Christians? Why 
not call ourselves Christians? Not because we have anoth- 
er leader than Christ : for he is our teacher. We believe 
in him- -were immersed into his death — and have thus put 


on Christ. But we have been anticipated. The term 
Christian in New England, and in some other sections of 
this land, is a name chosen and appropriated by a party 
who boast that they are Unitarians — disbelieve in baptism 
for the remission of sins — and refuse to celebrate the Lord's 
death as often as they celebrate his resurrection, &c, &c. 

Were I, or any brother, to traverse much of New York, 
New England, and some other sections, and call ourselves 
Christians, as a party name, we should be admitted by all 
Unitarians and rejected by all of a different belief. One 
party would fraternize with us, while the others would re- 
pudiate us and unchurch us, because of our supposed Uni- 
tarianism. Arianism. &c. For this reason we prefer an 
unappropriated name, which is indeed neither more nor 
less than the scriptural equivalent of Christian; for 
who were called Christians first at Antioch? They had a 
prior, a more ancient name. They were called Disciples. 
Disciples of whom? Of Christ. Disciples of Christ is. 
then, a more ancient title than Christian, while it fully 
includes the whole idea. It is, then, as divine, as author- 
itative as the name Christian, and more ancient. Besides, 
it is more descriptive ; and. better still, it is unappropriated. 
It claims our preference for four reasons : 

1st. It is more ancient. 

2d. It is more descriptive. 

3d. It is more scriptural. 

4th. It is more unappropriated. 

1st. Our first reason is indisputable: for the Disciples 
of Christ were called Christians first in Antioch. Those 
who from the day of Pentecost were known throughout 
Judea, Galilee, Samaria, and among the Gentiles as Disci- 
ples of Christ, were, at Antioch, many years afterward, 
called, for the first time. Christians. 

2. It is more descriptive: because many people are nam- 
ed after their country, or their political leaders, and some- 
times after their religious leaders, who feel it an 
insult to he called the pupils or disciples of the persons 
whose names they bear. Germans. Franks, Greeks, Ro- 
mans. Americans, Columbians, Jeffersonians, &c, do not 
describe the persons who bear their names, for they are not 
supposed to be the pupils of such men. Might not a stranger, 
an alien, imagine that Christian, like American or Roman, 
had some reference to country or benefactor, or some 
particular circumstance, rather than scholarship? Disci- 
ple of Christ is. then, a more descriptive and definite desig- 
nation than Christian. 

3. It is more scriptural. Luke wrote his Acts some 
thirty years after the ascension. Now in his writings. 


which give at least thirty years' history of the primitive 
church, the word Christian occurs but twice — used only by 
the Antiochans and by King Agrippa; but no disciple, as 
far as Lul-e relates, ever spoke of himself or brethren under 
that designation. More than thirty times they are called 
Disciples in the Acts of the Apostles. Luke and other in- 
telligent men called them often "brethren" and "disciples," 
but never Christians. Again, we have the word Christian 
but once in all tbe epistles, and then in circumstances which 
make it pretty evident that it was used rather by the ene- 
mies, than by the friends of the brotherhood. Our proposi- 
tion is, then, abundantly proved, that it is a more scrip- 
tural, and consequently a more authoritative and divine 
desiguation than Christian. 

4. It is more unappropriated at the present time. Uni- 
tarians, Arians, and some other newly risen sects abroad, 
are zealous for the name Christian; while we are the only 
people on earth fairly and indisputably in the use of the 
title Disciples of Christ. 

For these four reasons I prefer this designation to any 
other which has been offered. Can any one offer better 
reasons for a better name? A. C. 

Tims Alexander Campbell argued against that 
swelling tide of favor for the name Christian, given 
by divine appointment at Antioch to those who had 
before that been called brethren, or disciples, or 
children, or other names not significant of character. 

Tims Alexander Campbell argued against that 
tide of favor which was winning his own sect to the 
name Christian; a tide of favor whose first impulse 
in modern times originated in the sunny brain and 
heart of Rice Haggard; a tide that was started by 
him in 1794, wdien the "times'' of prophets were 
fulfilled, in Virginia, and by his Bible logic, stated 
in Kentucky less than a half score of years later, 
was made to sweep along Barton W. Stone, Purvi- 
ance, Marshall, Thompson and others in its mighty 
flood; a tide of favor that has captured the Km 
deavor Society, the Women's Christian Temperance; 


Union, the Christian Alliance, and many missionary 

It should be remembered all along that Rice Hag- 
gard led in this whole movement, in the sense of 
pointing to the true Bridegroom, and weaving the 
true bridal garments for the bride, while still in this 
world. O'Kelly accepted his principles; and so did 
Purviance and Stone, though Stone was later mis- 
led. Even in Virginia Haggard was the man, not 
only who proposed to drop all names but Christian, 
but he was the man who proposed to drop all creeds 
but the Bible. All this was while Elias Smith, 
Barton W. Stone and others were slumbering and 
dozing, in their dreams calling themselves not by the 
name of the Bridegroom, but Baptists and Presby- 
terians, though having gone forth to meet the Christ. 
In the darkness of human creeds, sectarian exclu- 
siveness, and divisive names, Rice Haggard, proba- 
bly unconscious that he was fulfilling the prophe- 
cies of Revelation, chapters 11, 12 and 13 and 
other Scriptures, came, saying, "Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord," the "Bridegroom cometh." 

Dr. Barrett, though having asked me to prepare 
this article concerning Rice Haggard, kindly gave 
me help by securing of Prof. P. J. Kernodle, of Elon 
College, the following matter gained by the patient 
and skilful labor of the professor: — 

He married the widow of William Wiles. She was the 
daughter of William Grimes and only legal representative 
in 1809. William Grimes was an officer in the Revolution- 
ary War and became entitled to 4,000 acres of military 
bounty lands which were valued at $5,000.00. These lands 
descended to his daughter Nancy Grimes, for which "a war- 
rant No. 3990 was issued from the Land Office of the said 
State of Virginia on the 2nd day of December, in the year 


1785, to the said Nancy Haggard, then Nancy Grimes, as 
legal representative of the said William Grimes, deceased, 
for three years' services. .. .as Captain in the Continental 
line...." She joined her husband William Wiles in the 
execution of a deed bearing date September 3, 1792, at 
which time she had not arrived at the age of twenty-one, 
and hence was born about 1772. 

Rev. Rice Haggard entered the ministry of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church in 1789. While he labored among the 
Methodists, he proved his gifts and was admitted into full 
connection in 1790, and stationed in Bedford County, Vir- 
ginia ; in 1791 he was stationed in Cumberland County ; and 
in 1792 in Mecklenburg County. He is recorded as with- 
drawn with O'Kelly, Allen, and Robertson, in 1793. He 
was in the Methodist "first regular General Conference" in 
Baltimore, which began on the first day of November, 1792. 
Some of those who were arrayed on the same side with him 
and O'Kelly in the discussion of the "appeal," were Free- 
born Garrettson, Ivey Harris, Hope Hull, Stephen Davis, 
William McKendree. When the vote on the resolution, 
which was lost, had been taken, O'Kelly with others with- 
drew from the Conference. O'Kelly was asked on what 
terms he would return ; he said, "Let an injured man have 
an appeal," to which the reply was, "That cannot be grant- 
ed." Revs. Rice Haggard and John Robertson with others 
left the place, O'Kelly leading. 

About two weeks after the General Conference had ad- 
journed, Asbury says. "Sunday [November 25] came to 
Manchester and preached in the afternoon, and felt life 
amongst the people and preachers who were met for the 
District Conference." "W.' McKendree and R II. ITfice 
Haggard] sent me their resignations in writing." While 
McKendree returned to the Methodists, Haggard stood firm 
and faithful to the cause he had espoused. 

On the 4th of August, 1794, at Lebanon church in Surry 
County, Virginia, Rev. Rice Haggard, after the committee 
had labored some time in vain, arose and moved that tin- 
Bible be the rule and guide for the Church, which motion 
was unanimously accepted, and at his suggest inn the Con- 
ference decided to discard all names except the one which 
would fully express their relation to Christ, the Head of 
the Church, — Christians. Though they may not all have 
been present at this General Meeting, the following co-labor- 
ers also took an active part with James O'Kelly and Rice 
Haggard: Mieajah Debruler, William Glendennin g, Adam 
Cloud, William Dameron, Joseph Hartley, "Joshua Woorley, 
and others. 

Tn 1801, he traveled the "Mountain Circuit" in Virginia 
with Rev. William Dameron. This territory was not un- 


known to him, he having been stationed in parts of it be- 
fore his withdrawal from the Methodists. 

He was the author of several productions on the doctrine 
of the Church, one of which in particular, published in 
1S04, it is said, created quite an excitement among friends 
and foes. This was on the subject of the "Union of all 
the followers of Christ in one Church." In this the name 
proposed was "Christians." The name as well as his other 
measures of union were such as had already been adopted, 
and such as continue to be the platform of the Christian 
Church at the present time. 

In 1807, Rev. Thomas Reeves with Rev. Joseph Thomas 
visited Elder Rice Haggard, who then resided about twelve 
miles from Norfolk, out toward the Great Bridge. It was 
in December about Christmas time. Rev. Joseph Thomas 
says, "He was a man of a sound, deep, penetrating mind, 
capable of looking over and excusing youthful imperfec- 
tions, and of judging their probable abilities. .. .Though it 
was supposed by some he was an austere, lordly disposed 
man, yet I found him possessed of every necessary qualifi- 
cation to make him a great, a good man, a christian." 
Again, in 1S09, Rice Haggard was visited by the young 
preacher Joseph Thomas. For the following year, he made 
an engagement with Rev. Joseph Thomas to travel in the 
western country, but owing to the sickness of the latter 
the engagement was broken. They had arranged to meet 
at the home of one of the brothers of Joseph Thomas on 
New River in Virginia. The time appointed for the meet- 
ing was the first day of June, 1810. It is more than prob- 
able that this visit was planned to return the visit of Elder 
Reuben Dooly, who had visited Elder Haggard during this 
year at bis home in Norfolk County, or to visit his brother 
David Haggard and to make a prospecting tour with refer- 
ence to ln's moving to Kentucky. Do'uv. bom in Vir- 
ginia in 1773, now lived in Kentucky, and it is said of him : 
"Indeed, he was like Paul, he knew nothing but Jesus Christ 
and Him crucified." 

About 1812. Rev. Rice Haggard moved with bis family 
to the State of Kentucky, and settled in Cumberland County. 
He disposed of the remainder of his property in Virginia by 
deed acknowledged May 14, 181H. 

It is to be inferred that after his withdrawal from the 
Methodists, he was none the less active and persevering in 
the cause of the Christian Church as was evidenced by bis 
writings. His name will be long remembered by those who 
wear the name "Christian" only. 

In a volume of "Poems" of Elder Joseph Thomas, 
commonly called the "White Pil&rim," and concern- 


ing whom Elder John Ellis wrote the poem begin- 
ning, "I came to the spot where the White Pilgrim 
lay," I find two passages about Rice Haggard, which 
ought to be preserved in this tribute. The first 
passage is on page 25 in the "Life" of the "White 
Pilgrim,'' introducing his poems, and is as follows : — 

About Christmas, we were some miles below Norfolk, 
and went to brother Rice Haggard's, a Christian preacher. 
I found him to be of strong intellect, and of profound piety. 
He exhorted me to be faithful, and the Lord would make 
me useful. I loved him, and received with joy his coun- 

The weight to be given to these words may be un- 
derstood, when I quote the following language of 
the White Pilgrim concerning the celebrated Elias 
Smith, found on page 72 of Thomas' "Life" : — 

May 24th I arrived in Philadelphia. I put up with 
John Hunter, Esq., deacon in the Christian society. An ap- 
pointment was made for me, at their meeting-house, that 
evening, at candlelight. Before meeting came on, Elias 
Smith and John Gray, from N. England, arrived. I preach- 
ed to an attentive audience. On the next evening I heard 
E. Smith preach. I preached during several days in differ- 
ent places in the city. 

That is all the White Pilgrim said about this 
meeting with the celebrated Elias Smith. You may 
observe how his statement is marked by careful re- 
serve. There is no "puffing". Then, in the follow- 
ing poem, we may not only derive satisfaction from 
the glimpses we get of the early life of Rice Hag- 
gard, but we are justified in giving great weight to 
the words of the eulogy, inferring that the extraor- 
dinary merits of Haggard broke down the usual re 
serve of the White Pilgrim in such matters. The 
poem begins on page 128, as follows: — 



On the death of Rice Haggard, an eminent preacher of 
the gospel — well known, and highly esteemed in the South 
and West by the Christian brethren. He died at an ad- 
vanced age in Champaign County, Ohio, when on a journey 
to preach the gospel. 

O, Haggard! thou hast left thy house of clay, 
And winged thy passage to immortal day! 
Kind angels hail'd thee to their bright abode, 
And shouted, Welcome, valiant son of God. 
Imagination points me now thy throne 
Among the saints and highest seraphs known. 
There dwells thy spirit, and forever reigns, 
Triumphant in high heaven's supernal plains. 
No storms distress thee in thy sweet repose : 
But heavenly peace on thee thy God bestows. 
Thy toils are ended ; and thy fortune's found 
Where golden treasures and rich spoils abound. 
Eternal honors crown thy worthy brow. 
And scenes celestial open to thee now ! 
I hail thee gladly in thy robes of white 
On streets of gold, in mansions of delight. 
No howling winds, nor tempests, beat thee there, 
Nor earthly wants, to generate thy care. 
Thou hast escaped thy native land below, 
To ever live where trees ambrosial grow. 
Thoa hast behind thee left a name revered. 
That once consoled the saints, and sinners feared. 
In youth thy God commanded thee away 
From fond pursuits and objects of the day — 
To leave the plough and all thy friends around 
To seek a Savior, and the gospel sound. 

Thy parents, poor, had never taught thee then 
To read the Bible, nor to use the pen ; 
But in the smooth sand thou didst learn to write, 
And taught thyself to read by faggot light ! 

Not long till science shone upon thy mind. 
Thy sins forsaken, and thy soid refined, 
The Savior's call to sound the Jubilee 
Was loudly heard, and then obeyed by thee. 

In melting strains thy youthful voice was heard, 
And weeping eyes among the crowds appeared. 
Thy son'rous voice, like silver trumpet's sound, 
Awaked the sinner from his sleep profound. 
Convinced him he was in the downward way. 
Constrained him to repent, to weep and pray. 

Thy friends, a num'rous train, now left in tears, 


To mourn thee absent for some tedious years, 

Do fondly hope to meet thee once again 

Where death is foiled in heaven's extended plain. 

We do not say that Rice Haggard was inspired 
in 1794; although his motion had the originality of 
thought, suggesting John the Baptist at the Jordan, 
saying, "Behold the Lamb of God." When he made 
the motion to discard human religious names, and 
to take only the name of Christ, the Bridegroom, he 
was preparing the way to discard also human creeds 
and sectarian tests. 

Thus, as the Bible had suggested, the church that 
had "fled into the wilderness'' (to the barbarians, 
from the decrees of Justinian the Great issued be- 
fore the middle of the sixth century), there to abide 
"a time, and times, and half a time," was now "com- 
ing up from the wilderness, leaning on the arm of 
her Beloved," Christ; coming out of the wilderness 
of human creeds, sectarian names, and dogmatic 
tests; coming from the wilderness of Virginia, North 
Carolina and Kentucky; but again "clothed with the 
sun, the moon under her feet, and upon her head a 
crown of twelve stars." 

"Clothed with the sun," she had the clear truth 
of the central, chief, original source of light. 

"The moon under her feet," she stood superior to 
the reflected light of creeds. 

"Crowned with stars," she was radiant with the 
diadem of apostles, missionaries, pastors, teachers 
and evangelists. 

"Leaning on the arm of her Beloved," Christ, how 
olse could she do than take the name of her Hus- 
band? Leaning on the arm of the Bridegroom, how 


else could she do than take his word, rejecting the 
dogmas of human lovers? Too long had she flirted 
with popes, bishops, prelates, councils, Luther, 
Knox, Wesley, Calvin and other suitors. 

And Eice Haggard's was "the voice crying in the 
wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make 
His paths straight." He cried it in Virginia, and 
the bride made herself ready; the "virgins arose and 
trimmed their lamps.'' In Kentucky he cried, "Be- 
hold, the Bridegroom cometh. go ye out to meet 
him;'' and Stone, and Purviance, and all the watch 
ers arose and '"trimmed their lamps." Twenty-five 
congregations in Kentucky gathered around him. 

What a career of joy his must have been ! to awake 
the church ! to announce the Bridegroom ! But it is 
ever the lot of the herald of the Christ to decrease, 
while the Christ increases. And to-day, notwith- 
standing his greatness, we are historically curious 
concerning the fate of Rice Haggard. When John 
the Baptist, in ancient times the herald of the Christ, 
was put to death in prison, his disciples came and 
took up his body and buried him. When Joseph 
Thomas, our "White Pilgrim," the loving personal 
friend of Bice Haggard, died of smallpox far from 
home, in the work of the ministry, he was buried by 
our brethren of Johnsonburg, N. J. But where lie 
the bones of Rice Haggard, or who buried him, we do 
not know. But his glory does not depend on the 
loftiness of a marble monument, nor on the beauty 
of a memorial window. He is remembered by what 
he has done. 

We are amazed at the surprising unanimity with 
which the brethren in Virginia agreed to his motion 


for the name Christian. We recognize his philosoph- 
ical and keen intellect, that did not stop with the 
one victory, that of the name, but pressed on in the 
restitution to the world of true Christian principles ; 
and we wonder that in this he fully succeeded. 
And when we stumble on the fact of history, that 
the adoption of the name Christian was his work 
also in the west, we begin to recognize a 
prophet, or more than a prophet. * "What 
went ye out into the wilderness for to see? 
a prophet? yea, I say unto you, more than a 
prophet." He was the herald of the dawn ; and for 
more than a hundred years the bride has been more 
and more falling in love with the Bridegroom. Rice 
Haggard may decrease, but Christ increases. He 
exclaims, "I am sent before Him. He that hath the 
bride is the Bridegroom ; but the friend of the Bride 
groom, that standeth and heareth Him, rejoiceth 
greatly because of the Bridegroom's voice: this my 
joy therefore is made full." 

u O thou fairest among women," no more wilt 
thou consort with human leaders; but "thy desire 
shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee." 
Thou shalt hove no leader but Christ. And thy name 
shall be Christian; thy character shall be Christian; 
thy creed shall be Christian; and thy fellowship 
shall be Christian. 

* This view of Rice Haggard is yet further confirmed by 
Davidson's History of the Presbyterian Church in Kentucky (page 
108) which says : "They (the Christians) proposed to establish a 
grand communion, which should agree to unite upon the simplest 
fundamental principles, according to a plan drawn up by Rice 
Haggard, such as worshiping one God, acknowledging Jesus Christ 
as the Savior ; taking the Bible for the sole confession of faith, 
and organizing on the New Testament model. To this union of 
all disciples of Christ, they gave the name of "The Christian 
Church/' and would recognize no sectarian appellation." — Editor. 




Founder of the "Christian Connection" in New 


The term "Founder," I believe, is correctly given 
to Abner Jones, from the fact that he established 
the first church organization in New England tak- 
ing simply the name "Christian." 

He was born in Royalston, Mass., April 28, 1772, 
of humble parentage. He knew the deprivations of 
pioneer life, as his parents removed to Bridgewater, 
Vt., before he was eight years old and lived, as the 
early settlers of that town lived, with none of the 
luxuries now found in the homes of rural communi- 
ties. He evidently improved the scant educational 
privileges then afforded of a few weeks schooling in 
a year, as he was able to teach several terms before 
he entered upon the work of his calling, first as a 
physician and then as a preacher. 

The obstacles he encountered were overcome, and 
doubtless contributed their share in the making of 
the man and the development of sturdy character. 
One experience which has been preserved for our 
consideration and profit was his spiritual exercise 
of mind when a mere lad. For several years a great 
conflict was waged in his mind as to the duty of 
living a Christian life. The sense of sin was es- 
pecially acute, and caused him great mental anxie 
ty. Depressed much of the time for many months 



because of his consciousness of sin, he finally sur 
rendered himself to Christ, and found inexpressible 
joy. This experience was evidently his before he 
was fourteen years of age. But after this experi- 
ence of several months, he passed through seasons 
of doubt and anguish, from which he was not en- 
tirely delivered until some years later. The ques- 
tion of baptism was one of the subjects that en- 
gaged his attention frequently, and, because he 
shrank from it, occasioned many unhappy hours. 
However, he finally decided the question, and was 
baptized by Elder Elisha Ransom, on June 9, 1793, 
undoubtedly by immersion, near the North Meeting- 
House, in Woodstock, Vermont. 

Some of the incidents of his life, prior to his bap- 
tism, the record of which he preserved in his publish- 
ed personal narrative, were regarded by him as 
judgments from God, sent upon him because of his 
disobedience. Among These may be mentioned his 
sickness at about the age of seventeen ; the cutting of 
his foot with an axe, inflicting an injury which caused 
him inconvenience during his whole life; an injury a 
few months following this which disabled him from 
engaging in hard, physical toil, and another sick- 
ness while spending a few months in the state of 
New York. 

Immediately following his baptism, he set out 
on foot to go from Woodstock, Vermont, to some 
place on the seashore in New Hampshire, a dis- 
tance of fully 125 miles by the route which he 
traveled. On his way, he visited in Grafton, N. H., 
Salisbury, where Elias Smith was laboring in a 
"glorious reformation," and several other towns 

Site of the log cabin erected by Abner Jones' father, the first set- 
tler in the town of Bridgewater, Vermont. The rock pile 
indicates the exact spot of Abner Jones' boyhood home. 

(From a photograph by F. A. Richmond.) 


on the route, finally reaching the coast, probably 
in the present town of North Hampton, where he 
remained for some time, receiving much help from 
bathing in the ocean and drinking the salt water. 
He met Uriah Smith, the brother of Elias, who had 
just commenced to preach, and was laboring in the 
towns in the vicinity of North Hampton, and spent 
some time with him, later returning home by much 
the same route by which 1 he went. He was soon call- 
ed to his brother's in Stillwater, N. Y., on account 
of the sickness which soon terminated fatally, 
though not until he had renounced Universalism and 
become a Christian, evidently as a result, in part at 
least, of Abner's faithful efforts. 

On his return from New York, he engaged in 
teaching in the neighboring town of Hartland, Vt., 
where he remained nearly a year and a half, during 
which time he actively participated in the religious 
meetings, though still hesitating to believe that his 
life-work was to be that of preaching the gospel. 
Apparently because his mind was much exercised 
upon the subject of preaching the gospel, he gave 
earnest heed to the teaching from the pulpit, and 
found that he was not fully in accord with it. He 
gave much thought and careful investigation to re- 
ligious subjects, which resulted in his finding him- 
self not in harmony with some of the doctrinal 
preaching of the ministry of the Church. He de- 
termined to believe and practice only such teachings 
as he found in the Bible. He discarded the name 
"Baptist," but was willing to be styled friend, dis- 
ciple, or Christian. While the pastor of the church 
declared that he would accept no teaching for which 


he did not have Biblical authority, Mr. Jones was 
unable to dissuade him from some of his views, 
even when he was unable to cite Scripture for them. 

While his mind was not fully settled as to the 
future work, because he had thought much about 
becoming a physician, he studied medicine, apparent- 
ly teaching some of the time, possibly to secure the 
means to help obtain his medical education, and he 
entered upon the practice of this profession. He 
lived for a short time in Hartford, Vt, Grafton, 
X. H., and Lyndon, Yt. He had married, his wife 
being Miss Damaris Prior. Before his marriage 
he had made Miss Prior fully acquainted with his 
views of duty, assuring her that he might feel 
obliged to give up his work as a physician and be- 
come a minister. 

His success as a physician was good, and ap- 
parently his profession had so engrossed his at- 
tention that he had slackened his activity in Chris- 
tian service, for he bears testimony that his hope 
became dimmed, and as a result of laying down his 
public testimony, a season of darkness had ensued, 
in the third year of his residence in Lyndon, there 
was a great revival in a neighboring town some ten 
miles north, and having heard much about it, he de- 
termined to visit the place and see for himself. This 
visit led him to confess his backslidings, both public- 
ly and privately, when he again received the assur- 
ance of his acceptance with God. He again entered 
heartily into the active work as a Christian, and in 
that connection, the duty of preaching the gospel 
was forcibly pressed upon his mind. Careful and 
prayerful attention was given to the matter, and as 


lie was praying, seeking to be shown what was his 
duty, this passage of Scripture came to him: "A 
man's gift maketh room for him, and bringeth him 
before great men." (Prow 18:16.) Teace came to 
his soul, and he promised God to enter upon the 
work, if He would open the way. Soon the oppor- 
tunity came, as he was asked to hold a meeting a 
few miles from home. He accordingly made an 
appointment for a certain Sabbath, and the mani- 
fest help given him by Clod gave him assurance that 
he was in the path of duty. Other openings came 
to him, so that he was fully convinced that it was 
the will of God that he should become a preacher 
of the gospel. He felt that he must give up the prac- 
tice of medicine and give himself wholly to the 
work. Despite the warning he had given his wife as 
to the matter, she was not fully agreed with him 
in his decision, as it seemed to her to be a great 
sacrifice, but she finally acceded to his decision and 
afterward became a true helpmate to him in his 

He began to preach in September, 1801, and was 
soon invited to preach in the neighboring towns. 
Not long after this, probably before February, 1802, 
lie, with about a dozen other laymen of Lyndon, or- 
ganized the first church taking the name of "Chris- 
tian" only. He thus severed his relationship with 
the Baptists, and though urged to join the Free Will 
Baptists, he declined to do so unless he could be 
simply a Christian, a free man. Upon these condi- 
tions they gave him the hand of fellowship, and 
voluntarily appointed a council for his ordination, 
which occurred the last of November, 1802, the of- 


ficiating clergymen being Elders Aaron Buzzell, 
Nathaniel King and Nathaniel Brown. 

About the time of his ordination he organized 
the second church taking the name of "Christian" 
only, in the town of Hanover, N. H., and soon after 
the third church so named, at Piermont, N. H. 
All these churches had a short existence and have 
been extinct more than fifty years. 

During the following two years his life was a 
bus}' one, he frequently preaching twenty-five to 
thirty times a month, visiting various places, in- 
cluding Boston and Portsmouth, N. H., tarrying at 
the latter place some time with Elias Smith, with 
whom, as his son expresses it, he had "glorious 
times," as they then were kindred souls. 

In Boston, in connection with his preaching in 
the two Baptist churches, there was an extensive 
revival, which spread into surrounding towns, in 
which Mr. Jones also preached. About the close 
of this revival, Smith withdrew from the Baptist 
denomination, and because Jones continued to fel- 
lowship him, he was no longer welcome in Baptist 
pulpits. On this account, evidently, it was deemed 
necessary to organize a new church in Boston, upon 
the same basis as the previous three organizations 
occupied, and accordingly the Christian Church of 
Boston was organized July 1, 1804, with seven mem- 
bers. Jones remained the pastor of this church, 
though frequently preaching in other places, until 
January, 1807. He then removed to Bradford, now 
a part of Haverhill, Mass., preaching most of the 
time in Salem, Mass., to which place he removed 
two years later. His ministry here was greatly 


blessed, the church enjoying a revival season, soon 
after he became pastor, spreading to the surround- 
ing towns. As the members of the church were 
poor, Mr. Jones taught a day school in his home for 
a time, and also gave instruction in sacred music 
to aid in securing financial support. 

In March, 1812, he took up his abode in Ports 
mouth, N. H., remaining there until the fall of 1S14, 
when he moved to Stratham, N. H., some twelve 
miles from Portsmouth, that he might reside in a 
safer place, as Portsmouth was blockaded by the 
British. For some months he was largely occupied 
in visiting and preaching among the churches, en- 
couraging them in their seasons of trial and dis- 
couragement. Elder Jones was not free from trials 
himself, as he was often in need of money to supply 
the needs of his family, and hence suffered some dep- 
rivations, but was never discouraged, and often lent 
a helping hand to those less fortunate than himself. 

Tn November, 1815, he moved his family to Hop- 
kinton, N. H., he having decided to take the over- 
sight of the church there, organized in 1771, and 
which is the present Baptist church of that town. 
At that time this was a place second in importance 
to Concord only, in central New Hampshire. It 
was a decidedly pleasant field. 

He had given up the practice of medicine when 
he gave himself fully to the work of the ministry, 
but the appearance of a disease known as the "Cold 
Plague" or "Spotted Fever" in the town of Deerfield, 
some thirty miles from his home, caused the physi- 
cian there to send an imperative summons to Elder 
Jones for help, which was so importunate that 


he finally yielded and went to the aid of his old 
friend, and as the disease appeared in Hopkinton 
only a few days after his return home, the calls 
came for his service in such way that he regarded 
it as a providential opening for him to resume 
practice, in which he continued during his resi- 
dence there. 

Despite the opposition that was aroused because 
of this resumption of medical practice, he had two 
seasons of revival, the work also benefiting the 
Congregational church as well as his own. 

While pastor here, he decided to banish the use 
of intoxicating liquors from his home, which was 
a pronounced advance step in temperance reform 
in those days. 

Because of some opposition, Elder Jones decided 
to leave Hopkinton, though it was a great sacri- 
fice for him to do so, and yielded to the urgent re- 
quest of his former Salem friends to become pastor 
there again, so in 1822 he took up his residence 
there, though he had preached there several months 
before removing his family from Hopkinton. 

During this pastorate a new church building was 
built, which was dedicated May 1, 1828. Of this 
building he later said, as he was considering the 

call to Milan, N. Y. : 

If I leave Salem, ... I must leave a large, beautiful 
meeting-bouse, built after my own plan, and tbe most com- 
modious bouse I bave ever seen. 

His two pastorates in Salem covered about eleven 

It was while absent from this church on leave, 
in 1829, that he was taken sick in New York state, 
and upon his recovery, he visited Milan, N. Y., 


among other places, and tarried there and preached, 
as they were destitute of a pastor, owing to the 
death a short time before of Kev. John L. Peavey. 
Though he had entertained no thought of severing 
his relation with the Salem church, the appeal of 
the Milan brethren finally prevailed, and he decided 
to become their pastor, serving them some three 
years. His relations here were pleasant, and he 
anticipated continuing as pastor, when he went on a 
journey, accompanied by his wife, to visit their 
children and old friends in Salem and other places. 
After having been away from Milan nearly four 
months, having received a pressing invitation to 
become pastor at Assonet, Mass., he decided to ac- 
cept it, having secured a release from the Milan 
church, and entered upon his work in October, 1833. 
Three years later his wife, after a long sickness, 
during a year of which she was helpless, passed away, 
which was a great affliction to him. He continued 
his pastorate there until the spring of 1838, pur- 
posing to take a journey into the Middle, and pos- 
sibly, the Western states, thus carrying out the plan 
that was interrupted by sickness nine years before. 
However, he was never able to carry out his plan. 

He supplied the Portsmouth, N. H., church for 
a few months, and then accepted the call to a small 
parish in Upton, Mass., where he dwelt about two 
years. While here, he traveled some, and visited 
all the churches of which he had been pastor. 

On August 1, 1831), he was married by his son, 
A. 1>. Jones, to Mrs. Nancy F. Clark, of Nantucket, 
at his son's home in P»righton, Mass. 

Concluding his ministry at Upton in April, 1810, 


he decided to make his home in the beautiful vil- 
lage of Exeter, N. H., now an important educational 
center, and he accordingly purchased and refitted a 
cottage there, his health giving promise of several 
years more of life. 

But this promise was soon dissipated, as he was 
taken ill in the winter, and his sickness made such 
progress that he closed his mortal career on May 
29, 1841. The funeral service was held in the 
Christian church, in Exeter, May 31, Elder Elijah 
Shaw, a long time friend and brother, preaching the 
sermon, while some twenty preachers, representing 
several denominations, were present, including the 
well-known Mark Fernald, who, in his autobiog- 
raphy, speaks of Elder Jones in these words, after 
mentioning the fact that he was at the funeral : 
"Much might be said in justice and truth in favor 
of Elder Jones." Certainly we may give him the 
same meed of praise that is spoken of Barnabas: 
"He was a good man, and full of the Holy Spirit 
and of faith." 

While only four churches which he served as 
pastor are now included within the fellowship of 
the denomination called Christian, yet many places 
where he lived and preached are to-day reaping the 
fruit of his labors, and of others associated with 
him, in the larger spirit of brotherhood that pre- 
vails, and only eternity can make known how much 
and how well he wrought. 

He was a man of great activity during all his 
ministry, and was instrumental in leading many 
unto a saving faith in Christ. 

Laconia, N. H, 




The Founder of Religious Journalism 

Foreign Mission Secretary 

The centennial of religions journalism is an event 
worthy of more than passing thought, and the man 
who pioneered the way, who published the first re- 
ligious newspaper, was a man whose acquaintance 
it is still worth while to cultivate, even though it 
must be by biography. 


Stephen and Irene (Ransom) Smith, of Lyme, 
Connecticut, were blessed with three sons and two 
daughters, the son Elias being born -June 17, 1760. 
Of these five children, the two brothers, Elias and 
Uriah, gained the most fame, and Elias outshone his 
brother. The elder Smith was a tiller of the soil, 
in very humble circumstances, and his family never 
knew the enervation of luxury. But Stephen Smith 
was an intensely religious man, affected by the re- 
ligious atmosphere of that time in New England, 
a member of the Baptist Church. Mrs. Smith had 
been a Congregational] st before her marriage. And 
the children who lighted their humble home shared 
the religious instruction imparted by their parents. 

The boy Elias was inured to hardship and pri- 
vation. His privileges were exceedingly limited. He 
tells us that his schooling began in his fourth year. 



and practically ended in his thirteenth. He was 
naturally quick of mind, and the events transpiring 
during his earlier years, together with the throb 
bing religious atmosphere, effectually awakened and 
developed his intellectual powers. The American 
colonies were passing through the throes incident 
upon birth of American Independence, and the lad 
used to see the British ships sailing Long Island 
Hound. The Battle of Bunker Hill was fought on 
the sixth anniversary 7 of his birth. And from his 
earliest days until mature manhood his mind was 
under the influence of successive religious awaken- 
ings in the communities where he lived. As a mere 
lad he used to have fears for his eternal welfare, and 
went by himself to pray a prayer out of his spelling- 
book. When eight years old, by connivance of his 
mother and her brother, the boy was captured while 
endeavoring to escape from the meeting-house, forci 
bly held in front of the minister and baptized by 
sprinkling, in spite of vigorous juvenile protests. 

In the spring of 1782, Mr. Smith, Sr., went to 
South Woodstock, Vermont, and began the erection 
of a house, back on the hillside in the dense forest, 
where he had purchased a tract of land. The whole 
country was new and largely a forest wilderness, and 
yet Mr. Smith thought to move with his family to 
thai new country. Before the house was completed 
he returned to Lyme ; and somewhat later in the sea 
son loaded his household effects onto a primitive 
cart, and began the difficult journey to the new 
home. The road was exceedingly hard, lying up 
along the Connecticut river as far as Windsor, and 
then westward a dozen miles through woods and 

Site of the Stephen Smith home, now part of the Isaiah Fullerton 

farm, South Woodstock, Vermont. Here Elias Smith grew 

from hovhood to manhood. 

(From photo by Walter Shurtleff. ) 


over hills. Elias trudged on foot nearly every mile 
of the one hundred and eighty. When at last the 
family came to the new home, this son was so re- 
volted at the sight that he really started back to- 
ward Connecticut. 

South Woodstock was a growing little village, 
and before long there were two meeting-houses in 
the place, one belonging to the Baptists, and one 
to the Congregationalists. Eev. Aaron Hutchin- 
son, of Pomfret, the town north of Woodstock, used 
to preach in (he Congregational meeting-house. 
This man was a Harvard graduate, and the pioneer 
preacher in that part of Vermont. The Baptist 
ministers were itinerants, and within a few years 
the South Woodstock people heard a number of 
them of varying degrees of ability and training. 
These preachers were the men under whose influence 
Elias Smith came. 

In one of his despondent moods, some time in 
his sixteenth year, he went into the woods to brood 
over his religions condition, and experienced what 
he afterward recognized as his conversion; although 
years later he was tormented with doubts as to 
its reality. He now read his Bible continually, and 
Pell into the way of squaring all his experiences and 
convictions by the plain understanding of what he 
read. He was so much immersed in religious re- 
flections that he was quite unfit for ordinary man- 
ual toil. 

Stephen Smith recognized the fact that his son 
would not make a good farmer, and plainly advised 
him to seek sonic other occupation. It was here, 
in his eighteenth year, that Elias had forty days 1 


schooling, thirty to learn Dilworth's grammar, ten 
to learn arithmetic, and eight evenings to learn 
music. With such meager accomplishments to 
boast of, young Smith began to teach school in his 
own district, acquitting himself satisfactorily. He 
had leisure for reading. By a visit to Connecticut 
his horizon was much broadened, and his religious 
experience somewhat deepened. 

Soon after his return to Woodstock he was much 
exercised about baptism, and set his mind at rest 
by being immersed by Rev. William Grow, after 
which he enrolled himself with the Second Baptist 
church of Woodstock. His services as school- 
master were again required by his home district. 


For several years Smith had been much vexed 
with thoughts of becoming a minister. In the last 
year of his school teaching, impelled largely by 
the necessity of deciding one way or the other, he 
obtained leave of absence from school and visited 
several Baptist association meetings. Finally a 
dream seemed to furnish him indubitable evidence 
of a call to the ministry, and he yielded to what 
seemed the divine will, immediately procuring books 
and setting about preparation in earnest. By in- 
vitation he made a trip northward in Vermont, and 
across to Piermont and Haverhill, New Hampshire, 
preaching a few times. For about twenty years he 
continued to travel and preach. Most of his earlier 
efforts were in New Hampshire and northeastern 

In 1792, while residing at Lee, New Hampshire, 


Elias Smith was ordained as an evangelist, care- 
fully stipulating that he should be free to travel 
and preach as the apostles did. Three thousand 
people, it was estimated, were present at the or- 
dination, which was granted by the Baptists. A 
year later Mary Burleigh, daughter of Josiah Bur- 
leigh, of Newmarket, New Hampshire, became Mrs. 
Smith, and they set up housekeeping in the humblest 
fashion at Salisbury. 

Notwithstanding all his hatred for such things 
and all his fulminations against them, Smith actual- 
ly suffered an installation as pastor of a Baptist 
church in Woburn, Mass., black clothes, band, and 
all the trappings accompanying, and determined to 
settle down and stop his wanderings. The church 
agreed to pay him $333.33 a year. This was in 1798. 
lie immediately felt himself in galling bondage, 
which continued until he snapped the bonds. The 
church demanded all the benefices conferred upon 
its pastor, and he departed almost penniless. Mean- 
time, to mend his finances, he had become a member 
of a mercantile company which opened a store in 
Woodstock, Vermont. The store was moved to 
Salisbury, New Hampshire, in 1801, and Smith de- 
termined to settle there, engage in business and 
quit the ministry. The business throve, and he re- 
garded himself as quite affluent. But being a mer- 
chant was bondage to him also, and he felt as bad 
as ever. This time Providence released him ; for 
the declaration of peace between France and Eng- 
land destroyed war-time prices, and Smith and his 
partners were left nearly bankrupt. Finally his 
real estate was turned to the partners, and he was 


released from his obligations, almost in destitute 

It should be stated that a second reason had in- 
fluenced him to engage in merchandising — the loss 
of his Calvinistic theology, leaving him undecided 
as to what he should preach. He was regarded as 
a Baptist minister in good standing; but for some 
time had preached with "mental reservations," and 
felt guilty and ill at ease. Eeason and heart told 
him that the doctrine of election and others of that 
class were wrong. The influence of his younger 
brother finally swung him to Universalism, which 
he embraced for fifteen days. Then he parted from 
all isms, as he supposed, forever. 


It should not De supposed that Mr. Smith ceased 
his gospel ministry at this point, when he began to 
write and publish. On the contrary, authorship 
was an extra line of work, and did not abate a jot 
of his incessant ministerial labors. 

After the disappointing experience in the mer- 
cantile business, Elias Smith moved to Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire, and began to preach there. It 
was about this time, in 1802, that the stinging cuts 
of his enemies who attacked him in print suggested 
to him public printed rejoinders for the dissemina- 
tion of his views and defense. A discourse on bap- 
tism was his first printed piece. Three large edi- 
tions of a Thanksgiving sermon were printed and 
exhausted. In the winter and spring of 1803 he 
composed "The History of the Anti-Christ," which 
was first printed in the New Hampshire Gazette, 


later appearing in pamphlet form. That was fol- 
lowed by "The Clergyman's Looking Glass," a 
brochure severely arraigning the ''clergy," by which 
word he meant to include the ministers of the Epis- 
copal Church, and such others as were "settled" in 
the various towns and supported by public taxa- 

The year 1804 was a busy one, and Mr. Smith 
suffered greatly in spirit because of his persecu- 
tions. New numbers of "The Clergyman's Looking 
Glass" were issued, attacking prevalent doctrines 
and abuses in the Church. About February of this 
year he underwent the most trying ordeal of his 
life up to this point. During his absence from the 
city an advertisement of a pamphlet aimed at an 
"Episcopalian priest" appeared in the New Hamp- 
shire Gazette, which greatly incensed some of the 
people. The printer had his printing office taken 
from him, and was later imprisoned. When Elias 
returned to the city, it was in an uproar, and the 
authorship of the pamphlet was laid to him. A 
mob surrounded him in a barber shop, and he was 
in danger of physical violence. With difficulty he 
convinced the committee from the mob that waited 
on him that he had no knowledge of the pamphlet, 
and the crowd withdrew, although the city was in 
a tumult all night Wednesday and all day Thurs- 
day, and a large body of his friends had to escort 
him to and from his evening services. 

During March he published, "The Whole World 
Governed by a Jew," and his enemies grew still 
angrier. About this time he started a magazine 
entitled, "The Christian's Magazine, Reviewer and 


Religious Intelligencer, consisting of subjects His- 
torical, Doctrinal, Experimental, Practical, and 
Poetical.*' Contemporary sermons were pungently 
reviewed in the new publication, and Smith's ene- 
mies were not at all mollified. He was met with a 
cold shoulder throughout a trip to Massachusetts, 
owing to the influence of the Baptists, who claimed 
to have excommunicated him. This he met with 
"A Short Sermon to the Calvinist Baptists in Mas- 
sachusetts," the text being 1 Samuel 26 : 19, 20. A 
history of the clergy from the third century down 
was printed in the Christian's Magazine. Mr. Smith 
remarks that the clergy in Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire were much disturbed by his writings 
this year. 

And now we come to a noteworthy date in the 
history of journalism. On September 1, 1808, ap- 
peared the first issue of the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty, the first religious newspaper ever published, so 
far as is known. The conception of a religious 
newspaper belonged to Hon. Isaac Wilber, of Little 
Compton, Rhode Island, who made proposals to 
Mr. Smith to edit such a paper, friends providing 
for its publication. Smith rejected the proposal, but 
a few months later issued the paper as above stated, 
and on his own responsibility, insuring his own 
freedom of utterance. The journal was a four-page 
sheet, pages about nine by twelve inches, issued at 
Portsmouth, X. H., every other Thursday morning, 
at one dollar a year. The motto contained the idea 
of a newspaper: 

From realms far distant, and from climes unknown ; 
We make the knowledge of our King your own. 


Two hundred and seventy-four subscribers coin- 
prised the first list, and in September, 1815, the 
number had increased to only fifteen hundred. 

At Little Hampton, south of Portsmouth, Mr. 
Smith again narrowly escaped mob yiolence. This 
was in 1808. His publishers refused to print any 
more of his books, and he arranged with Henry 
Ranlet, of Exeter, N. H., to do his printing. 

After seven years of residence in Portsmouth, 
in February, 1810, Elias and his family removed 
to Portland, Maine, and the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty was published from that city. This move he 
always regretted. The next spring he was induced 
to move to Philadelphia; and there, at his resi- 
dence on Christian Street, between Fifth and Sixth, 
he issued the Herald once in two weeks. Six 
months of the next year were occupied in compos- 
ing his "New Testament Dictionary," the most dif 
ficult of all his undertakings. Greatly reduced by his 
herculean labors and by imminent bankruptcy, he 
fell sick with typhus fever while in New England 
collecting money to relieve his embarrassment. 
Early in 1814 his wife died in Philadelphia in his 
absence in New England. And so trouble was 
heaped upon trouble. 

Mr. Smith resolved to return to Portsmouth, and 
actually arrived there in January, 1815, with his 
second wife, who was Miss Rachel Thurber, of 
Providence, R. 1. To liquidate his debts in Phila- 
delphia had taken his whole properly, even to table 
cutlery, and once more he was stripped of posses 
sions. Friends rallied and he kept on printing the 

510 T HE C E N T E N N I A L OF 

Herald. His autobiography was completed and 
printed in the spring of 181G. 

In rapid review we have passed over the four- 
teen years of Smith's life which were most prolific 
of labors and trials. His ministerial labors were 
prodigious; his journeys were frequent, long, and 
arduous; the opposition he met was bitter and vio- 
lent. Looking back over this period, he expressed 
surprise that he had been able to undergo so much. 

For a long time I was a spectacle to those characters, 
and an object of ridicule while passing the streets. Some 
of every class, from children to men of gray hairs, treated 
me with contempt, while passing peaceably along. I often 
received abusive language from people in the streets, and 
from windows of houses, stores, and workshops. 


In the spring of 1816, probably already con- 
templating a change in occupation, Mr. Smith re- 
moved to Boston. It has been generally acceded 
by his critics that his financial difficulties drove 
him to the change. For Smith's finances were al- 
ways in chaotic condition ; he traveled and pub- 
lished much ; he received only the meagerest sup- 
port from churches he served ; and he always had 
a family to support. 

Hence after settling in Boston he formed con- 
nection with the famous Dr. Samuel Thomson, of 
that city, originator of the "Thomsonian System" 
of medicine and therapeutics. Smith had read con- 
siderable about the Thomsonian System, and had 
made practical trial of it. He believed Thomson 
right, and saw a way to become a practitioner. 
Hence he learned Thomson's theory and "Materia 
Medica," and soon fell into a lucrative practice; al- 


though at first he had only thought to practice in his 
own family and among near friends. Henceforth he 
was Dr. Elias Smith, and resided many years in 
Boston, maintaining his practice. He is said to 
have written much upon medical themes, his most 
considerable pieces being '"The People's Book," and 
"The American Physician," copies of which are 
still extant. 

The change of occupation greatly chagrined 
his friends; but that emotion was mild compared 
to their consternation and wrath, when, a few 
months after he embraced the medical profession, 
he announced his conversion to Universalism, mak- 
ing the declaration through the Herald. He joined 
the "Universal Convention," and preached the new 
doctrine in Boston and elsewhere. But he could 
not go the whole length of the universal tenets, 
clung to the most of his former beliefs, and did 
not find real hearty fellowship among the Univer- 

Thus far Smith had continued the Herald, The 
vagary of the editor and publisher no doubt affected 
its subscription list; and then he was almost ab 
sorbed in his new occupation. The Christians need- 
ed the journal, and a very loyal man, named Robert 
Foster, acquired the paper, moved it back to Ports 
mouth, changed the name, and went on with the 
publication. The former champion of religious lib- 
erty was now quite free to pursue his medical 
studies and practice. This was in the spring of 
ISIS, a turning point in the career of Elias Smith. 

Not many of Smith's medical writings are accessi 


ble now. The general tenor of his work may be 
judged from the title page of his best medical book, 


















This was a constructive work, following out the 
Thomsonian lines of practice and theory. 

A few events in this period may be enumerated 
in concluding. In October, 1817, soon after Dr. 
Smith embraced Universalism, an "Elders' Con- 
ference" was held at Portsmouth to consider what 


could be done to hinder the inroads of that faith. 
The upshot was the beginning of discipline and or 
ganization among the Christians in New England. 

The Herald of Gospel Liberty changed hands in 
the spring of 1818. Some time between these two 
dates the Portsmouth Christian church withdrew 
fellowship from their former pastor. 

At a session of the New Hampshire Christian 
Conference, held at Guilford, June 16, 1823, Smith 
was present and publicly renounced Universalism, 
explaining how he fell into the error. He made a 
second confession before the same body at Dur- 
ham, in 1827. At sundry other times he acknowl- 
edged his error, in hopes of re-establishing fellow- 
ship with his old comrades in the reformation ; but 
his advances were met only coolly. 

In 1829 he started another magazine, which con- 
tinued for a time. 

"The American Physician" was published in 1832, 
seven years after Dr. Thomson had issued his "Ma- 
teria Medica." 

"The People's Book" saw the light in 1836. 

Finally the Portsmouth church restored Smith 
to its fellowship on February 20, 1840. He was 
then a hale and hearty old man, full of hopes, 
planning to resume his Christian ministry. He did 
preach some; but the lost ground of more than twen- 
ty years he never recovered. Before he had freed 
himself from other cares and fairly embarked again 
in the preaching of the gospel, he passed to his rest 
on June 20, 1840, in the city of Lynn, Mass., 
whither he had removed some time previous to his 



Like most reformers, Elias Smith became so by 
force of circumstances. He bad, as a youth, taken 
his stand by the Bible, declining to accept more or 
less in the way of Christian faith and guidance in 
practical conduct. As early as 1802 he had ab- 
jured all sectarian names and professed to be mere- 
ly a "Christian." A little later he stigmatized the 
catechism as a human invention. During the same 
summer eleven Baptist preachers met in "The 
Christian Conference," and all but committed them- 
selves to leave behind "everything in name, doctrine, 
or practice, not found in the New Testament." 
Most of the eleven retreated later. 

During 1802 and 1803 Elder Smith was gather- 
ing a following in Portsmouth, N. H. In 1803 El- 
der Abner Jones, of Vermont, arrived, and by his 
influence the church in Portsmouth and the Chris- 
tian Conference were induced to throw away their 
articles and accept the New Testament as an "all- 
sufficient rule for Christians." 

For years the Baptists had been fighting what 
they were pleased to call "The Established Church," 
the church supported by tax, and waged war on 
much of the Puritan ecclesiasticism then predomi- 
nant. Smith threw himself unreservedly into the 
conflict. His condemnation was unsparing. 

In the year 1803 he was cited to appear before the 
Woburn church to answer to charges. Immediately 
he withdrew "for want of fellowship," telling the 
church that he voluntarily joined them, and that 
lie as voluntarily withdrew. However, he was ex- 
communicated. He told the church : 

IlELIGIOUS J U 11 N A L I S M 315 

If you wish to know what denomination I belong to, I 
tell you, as a professor of religion, I am a Christian; as a 
preacher, a minister of Christ ; calling no man father or 
master ; holding as abominable in the sight of God every- 
thing highly esteemed among men, such as Calvinism, Ar- 
minianism, free-willism, universalism, reverend, parsons, 
chaplains, doctors of divinity, clergy, bands, surplices, notes, 
creeds, covenants, platforms, with the spirit of slander, 
which those who hold to these things, are too often in pos- 
session of. 

In 1816 lie defined positively his position as fol- 
lows : 

The Holy Scriptures are the only sure, authentic and 
infallible rule of faith and practice ; the name Christian 
is the only proper one for the believer; in all essentials 
the Scriptures are plain to be understood; every Christian 
is free to examine the Scriptures for himself and to im- 
partially judge of the sense and meaning of the same ; 
every Christian has a right to publish and vindicate what 
he believes is contained in the Scriptures, and to serve God 
according to his own conscience. 

Beyond these statements Smith never went. In 
his later years he seems to have recognized the ex- 
cess of his reformatory zeal, and some intemperance 
in his denunciation of error and abuse. The later 
statements of his principles were in moderate dic- 
tion and terms; but the principles themselves were 
hut little altered. 

In concluding this sketch one may declare his 
admiration for Elias Smith, minister of the gospel 
and reformer. Considering his humble origin and 
limited early opportunities, no one could have pre 
dieted such a brilliant career. He was a natural, 
forceful orator, a brilliant journalist, and intrepid 
lender in reformation. His character was above re 
proach. His conscience was tender, and his sense 
of true religious liberty was keen and clear. While 
he was subject to despondency and vagary, yet his 


doctrinal contentions largely foreshadowed the com- 
monly accepted positions of to-day. On the subjects 
of church organization and association, and dele 
gated conferences, his positions were probably un- 
sound. Smith's labors were prodigious, his perse 
cutions and trials almost beyond belief. On the 
whole, he was a remarkable man, and lacked little 
if any of true greatness, being one of the command 
ing figures of his day in i\ew England. 

Dayton, Ohio. 



A Scholar and Reformer 


President of Union Christian College 

Among the brightest names on the list of God's 
evangelists shines that of Barton Warren Stone. 
In brilliancy of intellect, in nobility of character, 
in purity of heart, in fearlessness in the discharge 
of duty and in fullness of Christ's spirit, he had few 
equals; but, like all great men of his class, he was 
bitterly persecuted and venomously slandered by 
those who hated and envied him because of his fear 
less denunciation of the evils they succored. 

The opening words of his autobiography are: 

I was born near Port-Tobaeco, in the state of Maryland. 
December 24, 1772. My father, John Stone, died when I 
was young. I have no recollection of him in life. My 
mother, whose maiden name was Mary Warren, a few years 
after the death of my father, with a large family of chil- 
dren and servants, moved to the then called backwoods of 
Virginia. Pittsylvania county, near Dan river, about eighty 
miles below the Blue Mountains. This occurred in 177fi 
during the Revolutionary War. 

Though a mere child, the horrors of the Revolu- 
tionary War made a deep and lasting impression 
on his mind. In the battle between Generals Green 
and Cornwallis, he says: "We distinctly heard the 
roar of the artillery, and awfully feared the re- 
sult." Then followed (as they had preceded) the 
bitter religious contentions, — the Presbyterians, the 
Baptists, the Episcopalians; until ''about this time 

sife ^fe 

% : 



came a few Methodist preachers," and the older 
sects began to unite in their opposition to the new 
arrival. The child was very deeply impressed by 
the religious agitations, revivals and wars, and was 
much tossed about on the waves of doubt and un- 
certainty in the midst of these troublous seas. And 
yet even now his precocious mind was forming opin- 
ions and arriving at conclusions that would have 
done honor to the low standard of sectarian conten- 
tion of the time. 

Little did his widowed mother, laboring in poverty 
to provide for her household, dream that the bright, 
alert, vivacious, yet remarkably conscientious lad, 
playing in her yard, or with sparkling eyes relating 
to her his childish discoveries of joys, or with 
troubled head bowed in her lap poured out his 
childish troubles, was one of the mighty "chosen ves- 
sels"' of God to bear to the world the glad message of 
Christian fellowship, and to lead the armies of 
Jehovah against religious intolerance and ecclesias- 
tical bigotry. Like the slave mother of Booker T. 
Washington, like the widowed mother of Lincoln, 
or of Garfield, so the mother of Barton W. Stone, 
all unconsciously, yet nevertheless carefully and 
prayerfully, was preparing for her nation, for her 
church, for her God, a gift such as the wealth of 
a Rockefeller or a Carnegie or a Gould cannot offer. 

He took deep interest and intense delight in study, 
and quickly and thoroughly mastered the rude 
branches that were then considered a "common 
school education," and then determined to secure a 
higher education. In this ambition his mother fully 


concurred. He entered an academy at Guilford, N. 

C, in 1790. To quote his own words : 

With the ardor of Eneas' sou, I commenced with the full 
purpose to acquire an education, or die in the attempt. 
With such a mind every obstacle can be surmounted in the 
affairs of life. I stripped myself of every hindrance for 
the course — denied myself of strong food — lived chiefly on 
milk and vegetables, and allowed myself but six or seven 
hours in the twenty -four for sleep. By such indefatigable 
application to study, as might be expected, I passed several 
classes, until I came up with one of equal application, with 
which I continued through the whole of our academic 

At the very time he entered this academy the dis- 
tinguished Presbyterian preacher, James McGready, 
was engaged in a revival meeting in the community, 
and a number of students of the academy were 
among the converts. Young Stone had entered the 
academy determined to secure a thorough education, 
and to fit himself for the practice of law; and he 
feared that religion would thwart the object he had 
in view. He therefore determined to avoid the com 
pany of the religious element of the school, and to 
that end immediately sought the association of 
"that part of the students who made light of divine 
things, and joined with them in their jests at the 
pious." "For this," he says, "my conscience severe- 
ly upbraided me when alone, and made me so un- 
happy that I could neither enjoy the company of 
the pious nor the impious." Space forbids the full 
account of his long struggle and profoundly inter- 
esting conversion. I will quote only the closing 
words of his own account : 

The discourse being ended, I immediately retired to the 
woods alone with my Bible. Here I read and prayed with 
various feelings, between hope and fear. But the truth I 
hart just heard, "God is love," prevailed. Jesus came to 


seek and to save the lost — "Hiru that coroeth unto Me, I will 
in no wise cast out." I yielded and sunk at His feet a 
willing subject. I loved Him — I adored Him — I praised 
Him aloud in the silent night, in the echoing grove around. 
I confessed to the Lord my sin and folly in disbelieving 
His word so long — and in following so long the devices of 
men. I now saw that a poor sinner was as much author- 
ized to believe in Jesus at first, as at last — that now was 
the accepted time, and day of salvation. From that time 
until I finished my course of learning, I lived devoted to 

As with Paul, as with Luther, so with Stone, — 
God laid the foundation of his great life in the mor- 
tar of trials and sorrow. 

Stone became a thorough scholar. He mastered 
not only the natural sciences and mathematics ; but 
he became remarkably proficient in the languages — 
English, French, Latin, Greek and Hebrew. He 
spent several years of his life as a teacher, in pri- 
vate school, professor of languages in a Methodist 
academy, principal of academy, etc. 

In 1793 he became a candidate for the ministry in 
the Presbyterian Church, but upon taking up the 
more careful study of his church standards and re 
quirements his mind was deeply troubled. His deli- 
cate conscientiousness and high standard of integ 
rity forbade even the appearance of deception or 
hypocrisy. His first stumbling-block in the study 
of his church '"Confession'' was the doctrine of 
the Trinity. Witsius was put into his hands. To 
quote his own words: 

Witsius would first prove that there was but one God. 
and then that there were three persons in this one God, 
the Father, Son and Holy Ghost — that the Father was unbe- 
gotten — the Son eternally begotten, and the Holy Ghost 
eternally proceeding from the Father and the Son — that it 
was idolatry to worship more Gods than one, and yet 
equal worship must be given to the Father, the Son and 


Holy Ghost. He wound up all in incomprehensible mystery. 
My mind became confused, so much confused that I knew 
not how to pray. Till now, secret prayer and meditation 
had been my delightful employ. It was a heaven on earth 
to approach my God and Savior ; but now this heavenly 
exercise was checked, and gloominess and fear filled my 
troubled mind. 

He later procured Dr. Watt's treatise on the sub- 
ject of the Trinity, and with his views he appears to 
have agreed. He made known to "the pillars" of 
his church his doubts and position regarding the 
"Confession of Faith." He says: 

They labored, but in vain, to remove my difficul- 
ties and objections. They asked me how far I was will- 
ing to receive the confession. I told them, as far as I saw 
it consistent with the word of God. They concluded that 
was sufficient. I went into Presbytery, and when the ques- 
tion was proposed, "Do you receive and adopt the Confes- 
sion of Faith, as containing the system of doctrine taught 
in the Bible?" I answered aloud, so that the whole congre- 
gation might hear, "I do, as far as I see it consistent with 
the word of God." No objection being made, I was ordain- 

As an evangelist his life can be compared only 

with such as Wesley, Whitefield, Edwards, or Moody. 

The climax of his achievements in this respect was 

the great "Cane Ridge Revival," of Kentucky. This 

wonderful manifestation of supernatural power 

beggars description of either tongue or pen. It 

was in 1801, "on Friday before the third Lord's 

day in August." God had already manifested His 

presence in connection with the recent preaching 

of Barton W. Stone, and w T hen this revival "of 

only six or seven days and nights" began there 

was an immense congregation from all directions, 

representing all the different religious sects. For 

some almost unexplainable reason a spirit of unity 

prevailed. Methodists, Baptists, Presbyterians, etc., 


etc., all united in prayer, praise, song and com- 
munion. When Barton W. Stone rose to deliver 
the opening address of that wonderful meeting in 
the midst of the gathered thousands, his eloquent 
lips became more eloquent, his clear mind became 
clearer, and his heart of love was overflowing with 
the outpouring of the Spirit and love of God. A 
wave seemed to sweep the mighty audience, and in 
all parts men and women were seen to fall to the 
ground calling upon the Lord. The air was filled 
with cries and prayers of the penitents, soon in- 
termingled with the shouts and praises of the new- 
born souls. Then followed a scene still more re- 
markable. Ministers of all denominations, their 
hearts touched by an unseen power, sprang to their 
feet in different parts of the congregation and be- 
gan preaching the same things. Mr. Stone says : 

On the universality of the gospel, and faith as the con- 
dition of salvation, I principally dwelt, and urged the sin- 
ners to believe now, and be saved. 

And again : 

We all engaged in singing the same songs of praise — 
all united in prayer — all preached the same things — free 
salvation urged upon all by faith and repentance. 

So intense was the interest that during five of the 
seven days' meeting there was no intermission day 
or night; but the solemn hour of midnight rang, as 
did the full glare on noonday, with the triumphant 
shouts and praises and prayers and proclamations 
of the mighty army of Israel. It is estimated that 
thirty thousand people were on the grounds during 
the revival. The number of converts is unknown, 
only that thev numbered in the thousands. But 


let me again step aside, and permit the chief actor 
in this scene to speak: 

A particular description of this meeting would fill a 
large volume, and then the half would not be told. The 
number converted will be known only in eternity. Many 
things transpired here, which were so much like miracles, 
that if they were not, they had the same effects as miracles 
on infidels and unbelievers ; for many of them by these 
were convinced that Jesus was the Christ, and bowed in 
submission to Him. This meeting continued six or seven 
days and nights, and would have continued longer, but pro- 
visions for such a multitude failed in the neighborhood. 

( Considering the circumstances, probably no revival 
since apostolic times has equalled it. Such is only a 
weak, pitiable glimpse of the wonderful "vision," 
"let down from heaven by four corners," before 
this holy man of God. And was it not for the same 
purpose that God had sent the vision to his great 
apostle at Joppa — to teach the great principle (the 
very key) of Christian fellowship — "What God hath 
cleansed, call not thou common?" Stone "was not 
disobedient unto the heavenly vision." He was no 
longer a sectarian; but declared his desire to fel- 
lowship all "whom God hath cleansed." 

Then came the bitter wars of persecution. All 
the sects seemed to combine against him; but 
through it all he stood like a hero, with one hand 
scattering the bread of life upon the waters of the 
ocean of lost souls, and with the other wielding 
"the sword of Jehovah and of Gideon" against the 
Midianitish hosts of sectarianism. 

Having been first a Presbyterian, Stone was a 
pedobaptist. Years after he began preaching the 
gospel, in fact, several years after the great Cane 
Ridge revival, he became convinced that immersion 


was the proper Scriptural mode of baptism, and 
true to his convictions he was immersed. Though 
his views in this regard were changed, and he had 
acted in accordance with his changed views, yet 
it was not with a spirit of intolerance or bigotry, 
but with a spirit, as he said, 

That every brother and sister should act freely, and 
according to their conviction of right — and that we should 
cultivate the long neglected grace of forbearance towards 
each other — they who should be immersed should not de- 
spise those who were not. 

Barton W. Stone was not a Campbellite. He 
never turned traitor to the principles of the "Chris- 
tian Church," of which he was one of the earliest 
promoters ; and true to those principles, he was ever 
ready and rejoicing to fellowship every child of Cod, 
whether of Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian or 
"Quaker" faith. Christian Character alone was his 
test of fellowship, and he believed that none of these 
peculiar "faiths" in any way invalidated that 
character. He was likewise ready at all times to 
affiliate with any body of Christians that was willing 
to take the Bible as their rule of faith and practice, 
"Christian" as their name, make Christian character 
their only test of fellowship, and grant to every fol- 
lower of Christ the right to interpret the Bible for 
himself. He visited at one time in Meigs county, 
Ohio, a small Baptist association. He was received 
kindly, and urged to take part in the deliberations. 
When opportunity offered he presented the position 
of the (then) new Christian Church. This was done 
so clearly, so lovingly and so convincingly that, as 
he savs: 


The mind of the Association was withdrawn from any 
farther attention to their knotty cases, to the consideration 
of what I had said. The result was, that they agreed to 
cast away their formularies and creeds, and take the Bible 
alone for their rule of faith and practice — to throw away 
their name Baptist and take the name Christian— and to 
bury their Association, and to become one with us in the 
great work of Christian union. They then marched up in 
a band to the stand, shouting the praise of God, and pro- 
claiming aloud what they had done. We met them, and 
embraced each other with Christian love, by which the union 
was cemented. I think the number of elders who united 
was about twelve. After this the work gloriously progress- 
ed, and multitudes were added to the Lord. 

Many years after, in fact, during the declining 
years of his noble life, when a number of Campbell- 
ite elders (including Alexander Campbell himself) 
made overtures for a "union," insisting that they 
occupied the same ground, being finally convinced 
by their prolonged assurances that they were acting 
in good faith, he gladly welcomed them into the 
closest union and affiliation. But as regarded the 
"Christian Church," of which Stone lived and died 
a member, these elders proved to be "wolves in 
sheep's clothing," and "scattered and divided the 
sheep" of many of the Christian flocks he had been 
instrumental in organizing. In many instances 
they carried off entire congregations (just as the 
"Shakers" had done a few years before), in some 
instances securing the houses of worship themselves 
by having them deeded from the "Christian Church" 
to some other name (in order to hold them). In 
truth, few men were further from the Campbellite 
position than was Stone. He pleaded for the union 
of all faithful believers in Christ, they refused mem- 
bership to millions of the noblest and purest fol- 
lowers of Christ; he believed in the power of God's 


Spirit in conversion and never doubted the genuine 
ness of the great Cane Ridge revival and the many 
others like it in which he labored; they ridiculed 
it all under various depreciatory names ; he prayed 
for the conversion of sinners and taught them to 
pray for themselves, they denied the efficiency of 
all such prayers; etc., etc. 

Barton Warren Stone died "on Saturday morn- 
ing, at 4 o'clock, November 9, 1844," in Hannibal, 

Though no great marble statue has ever been 
erected in his honor, yet he was instrumental in 
erecting the great monument of universal Christian 
fellowship that will stand untarnished long after 
marble or granite has crumbled to dust; though his 
name has not been written on the human scroll of 
fame, yet he wrote it in golden letters of love in the 
hearts of thousands and tens of thousands. Surely 
in his crown of rejoicing there are many bright 

Merom, Indiana. 


Home Mission Secretary 



The Preacher=Statesman 


Home Mission Secretary 

The materials for this sketch are taken from the 
biography of Elder David Purviance, written by 
his son, Elder Levi Purviance, and published in 

David Purviance was the son of Col. John Pur- 
viance, a native of Pennsylvania, who removed in 
early life to Iredell County, N. C. Here David was 
born November 14, 1766. His parents were members 
of the Presbyterian church, and took care to have 
their son well taught in the principles and doc- 
trines of that body. He was destined by them for 
the ministry, and to that end was given as thorough 
a training as the circumstances of the time per- 

His father served in the American army during 
the Eevolutionary War; and upon David, his eldest 
son, devolved much of the care of the family. By 
this and by ill health his studies were interrupted. 
Later he engaged in teaching. 

In the year 1789, he married Mary Ireland, and 
settled on a farm near that of his father. Soon 
his father and other relatives moved to Tennessee, 
where he also went, locating near Nashville. But 
the country was too much disturbed by unfriendly 
Indians to be either pleasant or safe, and in 1792 



he removed to Cane Eidge in Bourbon County, Ken- 
tucky. Here he cleared a space, erected a cabin, 
and began to change the little holding from a dense 
wilderness into a farm capable of supplying his 
simple wants. Although well educated for those 
times, frontier life at first afforded no scope for his 
talents. But in the year 1797, he was elected to 
the legislature of Kentucky, and thereafter for some 
years represented Bourbon County in that body. He 
was a sturdy champion of the people, and stood 
resolutely for their rights in more than one notable 
contest. His first antagonist was the Hon. John 
Breckinridge, afterwards United States Senator, 
who appears to have been easily worsted by the 
young giant in homespun. 

In 1799, an election was held for members of a 
Constitutional Convention. Mr. Purviance was a 
candidate; but, owing to his advocacy of the gradual 
emancipation of the slaves, was defeated. Never- 
theless he was returned to the legislature, and 
served until 1803. 

In the year 1S01 occurred the "Cane Ridge Re- 
vival." Under the influence of this movement he 
formed his decision to enter the ministry. He had 
united with the Presbyterian church in North Caro- 
lina' at the age of twenty, and was at this time 
a ruling elder in the church. He received a license 
from the Presbytery to exhort, before being elected 
to his last term in the legislature, and when the 
session closed, he "placed himself under the care 
of the Presbytery" as a candidate for the ministry. 
At the next meeting of the Presbytery he was called 
upon according to the custom for a "trial sermon.'' 


His effort was not entirely satisfactory. There was 
too much "liberality" and "free salvation" in it. 
He was then examined on the principles and doc- 
trines of the Westminster Confession. Not being 
able to fully subscribe to the confession, he was 
continued on probation. Meanwhile charges had 
been brought against Richard M'Nemar, of the 
Washington Presbytery of Ohio, for preaching doc- 
trines contrary to the creed of the church. The 
case was carried to the Synod at Lexington. It 
became evident that the charge would be sustained, 
whereupon four men, Barton W. Stone, Dunlavy, 
Thompson and Marshall, drew up a protest against 
the proceedings and withdrew from the Synod. The 
Synod at once passed an act of excommunication, 
declaring the congregations of these men vacant; 
but they denied the authority of the Synod to vacate 
the congregations, seeing that there were no charges 
against the four. With M'Nemar, they at once 
formed a new organization, naming it the Spring 
field Presbytery. David Purviance cast in his lot 
with the new body, and was at once ordained. The 
majority of the churches went with their pastors, 
and the new doctrine was boldly preached. And 
this was the heresy of which they were charged: 

That God loved the world, and gave his well beloved 
Son to die, that whosoever believeth in Him might not per- 
ish, but have everlasting life. That Jesus Christ, by the 
grace of God, tasted death for every man. and that there 
was no partiality with God. That the provisions of the 
gospel were full and free, provided for all mankind indis- 
criminately. That if sinners were lost, it was not because 
God had decreed it, but because they would not come to 
Him that they might have life. 

Strange "heresy" this. But more was to follow, for 


it began to be evident to tbese men that they were 
not completely out of bondage, and that in continu- 
ing in the Presbyterian organization, they became 
a part of a sect. 

They, therefore, agreed unanimously to renounce their 
former name, with all man-made creeds, and acknowledge 
no name, but that given to the disciples at Antioch (Chris- 
tian) and no creed but the Bible. 

This conviction was set forth in the "Last Will 
and Testament", of the Springfield Presbytery, 
which was in effect the act of dissolution of that 

Mr. Purviance now threw himself into the work 
of the ministry without stint. He preached day 
and night, exhorted, sung, and prayed, and brought 
all the power of his trained mind into requisition 
for his great work. He studied the Scriptures with 
diligence. On great occasions he would withdraw 
for a whole day at fasting, prayer and study of his 
theme. The spread of the revival spirit continued, 
and Purviance seems to have been the most striking 
figure connected with it. 

Believing that it was wrong to accept a salary 
for preaching, he received none. His biographer 
quaintly says : 

Some of the preachers seemed to think that it was God's 
business to feed and clothe the preachers and the business 
of the preachers' wives to feed and clothe themselves and 

At any rate, while Purviance was traveling 
in Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee and Ohio, 
his family (the oldest child being only twelve years 
of age), made a frugal living on the little farm. 
In the summer of 1800 he bouffht a small farm on 


the east fork of the Whitewater, Preble County, 
Ohio. His son Levi was sent to make some im- 
provements on it, and in the autumn of ISO! he re- 
moved to the new location. It was a wilderness. 
A few families came from Cane Kidge and formed 
the beginning of a church at New Paris, Ohio, ""the 
first church that was ever organized in that part 
of Ohio.'' 

Just before leaving Kentucky, he became con- 
vinced that immersion was the Scriptural mode of 
baptizing and was immersed by Barton W. Stone; 
but he never disfellowshiped unimmersed ( Jhris- 
tians, nor in his teaching made immersion a condi- 
tion of church membership. 

As when he lived in Kentucky, he began to travel 
and preach in the frontier settlements of Ohio and 
Indiana, and made frequent visits to the more settled 
parts. In 1809, his character as statesman became 
known, and without any effort on his part, hejyas. 
chosen a member of the lower house of the legisla- 
ture of Ohio. _The_next .ye_a_r_ he was _ ejected to the 
Senate, where he served for the next six years. 
Here his labors were of immense value. There were 
few members who were able to draft a bill correctly, 
especially among the farmers and mechanics, who 
were largely represented in the legislature. So his 
associates were accustomed to apply to him. While 
he was in the Senate, the seat of government of 
Ohio was established in Columbus. He helped to 
establish the penitentiary system of Ohio. J3e gave 
his influence for the present location of Miami 
University at Oxford, and for many years acted as 
one of its trustees, giving it his fostering care. 


The church at New Paris soon became so large 
that it divided by common consent, and another 
church known as Shiloh was organized. Mr. Pur- 
viance was for many years pastor of both of these 
churches. When the New Paris church became 
divided on account of Campbellism, he was much 
distressed by it, but was unable to restore harmony. 
He had ceased to be pastor of the church for some 
years when the division occurred, and held his 
membership in the Shiloh church until his death. 
His last years were full of honors. He was loved 
and respected by all. For the last twenty years he 
took little active part in politics. After his wife 
died, in 1835, he lived with his son, John Purviance, 
and ceased to take an active part in worldly affairs. 
But he was constant in visiting the afflicted and 
caring for the distressed. He wrote occasionally 
for the Gospel Herald, and other periodicals, at- 
tended conferences, and preached as he had occa 
sion until very near the time of his death. His last 
visit to the Miami Conference was in 1S4G ; his last 
sermon was in the Shiloh church at New Westville, 
a few weeks before his death; his last public ad- 
dress was at the funeral of his grandchild ; and on 
August 19, 1847, this veteran of the cross fell 
a sloop, jn the hope of the religion he had so long 

Our review of the meager materials we have at 
hand convinces us that David Purviance was a great 
man. He left his impress upon the institutions of 
two great commonwealths. In Kentucky he was the 
friend of Governor Garrard, and the worthy an- 
tagonist of John Breckinridge and Pelix Grnndv. 


He served seventeen terms in all in the legislatures 
of Kentucky and Ohio and was Presidential Elector 
in 1S12. He was a constructive statesman, and es- 
caped being famous in the sphere of statesmanship 
only because he deliberately chose to devote his 
life to something of vastly more moment. 

In Kentucky he failed of election to the Consti- 
tutional Convention by a few votes, solely because 
in a slave state he dared to advocate the gradual 
emancipation of the slaves. In Ohio he sacrificed 
his prospects for further political honors because he 
advocated the repeal of the oppressive "Black laws" 
which made the condition of free men of color in- 
tolerable. He could always be counted on the side 
of the poor and oppressed. He was very much de- 
voted to the cause of temperance, and espoused 
the Washingtonian movement with all his heart. 

But it is as a preacher of the gospel that he ex- 
celled. In early life he was a controversialist, in 
the days when men were obliged to stand for their 
liberty ; but he tempered all his controversy with 
charity. His biographer says of him : 

As a preacher, though he was never backward in the 
reproof of sin, he was ever popular with all classes of hear- 
ers, and, although firm and zealous in the maintenance of 
his peculiar tenets, yet his exemplary piety commanded 
the esteem, and the softness of his manners and sweetness 
of his disposition procured him the love of his opponents. 

The following is taken from his memoirs, written 
by himself eleven or twelve years before his death : 

In reviewing my past course, I see many changes in 
matters of opinion, but I have never changed my religion. 
My religion is LOVE, and I am happy in reflecting that in 
this all Christians agree. ... In vain is that faith that 
does not work by love, and in vain is every effort to pro- 



mote unity in the church or among religionists, where love 
does not predominate. ... It avails but little for a person 
to declaim against bigotry and sectarianism, saying his 
creed is the Bible and he is certainly right. It is true his 
creed is right, but his judgment and practice too may be 
erroneous. With equal confidence another and another 
may claim to be right, and finally the pope may claim infal- 
libility ; and commonly he who is the most clamorous and 
censorious is the farthest wrong. ... I admit that certain 
articles of faith are essential and proper tests of Christian 
fellowship ; but these may be found in the Scriptures, in 
explicit terms. In many matters of opinion on various 
subjects men may and do differ, and it is indecorous to 
impeach a man's motives or honesty in such a case. Of 
all classes of men, religious bigots are the most intolerant ; 
whereas, charity and forbearance are badges of Christianity. 
I can boast of no high attainments as respects my knowl- 
edge of divine things, but I can say with Paul, "I know 
whom I have believed, and that he is able to keep that which 
I have committed unto him against that day." And that day 
is at hand. I have nearly finished my course. I feel as 
though I was within one step of eternity. While I bid my 
brethren of every name a final farewell, permit me to add : 
For the honor of God and of the benign religion of Jesus 
Christ, henceforth "Let us be kindly affectioned one to an- 
other, with brotherly love, in honor preferring one an- 

Dai/ ton, Ohio. 

"The White Pilgrim"' 




/ came to the spot where the White Pilgrim lay, 

And pensively stood by the tomb ; 
When in a low whisper I heard something say, 

"Row sweetly I sleep here alone! 

"The tempest may howl, and the loud thunders roll — 

And gathering storms may arise — 
Yet calm are my feelings, at rest is my soul. 

The tears are all wiped from my eyes. 

"I wandered an exile and stranger below. 

To publish salvation abroad; 
Tin 1 trump of the gospel endeavored to blow, 

Inviting poor sinners to God. 

"But when among strangers and far from home — 

No hind red or relatives nigh — 
I met the contagion and sank in the tomb. 

My spirit ascending on high. 

"Go tell my companions and children most dear. 

To weep not for Joseph, though gone; 
The same hand that led me through scenes dark and 

Has kindly conducted, me home." 




"The White Pilgrim" 


Few if any of our pioneer ministers were more 
striking characters than was Elder Joseph Thomas, 
better known as "The White Pilgrim.'' This so- 
briquet was given him because he was always attir 
ed in white apparel. 

The writer remembers, as a little boy, hearing 
many conversations among the older people con- 
cerning the Pilgrim who had visited our state and 
made a circuit of the churches in the eastern sec- 
tion. The descriptions given by them of his appear- 
ance, his manner, and his power in the pulpit in- 
spired a young and listening mind with great rever- 
ence for the itinerant preacher. 

The writer has served, as a pastor, two churches in 
which Elder Thomas had preached, and in these as 
well as the neighboring churches, there were to be 
found many reminiscences and great regard for the 
subject of our sketch. 

Joseph Thomas was born in Orange County, N. C, 
March 7, 1791. He was born of parents who had 
moved from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, and 
had succeeded in gathering together considerable 
of the world's goods, which the Eevolutionary War 
dissipated through its ravages. Joseph was the 
youngest in the family of nine children. Some prop- 
erty had again been accumulated which, quoting 


Mr. Thomas, "by the change of times, with the 
curse of intemperance, on my father's part, was 
spent, "scattered and entirely wasted." He says : 

The first seven years of niy life, I had the guardian 
care of a dear father and the affectionate attention of a 
fond mother, in which home I was taught to read, write 
and cipher. In the year 1798 hard necessity compelled 
that I should be separated from my parents and from my 
once peaceful home. 

The next five or six years of his life were spent 
amid cruelty and affliction. The first family with 
which he lived treated him cruelly, subjecting him 
to the extremes of hunger and cold, and denied him 
all school privileges which had been pledged; but 
he employed himself in his leisure hours as he said, 
"reading the books my father had given me, among 
which my favorites were the Economy of Human 
Life and the New Testament." 

At the age of ten he was afflicted with a white 
swelling on his knee, necessitating the removal of 
one of the bones in his leg. It was thought that he 
would never walk again and his life was even 
despaired of. 

Having removed to Virginia with his brother, he 
found a benefactor and friend at last in a neighbor, 
Andrew Johnson, who inspired the boy by moral 
precepts and gave him advantages in school, the 
teacher of which became especially interested in 
young Joseph. Mr. Johnson had taken him as a 
boarder, but when the end of the year came, he 
would receive nothing for his board, neither would 
the teacher take anything for his tuition. Here was 
a great change in the life of the youth. He soon 
began to teach and with assiduity he applied him- 


self in all of his leisure moments to studies, which 
habit he continued to the end of his life. 

When one has read the life and writings of Joseph 
Thomas, he will have seen him to have been an ex- 
ceedingly sensitive soul. This condition must have 
been partially constitutional and perhaps partly 
induced by the vicissitudes through which he was 
caused to pass in his early years. Very early he felt 
the conviction of sin weighing heavily upon him, 
and under its baneful load he struggled for years. 
Prayers and promises upon his own part seemed to 
give him no light or relief, neither did the prayers 
of Christian people avail in bringing him peace. 
He wrote: 

I felt that I was destitute of salvation of my soul which 
I desired above anything on earth. My distress of mind in- 
creased. I was soon convinced that my soul was in too 
much danger of being lost, if I continued long in so wicked 
a place. In March, 1806, I went to Carolina again. This 
was in the time of the celebrated revival when it was not 
a strange thing to hear many, old and young, profess re- 
ligion, and to see them engage in the unaccountable exer- 
cise of shouting, dancing, hallooing, jumping, laughing, etc. 

He attended a campmeeting in October of the 

same year, to which he looked forward with expecta 

tion as he might here find the pearl of great price, 

the salvation of his soul. Here he sought the aid 

of the ministers and brethren and had a dream which 

he interpreted as having divine significance, yet the 

campmeeting closed without his finding peace. He 

said : 

Many prayers were offered for me, but alas, my heart 
was too unbelieving to receive the blessing I had so long 
sought, and without which T was sensible I would be mis- 
erable and utterly lost. 

He left the ground at the close of the meeting 


solemn and mournful, not believing that he had ob- 
tained forgiveness for his sins. He writes again : 

After the meeting, I continued to seek the Savior by 
constantly attending meetings, by private prayer and by 
attentive reading of the Scriptures. I was for some time 
tossed to and fro in my mind, sometimes almost sunk in de- 
spair, burdened with grief and sorrow and other times felt 
glad that the Lord showed me so much mercy. For some 
months the exercises of my mind were so conflicting and 
distressing, that my flesh was reduced almost to a skeleton ; 
and I could enjoy but little comfort in anything on earth. 

On the 7th of May, 1807, early in the morning, having 
spent the night previous in groans and tears, I arose and 
sought a private place in a distant wood, where I often 
had resorted, determining if there was yet mercy with God 
for me. I would wrestle with Him in prayer, until I would 
find deliverance from the intolerable burden that pressed 
my sorrowful soul. I found the place I sought, and some- 
time after sunrise, I found the Lord Jesus. The love of 
God was shed abroad in my heart — I found the blessing I 
had so long sought, and for which I had shed so many 
tears, and uttered so many groans. O ! the glory, the trans- 
porting joys that filled my soul ! Had I the wings of an 
eagle, and the voice of a trumpet, I would have declared to 
the whole world, the wonders God had wrought on my soul. 
The joys of that day were unutterable and never to be for- 

At once he felt that he should receive baptism 
by immersion and become a preacher of the gospel. 
He was acquainted with the Presbyterians, the 
Methodists, the Calvinists and the Free Will Bap- 
tists. He declared, "the Presbyterian or the Bap- 
tist Church would have suited me in point of govern- 
ment; but their doctrine, to my mind, so evidently 
opposed the doctrine of the Scriptures and the whole 
course of my experience that I thought it unneces- 
sary to offer myself to either." Finding intellectual 
barriers in all the denominations surrounding him, 
he concluded that he would either have to sacrifice 
his conscience and his faith, or stand alone and he 
opposed by the surrounding sects. 


Hearing of the Christians who professed to take 
the Scriptures for their rule of faith and practice, 
he sought out one of their preachers to get informa- 
tion on the subject which gave him so much con- 
cern. He found in this people, a body with which 
he might unite and labor and he became a member 
thereof, and was licensed as an exhorter. Wrote 

I now began to close up my little worldly concerns, and 
prepare for an itinerant life in the gospel. I exercised in 
exhortation frequently through the neighborhood, but my 
efforts were weak and much ridiculed by many who heard 
me. My mother, relations, and the most of those who 
conversed on the subject, rigidly opposed the undertaking. 
And had I not been strongly convinced that the Spirit of 
the Lord inspired and moved me to the work, I would not 
have assumed a calling for which I thought myself so little 
qualified. I counted the cost — I determined to obey God, 
rather than be intimidated by man, or overcome by inferior 

I now surrendered all pretensions to the advantages of 
this world, and to the gratification of carnal appetites. I 
bade farewell to ease, to the hopes of honor, to the popular- 
ity, and to the friendship of a gain-saying generation, and 
freely sacrificed them all upon the cross of Christ, resolving 
to follow the footsteps of Jesus, whom I now took to be 
my only friend. I considered myself starting on a mission, 
the most important ever engaged in by man, and on a pur- 
suit which was to occupy my constant and assiduous atten- 
tion, during the remainder of my days. 

The 19th day of October. 1807, when I was sixteen years 
and about nine months old, I bade farewell to my mother, 
my relations, and to a sneering world, and started for the 
meeting in Raleigh, and thence to people and lands un- 

At the meeting in Raliegh lie met James O'Kelly, 

and during the meeting he opened his mind to 

O'Kelly on the subject of baptism and desired to 

lie immersed by him, but, writes Thomas: 

In explaining the nature and use of baptism to me he 
made it mean pouring. I believed from his age, experi- 
ence and abilities of mind, he must lie right, and on the 


Sabbath clay of the meeting, I was baptized (as we then 
called it) in that way. 

He with four other young men presented them- 
selves at this meeting for the ministry, and he was 
appointed to travel and labor with an elder till 
the next union meeting which was to convene some 
six months later. 

He at once set out with J. Warren, to make a 
circuit of the lower counties of Virginia, who did 
not seem to understand, or have sympathy with the 
youth set to his charge, and instead of encouraging 
him, did all he could to try and mortify and silence 
him. Young Thomas in his maiden efforts was ex 
ceedingly weak, and this the over-preacher informed 
him should be evidence to him that he was not cal- 
culated for the work, and should take it as an 
evidence that he was not called to the ministry. 
Rut opposition and obstacles could not silence the 
bo} 7 preacher. Instead of discouraging him they 
drove him the more to meditation, to prayer and to 
the search of the Scriptures. He had cast himself 
out in the deep and he was trusting himself to the 
waves. Time should see what he should be and do. 

The preacher of this generation can form but 
little conception of what it meant to be pioneers in 
a liberal gospel movement. Sectarianism had built 
high and almost invulnerable walls, and Christiani- 
ty was interpreted by the sects to mean the keep- 
ing intact the beliefs of their special bodies. It 
was no uncommon thing in those days for a lay- 
man to speak out in the meeting, to arise and op- 
pose the minister for his doctrines. This thing oc- 
curred the more often to the early preachers in the 


Christian denomination, for their audiences in the 
new fields were made up of those who held to 
sectarian views. It was not infrequent that the 
ministers of other bodies came to oppose and ridicule 
what the} 7 styled the "rotten Arminian mushroom 
doctrine which was preached by the tail end of the 
Methodists, the O'Kellyites." In these contests and 
tilts Thomas had the ability to hold his own, if not 
to wound or dispatch his foes, for he possessed a 
wonderful power in satire and could hold up the 
objects of his scorn to ridicule, a method which is 
stronger and more convincing than argument. Com- 
munities were warned against him as a renegade 
and an O'Kellyite. He, speaking of his failure to 
accomplish anything in a certain community said, 

I could not do many mighty works there because of the 
Presbyterians. Their religion seems to consist in keeping 
the Sabbath and withstanding everything that is not Cal- 

The opposition against Mr. Thomas not only took 
the form of debating, but at times threatened his 

For twenty-eight years the White Pilgrim jour- 
neyed and preached. He gives us a record of his 
work for nine months, during which time he had 
held 300 meetings with 73 souls professing a hap- 
py change from darkness to light. His itineracies 
included the States of Virginia, North Carolina, 
Maryland, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey, and New York. We have no way of 
knowing how many meetings he conducted, how- 
many people he addressed, how many souls were 
inspired, how many brought to faith in Christ, but 


the records that we have would show that in the 
twenty-eight years, this wandering man of God 
stimulated the faith of, and opened the heavenly 
door to, thousands, besides championing the cause 
of religious liberty and helping to break down the 
Avails of sectarianism. 

These things he did amid the most adverse cir- 
cumstances — on foot, horseback, or gig, he traveled 
under the scorching sun or over the frozen fields, 
fording swollen streams, disregarding the wet, hun- 
ger and severest cold, facing death in many in- 
stances. Not for one moment did the man, who had 
put his hand to the plow, turn back ; but followed 
the footsteps of the Master, seeking those who were 

As a preacher of the gospel, he had a message 
to the people of his generation. It was a time of 
peculiar religious phenomena, when people had 
what he styled the "jerks," and fell down in what 
was called the "power," when religion was expressed 
by physical fervor with jumping, shouting, dancing 
and laughing. 

As we read his writings, it is evident to us that 
the Pilgrim was a type of a man we call "literal," 
for he seemed to be dissatisfied with the baptism 
that he had received at the hand of O'Kelly and was 
afterwards immersed ; and he records how a1 
Stoverstown he introduced washing of feet among 
the brethren. 

His loyalty to truth as lie saw it and his readi 
ness to sacrifice any and all things of this life in 
the discharge of duty, is clearly illustrated by his 
life's work and is clearly presented in his poems. 


Perhaps none of his writings more clearly show how 
invincible were his principles and loyalty than the 
poem "On My New Pen." He had seen that his 
life was to be spent in far and wide travels by 
which he might not only preach the gospel to sin- 
ners, but that lie might publish abroad the message 
of a new Catholicism and knit together the chil- 
dren of the broader faith in the different sections 
of our country. From this purpose he might not 
be swerved. He refused one sympathetic and ap- 
preciative people's offer to him of fifty acres of land 
with a good house on it, etc., if he would settle and 
take charge of the church in that place. This would 
have been congenial, for he had already married 
Christiana Eittenous on April 5, 1812, which mar- 
riage was an exceedingly happy one. 

A flood of light may be shed upon the character 
of the Pilgrim as well as that of the wife by a por- 
tion of a letter which she wrote to Brother Badger, 
published in the Palladium when her husband was 
touring New York and New Jersey. Wrote she : 

When I joined him in matrimony, I agreed never to 
stand in his way in preaching the gospel, and I have reason 
to be thankful that God has to this day enabled me with 
all cheerfulness not only to submit, but to aid him by my 
prayers, industry, and economy to continue and extend his 
itinerant labors over the world. Me 1ms suffered much 
for Jesus' sake ; for the salvation of perishing sinners he 
has sacrificed the world. My soul always went with him 
in his arduous and distant travels, panted high for the pros- 
perity of the cause, and participated in his griefs and 
trials. Anxieties ana solitude have often spread a gloom 
over many solitary and lonesome nights. But the success 
with which God has often attended his labors, has so often 
been to me like a morning without a cloud, and as the bril- 
liant sunshine to my soul. I have gladly suffered with 
hi in for the sake of Jesus, and I strongly hope I shall be a 
sharer of bis reward in heaven. 


Those who heard him preach claimed him to be 
an orator, a logician. How much of a sermonizer 
he may have been, looked at by present standards, 
we may not say as we have no sermons written by 
him at hand; but that he drew large audiences, 
moving them to tears and convictions, we may ac- 
cept as most favorable judgments passed by the best 
of all critics, — the common people. That his pure 
white attire added to his notoriety and aided him in 
commanding the attention of audiences, cannot be 
doubted. His personal appearance w r as good, "about 
six feet high, light complexion, straight, athletic, 
strong, well-proportioned, and the picture of health.'' 
One in writing his impressions of Elder Joseph 
Thomas as he preached in the pulpit of Isaac N. 
Walter, in New York, says : 

Presently a man dressed in white, bearing a modest, 
mild expression of countenance, arm in arm with the pastor 
was seen to ascend the pulpit, and was introduced as Joseph 
Thomas, the White Pilgrim, who at once proceeded to ad- 
dress his numerous hearers. His preaching was in har- 
mony with his general appearance : mild, persuasive, and 
evidently dictated by love for souls. I never saw a counte- 
nance more indicative of what I have ever regarded as the 
stamp of the spiritual than his. Of his talents as a preach- 
er I can only speak in general terms. His oratory was of 
the winning and persuasive style, his knowledge of the 
Scriptures appeared to be remarkably good. 

Mr. Thomas published a volume of poems from 
his own pen. We may not speak of him as a great 
poet, neither will we see him to be one minus of 
poetic conceptions. He had a good sense of 
rhythm, and in his writings there scintillate many 
lights from the muse. Quite as frequently these ap- 
pear in his prose as in his verse. 

At the age of forty-four, while on his itineracy in 


New York State, lie was unconsciously exposed to 
the smallpox, it is supposed in New York City, and 
succumbed to the same in Jolmsonburg, N. J., where 
they laid him to rest in the little churchyard. Thus 
the man who had spent his life to a great extent 
among strangers for the sake of Christ, fell asleep, 
far from his wife and children whom he had left in 

He had served well and realized in death the de- 
sire of his heart as he expressed it in verse : 

'Tis for His sake I'd leave all things, 

Upon this earthly sphere, 
O, had I but celestial wings, 

I'd soon with II im appear. 

.4 Tbany, A 7 . Y. 




Scholar, Preacher, Journalist 


Heroes are ever interesting characters — the pagan 
world exalts, deifies and worships them. The Chris- 
tian world regards them with peculiar respect and 
veneration. Leaders in the various avenues and ac- 
tivities of life always attract the attention and com- 
mand the admiration of the throng. Pioneers in 
any direction have a charm that is all their own. 
Daniel W. Kerr (pronounced Kar) was all of these 
— a hero, a leader, and a pioneer ; a hero of the cross, 
a leader in church, community, and state, — a pio- 
neer in the fields of religious education and journal- 
ism. It is for these reasons therefore that the people 
of the South in particular, and of the Christian 
Church generally, honor and cherish his name ; and 
well we may, because he did as much to advance the 
interests of our cause and to strengthen it as any 
man who ever lived among us. He is one of the 
noblest types of our ministry, — a man of God and 
a human man, a devout Christian and a good citi- 
zen, a John the Baptist in religious education and 
religious journalism, a spiritual torch-bearer and a 
living, vital moral force in the world. 

Elder Kerr was born on July 10, 170G, in Cum- 
berland County, Va., of parents who traced their 
ancestry to the early families of Norfolk County of 
thai state. Of his early life and education we have 


Founder and First Editor of the Christian Sun 



no definite data. His family was one that had sent 
many men into the professional life, and Rev. E. 
W. Humphreys in his Memoirs of Deceased Christian 
Ministers, states that Kerr intended to become a 
lawyer. His comparatively late profession of faith 
at the age of twenty-two, lends some color to this 
statement. J>e that as it may, it is certain that he 
received the best education available for his day and 
generation; he was a good scholar in the ancient 
languages, particularly Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, 
and his vigorous editorials and other writings left 
to us give ample proof of his versatility in the use 
of his mother tongue and of the wide range of his 
reading and general information. A man of his 
intellectual attainments and of his grasp of knowl- 
edge would not be at a very serious disadvantage 
in our own day, noted for its deep learning and 
profound scholars!) ip. 

Elder Kerr was a man of commanding personality. 
He stood considerably over six feet in his sock feet 
and his frame was well proportioned, — if anything 
lie inclined to corpulency. His expression was one 
of grave dignity and solid worth of character. He 
looked the master of men as the cut of him printed 
in connection with this article shows, and when he 
spoke his utterances reinforced and deepened the 
inevitable impression produced by his prepossessing 
and towering physique. He loved social intercourse 
as few men do; he was the soul of mirth, wit, and 
sparkling humor. He was never more at ease nor 
at home than when seated in a parlor with a group 
of admirers around him, and for him to come into 
a home was the signal for such a gathering there. 


On such occasions he was the centre of attraction, 
the cynosure of all eyes, the primal source of pleas- 
ure and inspiration. Such was the reputation of 
his home for genuine, unalloyed hospitality and good 
fellowship that it became a favorite resort for min- 
isters particularly, and travelers generally, entail- 
ing upon his modest income a greater burden than 
it could bear, and so resulting in frequent financial 
embarrassment to him and his noble wife. 

We do not know exactly when he moved from his 
native state to North Carolina, destined to be the 
scene of most of his great labors, the arena wherein 
his life gave out its noblest and its best. We know 
that he belonged to the same conference, the North 
Carolina and Virginia, to which the Rev. James 
O'Kelly belonged, and that he and O'Kelly were 
circuit riders together. O'Kelly died in 1826, where- 
as the first written conference record we have 
dL' Kerr, after he became an active minister, 
is the minutes of the North Carolina and 
Virginia Christian Conference for 1830, at New 
Providence, then Orange, now Alamance Coun- 
ty, North Carolina, where it is recorded that he was 
present as an ordained elder. His tombstone records 
the facts that he professed faith in Christ in 1818, 
and entered the Christian ministry in 1819. Natur- 
ally he preached a few years as a licentiate before 
his ordination. We do not. however, know the date 
of his ordination, nor the ordaining presbytery, 
but we do know that he was ordained before 1828, 
the first minutes of his conference which have come 
down to us. and that the North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia Christian Conference ordained him ; it is more 


than likely that James O'Kelly was one of the or 
daining presbytery. From 1830 on he was the 
leading spirit in his conference, the one to whom all 
eyes were turned as the leader, advisor, and ripe and 
ready counselor. He is always found on the com 
mittees that count for most, on those on finance, on 
circuits, on the office of ruling elder, on the state 
of the church, on education, and on publication. He 
never failed to be on the ordaining presbytery, and 
he preached frequent sermons before tin 1 body and 
delivered special addresses. We find him introducing 
resolutions touching the status of licentiates, on 
the matter of union with the North Carolina Chris- 
tian Conference and with the Northern conferences, 
represented by the Christian Palladium , of Union 
Mills, New York, and on other matters vitally con- 
nected with the extension and upbuilding of the 
church, and yet he was never president, or modera- 
tor, as they called their presiding officer in those 
days, of his conference. He was one of tlie men who 
lead and rule by putting other people forward and 
acting as "scotch-horse" to them. He was rarely chair 
man of a committee, but he always did its work. 
This characteristic of him is well brought out in 
his relation to the matter of union with the con- 
ferences affiliated with and represented by the Chris- 
tian Palladium . 

The idea of such a union was born in his fertile 
brain, and it was due to him that the understanding 
finally arrived at in the matter was consummated. 
In the year 1840, while living at Junto, N. C, a 
copy of the Christian Palladium by chance fell into 
Kerr's hands. He read it, liked it, and immediately 


subscribed for it. In the issue of June 1, 1840, we 
find his name printed among those who had sub- 
scribed and paid for the paper for volume nine, the 
volume of that year, and in that same issue a letter 
from him to Brother Marsh, editor of the Palladium, 
bearing date of May 8, 1840, which reads as follows: 

Junto, N. C, May 8, 1840. Bro. Marsh, one number of 
the Palladium, which has fallen into my hands, and which 
I have examined with some attention, contains views, both 
of church discipline and doctrines, which correspond very 
nearly with my own. I myself claim to be an humble min- 
ister of the Christian Church, and reject every principle of 
sectarianism in whatever shape it presents itself, and feel 
much delighted in every successful attempt against it. 
We have one conference embracing the states of Virginia 
and North Carolina, and comprising something like a thou- 
sand members, more or less, and about thirty or forty 
ministers. The man of our counsel in all matters pertain- 
ing to church discipline and doctrines is the Holy Bible. 
It affords much pleasure to And that correct notions (as I 
humbly conceive) are disseminating themselves extensively 
in various portions of our country. 

Yours sincerely, D. W. Kerr. 

The North Carolina and Virginia Christian Con- 
ference that year met on October 2, at Union Meet- 
ing-House, then Orange, now Alamance County, N. 
C, and on the second day of that session we find the 
following minute: 

On motion of Elder Daniel W. Kerr, resolved, that a com- 
mittee be appointed by this conference to correspond with 
the editor of the Christian Palladium on the subject of 
union between the Christian Church represented by this 
conference and that in connection with the Palladium. 

On this committee were appointed Elders Thomas 
Reeves, Daniel W. Kerr, Jesse K. Cole, and Thomas 
Lynch. Note that it was Kerr's idea and his motion, 
but some one else is put forward. 

But further, as soon as he got home, though he 
was not chairman of the committee, he took the mat- 


ter up with Brother Marsh, writing him under date 
of October 15, 1840. His letter and Brother Marsh's 
response to it appeared in the Palladium of Novem- 
ber 1G, 1S40. The copy of the Palladium containing 
the response did not reach Eider Kerr until January 
5, 1X41. He replied immediately, and his second 
communication and Brother Marsh's response there- 
to appeared in the Palladium of February 1, 1841. 
At the end of Brother Marsh's response, Elder Kerr 
was asked to give a history of the Southern Chris- 
tians. He did so and it appeared in the Palladium 

'■ of March 15, 1841, and in the Christian Sun by re- 
print November 9, 1844, but in this reprint he is 

- so modest that he does not even suggest that he is 
the author of it, and but for the fact that we have 
the original Palladium with his name signed to the 
article we would be driven to conclude that the 
editor of the Palladium wrote it. Brother Marsh, in 
an editorial in the issue of the Palladium for June 
1, 1841, calls upon the brethren of the North at 
the approaching conferences to approve or disap- 
prove of what he had said to Elder Kerr in regard 
to the proposed union. Kerr's conference in 1841, 
met at Apple's Chapel, Guilford County, N. C. Re- 
specting the proposed union, the following motion 
prevailed : 

That there he a union with such Northern conferences 
as have sanctioned, or may sanction, (it*) by the committee 
of correspondence and Brother Marsh, which terms will 
be considered as forming said union. 

Writing on May 12, 1841, published in the 

Palladium, June 15, 1841, Elder Kerr laid down the 

following terms of union : 

* I have inserted this word to make the sense complete. 


That we shall retain our distinct individuality as a 
church, and transact our ecclesiastical affairs, receive and 
administer the ordinances in a manner suitable to our own 
views, convictions, and beliefs, and not at any time be 
molested or interrupted. 

Brother Marsh in the same issue of the Palladium 
accepted these terms and added : 

You will also, if practical, send messengers to our con- 
ferences and receive ours and so forth. And should you 
at any time choose to dissolve the uuion, it will only be 
necessary to cease to act with us ; and each can let that 
brotherly love continue which now exists between us. 

As said above, this correspondence was 
ratified at the North Carolina and Virginia 
Conference, at Apple's Chapel, Guilford County, that 
same fall, and so became the basis of union between 
that conference and the Northern branch of the 
Christian Church. 

This union was short-lived, however, because of 
the stirring times soon to follow. In 1844, at the 
New England Convention, held in Lynn, Mass., May 
14, 15, and 16, strong abolition resolutions were 
adopted. These resolutions appeared in the Palla- 
dium of June 12 of that year, and in the Christian 
Sun of August 9, of the same year, Elder Kerr re- 
plied to them, citing Scripture to prove the permissi- 
bleness of slavery, and added : 

The Borealis of the North cannot frighten and bewilder 
us. To the New England Convention, we say farewell, we 
have no desire to be united with you. 

Of course this was Kerr's individual opinion. 
The formal severance of relations came ten years 
later, at the general convention at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

This episode in Elder Kerr's life has been given 
in detail from the authentic records, not alone for 


its intrinsic value as history, but also and primarily 
to exemplify his manner of leadership, or rather of 
"pusher ship." The idea of the union was his and 
he did all the work leading up to it, but he made 
his brethren believe they were its originators and 
that he was acting as their agent to carry out their 
ideas, that he was their mouthpiece, their AAEON. 
This was his method, and a very effective method 
it proved. By it he brought things to pass, and that 
is all that the best of the world's great ones can do. 
Perhaps he adopted it from intellectual contempla- 
tion that it was the most certain way to accomplish 
his ends; perhaps it arose from the modesty and 
generosity and unselfishness of his nature — for he 
was truly modest and instinctively generous and un- 
selfish to a fault. 

As an expounder of the Word, Elder Kerr had 
no equal in the church in his day and has had but 
few since. As has already been stated, he was a 
proficient Hebrew, Greek, and Latin scholar. His 
editorial in the Christian Sun of June 21, 1S44, on 
the translations of the Bible, put him in the fore- 
front as a Biblical scholar. His lively imagination 
and his realizing power gave him exceptional ability 
and forcefulness in the field of Biblical exegesis. His 
power as a preacher was the power of Moody and 
of Spurgeon, the power to resurrect the skeleton 
scene described in the language of the sacred writ- 
ings, to make it live and move and have a being. He 
was not eloquent as some people understand that 
word, nor was he oratorical in his delivery, but he 
was dramatic and convincing. Rev. Solomon Apple, 


writing of him in the Christian Sun of February 21. 
1884, says: 

On some occasions he displayed great ability and capti- 
vated bis hearers by his eloquence I wrote a paper * 

some thirty years ago designed to give my estimate of his 
preaching. At the time I wrote, my impressions were very 
favorable, and in reference to two sermons that I heard 
him deliver, I expressed the belief that I scarcely ever heard 
them surpassed. One of these sermons was remarkable 
for the lucid exposition of the doctrine of grace. The 
other sermon was noted for the powerful effect produced 
on the congregation. In the whole course of my life, * * I 
have never seen such a change in the congregation from 
one sermon. It was no uncommon occurrence to see even 
the irreligious perfectly captivated by his lively and soul- 
stirring utterances. 

Elder Kerr was not only a leader on the floor 
of conference and in the pulpit, but also a pioneer 
in the field of religions education. He was a scholar 
and had the scholar's love for instructing others 
He was, during the most of his short but eventful 
life, a successful and widely known teacher. A 
pupil of his in the year 1842, Mr. J. B. Lynch, of 
Efland, N. C, writes me that he was a good and 
kind teacher. In 1826 we read that "the Wake 
Forest Pleasant Grove Academy, situated on the 
Oxford road twelve miles north of Ealeigh, N. C, 
was incorporated, *** with Elder Daniel W. Kerr 
as principal. Twelve years later he was principal of 

* It is very much to be regretted that the Christian Sun con- 
taining this article has been lost. 

'* Brother Apple was then about 70 years of age. 

*** The North Carolina State records give us this and the next 
item. For putting me on the track of this and the next piece 
of information. I am indebted to my colleague, Prof. P. ,T. Ker- 
nodle, who will shortly publish an account of the lives of Chris- 
tian ministers in the Southern Church. 


Junto Academy, formerly called Mt. Pleasant, which 
was incorporated in 1838." This school was sit- 
uated in Orange County, North Carolina, about three 
hundred yards from the present Mt. Zion Christian 
church, founded by Elder Kerr while teaching at this 
point. The Academy, which was situated on Kerr's 
own farm, in his front yard in fact, consisted of 
three log cabins. The central one, a one-room 
frame building, 24 by 32, was used for recitation 
purposes. The two on either side were dormitories 
for boarders, one for young men and the other for 
young women. In 1842, so Mr. J. B. Lynch writes 
me, there were about 50 students. Mr. Lynch also 
writes that the original building was burned soon 
after and a new one built, and that later the name 
was changed from Junto to Mt. Zion Academy. The 
curriculum offered prepared for any of the colleges 
or universities, and its advertisements boldly de- 
clared that it was a non-sectarian school, which 
gave strict attention to moral as well as intellectual 
training. Kerr, on May 12, 1841, sent an adver- 
tisement of his school to the Christian Palladium. 
It appeared in the issue of June 15 and with it a 
very complimentary notice from its editor, Brother 
Marsh. In a private letter to Brother Marsh, which 
however was published at the same time as the 
advertisement above mentioned, Kerr spoke of there 
being " in this section a strong and tremendous com- 
bination of sectarian bigots to prostrate my academy 
and they are using every means in their power, 
except those of openness and truth, for the ac- 
complishment of their nefarious purpose." This 
"combination of sectarian bigots" had so much in- 


fluence that in 1849, perhaps before, Kerr removed 
the Junto (Mt. Zion) Academy * to Pittsboro, N. 
C, where he taught a Male Academy until 
his death the next year. With him his school died. 
The enemies of his school were the enemies of his 
church, he calls them ''sectarian bigots." Yet he 
was the educational pioneer, who endeavored to 
establish a school for intellectual and moral train- 
ing in our Southern Christian Church, and while 
lie undertook to establish these schools on his own 
responsibility, he regarded them as church schools 
and so did our people. * * But for his efforts, and the 
efforts of others like him, Elon College, the pride 
of our people, our Southern Athens, as she has been 
fittingly called, a blessed and noble institution, 
sprung forth as if by magic to one who does not know 
the hardship and the suffering of the pioneer serv- 
ice to this end of such men as Kerr and J. R. Holt 
and the Longs, would not be to-day. He failed, 
but in his failure lay the seeds of a larger success 
than fancy's dream had ever pictured to his ener- 
getic soul. 

But the enterprise for which he is most noted 
and the institution which will forever entitle him 
to name and fame among us is the Christian Sun. 
From 1833 at the conference held at Kedar, Mt. 
Auburn Church, Warren County, N. C, and par- 

* The land on which the Junto (Mt. Zion) Academy formerly 
stood is now owned by Mr. .T. B. Richmond, Mehane, N. C, R. F. D., 
a relative of Elder Kerr through his wife, one of whose sisters 
married a Mr. Richmond, of Hurdle Mills, 1'erson County. N. C. 
The academy has been torn down and no picture of it exists. 

** For proof that his school was viewed in his day as a denom- 
inational enterprise, see his letter to Brother Marsh and Brother 
Marsh's response in Christian Palladium, June 15, 1841. 

II E L I G I O U S .7 O IT U N A L I S M 3<>:> 

ticularly from the time that the Christian Palladium 
fell into his hands in 1840 until Feb. 17, 1844, when 
the first issue of the Christian Sun appeared, he 
labored constantly on the idea of a religious periodi- 
cal for his conference. Here, as in the matter of 
union with the Northern Church, he was the real 
power behind the throne ; he furnished the ideas, 
but made others believe that they were theirs, and 
so he was enabled to bring the Christian Sun into 

At the conference at Mt. Auburn, referred to above, 
in the year 1833, a resolution prevailed to the ef- 
fect "that efforts be made to establish in North Caro- 
lina, the printing of a paper to be entitled the 
'Christian Intelligencer/ and that the treasurer be 
and is hereby authorized to pay out of the treasury, 
if there be a sufficient surplus, $50.00 to the sup- 
port of said paper, and that Brother Elijah 
Lewelling, Thomas Reeves, D. W. Kerr (italics 
mine, note the place of his name), and -T. P. LeMay 
be, and that they are hereby appointed an editorial 
committee to conduct the printing of the same." 
The matter slept until May 14, 1842, at a called 
session * of the North Carolina and Virginia Con- 
ference at Union, then Orange, now Alamance Coun- 
ty, a session called especially to consider the estab- 
lishment of a church paper. At this session a motion 
prevailed "that a monthly periodical newspaper be 
established amongst us, to be denominated, the 

* It is worthy of notice that the two greatest enterprises of 
our Southern Church were formally launched at called meetings 
of the bodies fostering them. The Christian xmi at Union in 1S42. 
and Elon College at New Trovidence in 1SSS. Both these called 
sessions met on the soil of Alamance County and both the institu- 
tions have their seats at present in the same county. 


Christian Sun." Motions also prevailed to appoint 
twelve men as a Southern Christian Publishing Com- 
mittee who should select an editor and arrange for 
the publication of the paper at once, and to make 
the Christian Sun "auxiliary to the Christian Palla- 
dium." This committee met the same day, im- 
mediately upon the adjournment of conference, and 
"unanimously elected Elder 1). W. Kerr as editor." 
For the next year nothing was done so far as the 
record shows, but Elder Kerr was at work laying 
his plans and making his foundation sure, for he 
realized that if the paper once failed the cause would 
be permanently injured. Not until the conference 
at Pleasant Grove, Randolph County, N. C, held 
on September 29, 1842, did Elder Kerr speak for 
the public, and then simply announced that he hoped 
soon to be able to begin the publication of the 
Christian Sun. and the conference authorized him to 
begin as soon as he thought advisable. The minute 
reads : 

It was left discretionary with Mm (italics mine, to show 
how completely he was the leader in the matter) as editor 
when to commence it. 

On Feb. 17, 1811, the January number of the Chris- 
tian Sun made its appearance, with Elder Daniel 
W. Kerr, of Junto, N. C, as editor, and Dennis 
Heart, Hillsboro, N. C, the most famous publisher 
then living in the state, as printer. It was a month- 
ly paper of sixteen pages and was printed neatly on 
good paper. The price was $1.00 per year in ad- 
vance. So far as we know (the file is not complete), 
except in the darkest period of the Civil War, the 
years 18G4-1866, the Christian Sun has been steadily 


shedding its rays of light from that day to this 
without intermission. To Daniel W. Kerr belongs 
the honor of having launched and firmly established 
the enterprise, as well as of having conceived and 
engineered the idea to a successful denouement. 
With infinite caution, with almost superhuman fore 
sight, did he plan and labor and organize and wait, 
biding his time to begin. And when he did begin, 
so securely did be establish it and so deeply did he 
root it in the hearts and affections of our people 
that they have ever since defended, maintained, and 
supported it, until to-day it is become one of the 
most widely quoted and influential religious journals 
published in the Southern states. 

Elder Kerr received no pay for his services as 
editor of the Christian Sun, but those who traveled 
for it did. We find one minute of the conference 
which orders that the money then in hand to the 
credit of the publishing committee be divided be- 
tween two brethren and the running expense of the 
paper, but Elder Kerr was not one of the two breth- 
ren. He supported himself by preaching and teach- 
ing, and was only too glad to give his spare time to 
the paper gratis. He proved himself an able editor, a 
skilful wielder of the sword of the Spirit, and a 
staunch and valiant defender of the Christian 
Church and its faith. His first editorial, which ap- 
pears in this Centennial Book, was on ••The 'Name 
Christian/' He chose high themes and wrote on 
them with a master's hand and grasp. The follow- 
ing are the themes of the editorials of the first 
volume of the Christian Sun and give us a correct 


idea of the man and of his notion of the function 
of the religious newspaper : 

The Name Christian, Eternal Things, Repentance. Chris- 
tian Union, Second Advent of Christ, The Bible the Only 
True Guide, The Christians in North Carolina and Vir- 
ginia, Abolition and the New England Convention, The 
Christian Religion a Spiritual Religion, Translations of the 
Bible, The Christian Church, The Virginia and North Caro- 
lina Conference. 

No more consistent or vigorous interpreter of the 
tenets and beliefs, the principles and spirit of our 
brotherhood has yet appeared in the South than these 
editorials and the others of the six years of his edi- 
torial life prove Elder Kerr to have been. These edi- 
torials are long, compared to the average religious edi- 
torials to-day, ranging from 1,500 to 3,000 words, but 
they never tire you, at least that is the experience of 
all whom I have heard say anything of the matter. 
We do not see how he could have abbreviated them 
without also subtracting materially from their per- 
manent value and cumulative effect. He knows 
what to say, what not to say, and is peculiarly 
felicitous in saying what he does say. He writes 
as one well-versed in his subject, and his burning 
words and trenchant, penetrating truths carry con- 
viction to the heart and life. He was an able editor 
and a good preacher. His policy as editor was to 
allow any communication of whatsoever nature over 
the real name of its writer. In this way at times 
baneful, hurtful, insidious articles appeared and for 
them he was criticised. His reply to all such crit- 
icisms was that truth will always prevail, that 
error can do no permanent harm and can have no 
considerable existence, that the surest way to up- 


root evil and error is to give them publicity. This 
error in judgment, if error we deem it, arose from his 
generous nature, his ever-present willingness to be 
fair and upright and open-handed. 

Elder Kerr began the Christian Sun as a con- 
ference enterprise, but saw it become, before his 
death, what it has since remained, the organ of the 
Southern Church. As early as August 2, 1844, the 
Eastern Virginia Christian Conference in session 
at Antioch, Isle of Wight County, Va., passed the 
following resolution : 

Resolved, That the Christian Sun, printed at Hillsboro, 
X. C, is suitably located, conducted in a Christian spirit, 
well calculated to be a general and lasting benefit to the 
Christians in this state and North Carolina, and merits our 
confidence and patronage. 

The Southern Christian Association, become 
now the Southern Christian Convention, was 
organized in 1847, at Good Hope, Granville 
County, N. C. Elder Kerr was present at 
this meeting as a delegate from his con- 
ference and at its session for that year, which con- 
vened at Pope's Chapel, Granville County, N. C. 
lie announced to the conference, which had commis- 
sioned him in 1846 to attend the Southern Christian 
Association as one of its representatives, that he 
had attended in that capacity and had transferred 
to that body the Christian Sun, he himself remaining 
its editor. And so the Christian Sun, from being 
the organ of a conference, became the mouthpiece 
of the group of conferences composing the Southern 
Christian Convention. 

In 1849, if not before, he removed to Pittsboro, 
Chatham County. N. C, as has been said, and there 


taught school. He moved the Christian Sun with 
him, where it was printed by Major Alexander Dis 
marks. Of the Christian Sun as edited by Elder 
Kerr, at Pittsboro, and of the latter days of his life 
so dramatically and so soon to close,. Mr. W. S. 
Gunter thus writes in the Christian Sun of Feb. 21, 

In August, 1849, I was elected Clerk of the Superior 
Court of Chatham County and moved to Pittsboro, the 
county seat. Being to some extent impressed with a call 
to the ministry, in January, 1850 (I think it was), I en- 
tered the school of Rev. D. W. Kerr, who was then editing 
the Christian Sun and teaching school in the Male Academy 
of that place. The Sun had been removed from Junto 
Academy, in Orange County, to Pittsboro. 

In March of that year, Rev. Mr. Kerr was stricken 
down with paralysis. At his request I took charge of his 
school and closed out the session for him, teaching during 
the day and nursing him at night. He was entirely help- 
less, but his mind was clear. The Sun was then printed 
by Major Alexander Dismarks, Mrs. Kerr and myself pre- 
paring the matter to make up the paper, reading and cor- 
recting the proof sheets, etc., at night. He remained in 
this condition for several months, when a second stroke 
of paralysis suddenly brought his end, dying in a few 

The exact day was May 15, 1850. 

At first Elder Kerr's remains were interred at 
Pittsboro, but in 1857 they were taken up and 
reinterred at Union, formerly Orange, now Alamance 
County N. C, where a plain marble slab, but for its 
day a very excellent and costly one, being more than 
seven feet high, marks the spot where all that was 
mortal of him, who did so much to entitle him to 
the grateful remembrance of a noble people, 
awaits the resurrection morn. To lose such a man 
at such a time, in the very zenith of his powers and 
usefulness and in the very flower of his age, was a 


great blow to the cause in the South, but those who 
took up his work, encouraged by his example and 
thrilled with a lofty hope for the future, have car 
ried our banner steadily and surely forward, and 
advanced our interests much more rapidly than 
Elder Kerr and the coterie of noble-souled soldiers of 
the Cross who gathered around him, with their large 
vision and the consuming hope that possessed them, 
ever dreamed to be possible to us as a people. 

Elder Kerr was married in early life to Miss Re- 
becca Barham Davis, * a woman of scholarly attain- 
ments and large, liberal culture. She was indeed and 
in truth a helpmate to him, giving him assistance and 
cheering encouragement in his ministerial, pedagog- 
ical, and editorial labors. After her husband's death 
she removed to Graham, N. C, where she taught a 
female school, to which small boys were also ad- 
mitted. .Many of the older citizens of this (Ala- 
mance) and the adjoining counties were her pupils 
in those days, and bear willing testimony to the ex- 
cellence and thoroughness of her instruction and the 
charm and winsomeness of her gracious manners. 
She died at the home of her nephew on her sister's 
side, Mr. Daniel W. Kerr Richmond, near Hurdle's 
Mills, Person County, N. C, on June 18, 1873, hav- 
ing been born near the same place on March 2, 1800. 
Her remains sleep beside those of her distinguished 
husband in the old burying ground at Union, Ala- 

* Rev. .T. W. Wellons, writing in the Christian Sun of October 
25, 1000, states that Elder Kerr married Miss Rebecca Barham. 
He is of the opinion that the printer omitted the Davis part of 
her name. In that same article, it is also stated that to their 
union were born several children. He says that is a mistake, 
as do many of Elder Kerr's relatives by marriage living near 
Elon College. They had no children. 



niance County, N. 0., the scene of many a pilgrim- 
ace by the admiring friends of these two self-sacri- 
ficing Christians. 

Elon College, N. C. 


The Barefoot Preacher 


Abraham Sneathen was a pulpit oddity, but a 
preacher of remarkable power. He was born in 
Kentucky, January 15. 17!M His father was from 
New Jersey, his mother (whose maiden name was 
Castro) was a Virginian. 

In 1811 he attended his first religious service — 
forty miles from his home, conducted by Rev. Cor- 
nelius Bowman. He was there, not to worship, but 
to fight Ned Bowman, the grandson of the preacher. 
Before he got the chance to fight, he was deeply con- 
victed of his sins. ''After that," he said, "God bless 
you, I would not touch a hair of Ned Bowman's 

Tn 1814 Sneathen attended a meeting in Cincin- 
nati, became a Christian, and began preaching. In 
1827 he went back to his old home, where the 
rowdy element of the community had allowed no 
meetings to be held since 1812, making fifteen years 
without the preaching of the Gospel. On his ar- 
rival at his old home he held a meeting of great 
power and blessing. Thirty-six of his old-time 
neighbors were converted, and a church was organ- 
ized. In the early part of his life he was known 
as a great fighter, but from the time of his conver- 
sion lie became a brave soldier of the Cross, endur- 
ing many hardships in the Lord's service. 



May 3, 1815, he married Miss Lydia Richard, of 
Butler County, Ohio. He then settled on the Twin 
("reek in Preble County. His wife became his teach- 
er, with the Bible as their text-book. It is said that 
he literally spelled his way the first time through the 
Bible. In 1S20 he joined the Miami Christian Con- 
ference. Later he Avas ordained by Elders Shidler 
ai)d David Purviance. 

In 1835 he moved to Indiana, and was at one time 
pastor of the Merom church. When the convention, 
held near Peru in 1858, decided to build a college 
in Indiana, it was Mr. Sneathen who proposed as a 
name for the college, Union Christian, which was 

In 187G he was invited to lecture before the col- 
lege. They offered to pay him, as they usually did 
others, but he refused to receive it because, as he 
said, he was not a college-bred man. However, the 
committee insisted as they had received the benefit, 
lie must receive the compensation. Then he yielded 
and accepted it, but at once called the committee to 
prayer, asking God's blessing upon them, and also 
wisdom for himself that he might use the money 
they had given him for the glory of God. 

He organized the first Christian Church in north- 
western Indiana. August 31, 1844, assisted by four 
ordained and two unordained ministers, he organiz 
ed at Mt. Pleasant, Cass County, Indiana, the Tippe- 
canoe Conference with fifteen churches. In August. 
1879, the name was changed from Tippecanoe to 
Northwestern. In this conference he labored until 
1871, when he went to Kansas. He devoted his 
labors largely to pastoral and evangelistic work, 


always seeking to assist the weaker churches. His 
thought seemed to be "to spend and be spent" for 
Christ and the Church. Under his labors there 
arose a lay-preacher by the name of Bayless L. 
Dickson who "wrought a great work under the 
Spirit's power among the churches. Some of those 
converted under this lay-preacher's labors refused 
to accept baptism except at the hands of this lay- 
preacher. Father Sneathen called a special session 
of conference and Brother Dickson was ordained to 
the work of the ministry. He became a most useful 
minister of the Gospel ; and, next to Sneathen, or- 
ganized more churches, traveled more miles, and 
baptized more believers than any other man in the 

Mr. Sneathen's home was well known for its hos- 
pitality — he turned no one away. At one time a 
big meeting was to be held in his cominunity, but 
he had no meat with which to feed the people, but 
taking his gun he went in search of game. He told 
the Lord if he would give him two deer, he would 
return one to him. In a short while two deer were 
in his possession. Then he thought: "The Lord has 
sent me two fat deer, one larger than the other, and 
it suits me to keep the larger one.'' Afterward he 
said, "But I was only tempted, for I gave the 
larger deer to a poor widow." 

He was a heroic character, going through heat 
and cold, swimming the rivers, enduring many 
hardships, and doing without many comforts of life 
that he might more truly serve God and his fellow- 
men. At times his poverty in earthly riches seemed 
to stand in the way of his usefulness as a minister, 


and vet the heaven-born magnetism of his great per- 
sonality was more than a match for adverse condi- 

As illustrating this fact in his life, it is related 
in the days of his early ministry, when he was very 
poor, he attended a campmeeting at Honey Creek 
church in Miami County, Ohio, and was so poorly 
clad that the ministers in charge were ashamed of 
him and refused to ask him to the platform, but 
when they attempted to conduct the services their 
efforts failed utterly — they could not awaken any 
interest, nor get attention. In this extremity it was 
proposed that they invite little "Abe Sneathen" 
to the stand and give him a chance, but some ob- 
jected, saying that he would "disgrace the meeting," 
and yet something must be done, or the whole 
campmeeting would go to pieces on their hands. 
Yielding to the inevitable, "little Abe" was invited 
to come forward and help. It was no doubt a trial 
to their pride, but he came forward barefooted and 
otherwise poorly clad. He preached a great sermon. 
His magnetism as a speaker was so great that his 
appearance was forgotten, and while he preached 
the Word, sinners were convicted and converted, 
and Christians wept and shouted for joy. 

It was in the midst of this wonderful scene that 
Elder Kyle cried out, as if in prayer: "Lord, send 
us more barefoot preachers to convert the people." 
From this incident in his ministry he came to be 
known as the "barefoot preacher," a sobriquet not 
coveted by his brethren, but none of them were 
ashamed of his power, or the fruits of his wonderful 


After spending more than sixty years in active 
service, Abraham Sneathen fell asleep and passed 
to his reward January 1, 1877, just two weeks prior 
to his eighty-third birthday. 

Like Isaiah of old (Isa. 20:3, 4), God seems to 
have called Abraham Sneathen to service in poverty 
and much humiliation, but after all his was a won- 
derfully effective ministry, a means of salvation for 
the lost and a great blessing to the church militant. 

With Elder Kyle may we not pray, "Lord, send us 
more preachers with such power for the conversion 
of the people and for the building up of the church ?" 
Well might the dying note of this old veteran of the 
Cross have been the same as Paul's parting message 
to his brethren : "I have fought a good fight, I have 
finished my course, I have kept the faith : henceforth 
there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness 
which the Lord, the righteous judge shall give me at 
that day." 

Dayton, Oliio. 



Swansea, Mass. 

Organized in 1603. 



Swansea (Mass.) Christian Church 

Services in connection with "the Church of 
Christ in Swansea" were held as early as 1680. 
Formal church organization was effected in 1G93. 

No doctrinal tests were made conditions of ad- 
mission, but all Christians were recognized as pos- 
sessing equal rights in the household of faith. In 
1725 it was decided to receive members only by the 
"laying on of hands." In 1803, and subsequently 
for sixteen years, it had its representatives in the 
"Yearly meeting of the Six Principle Baptists." 

From. that time until the present Christian char- 
acter has been the only test of communion and mem- 
bership. A few years ago the church united with 
the Rhode Island and Massachusetts Christian Con- 

O'Kelly's Chapel, Chatham County, N. C. 


Located in the Northeastern part of Chatham 
County, N. C, is the Christian Church known as 
O'Kelly's Chapel. It stands in a grove of native 
oaks, and is probably now the only remaining 
church for which James O'Kelly preached. 

As late as 1852 the church was very prosperous, 
having about two hundred members, Rev. Thos. 
J. Fowler being pastor. The deacons were Alfred 
Moring. Josiah Atkins and Reuben Herndon. On 
the death of the last named, C. S. Holleman was 
chosen to fill the vacancy. The board of deacons then 
remained unbroken for thirty years. 

* Prepared by Prof. J. N. Dales, Toronto, Canada. 


The Civil War greatly hindered the usefulness 
of this church, but it is still active and has recently 
built a new house of worship as shown on page 384. 
It is now a handsome country church. It has a 
good Sunday-school. 

The grave, where the monument to the memory 
of James O'Kelly stands, is about one miles from 
the church — on the O'Kelly farm. The monument 
is a handsome one of granite (See page 266 J ;ui<l 
appropriately marked thus: 








The cemetery has fourteen graves marked O'Kelly 
on the tombstones. There are but few of the O'Kelly 
name now living in the vicinity; Rev. W. T. Hern 
<lon. of Elon College, is the only living great-grand- 
son of the greai leader. (See page 256.) Hon. F. 
( ). .Muring, of Raleigh, and Rev. A. P. Barbee, pastor 
of the Christian church at Durham, X. C, are the 
only surviving great-great-grandsons. The old home 
place is still owned by one of his descendants, Dr. 
J. M. O'Kelly, of Durham, but no buildings remain 
on the farm which were occupied or used by the 
Rev. James O'Kellv. 


Christian Church, New Carlisle, Ohio 

This church is perhaps the first of any kind 
planted in the whole region north of Dayton. Serv- 
ices were first held at the close of the Cane Ridge 
revival (1798), in a cabin on the farm of Elinathan 
Cory, afterwards a deacon in the church. The 
erection of the present building was begun in 1827. 
It has been remodeled several times and is now 
commodious and convenient. The deed for the 
church lot is dated 1816. The ground was given by 
Mr. William Rayborne. Mrs. Sallie Smith left 
the church a good home for a parsonage and Sis- 
ter Jane Cory bequeathed $1,000, and Mr. William 
Bean $500. It has had as pastors, Elders Stack- 
house, Worley, Purviance, McCoy, Potter, I. N. 
Walter, Simonton, McWhinney, Daugherty, J. G. 
Bishop and C. B. Kershner. At present the church 
is without a pastor. 

Court Street Christian Church, Portsmouth, 
New Hampshire 

Elder Elias Smith visited Portsmouth in the sum- 
mer of 1802, when he was about thirty-three years 
of age. He preached in different places, and Jan- 
uary 1, 1803, organized a church in Portsmouth, 
with no name but Christian and no creed but the 
Bible. The first communion service was observed 
in April of that same year. From this church mem- 
bers were received into Hampton, Hampton Falls, 
Newington, N. H., and Haverhill and Bradford, 
Massachusetts. This, undoubtedly, was the parent 




\ til' ; 






Portsmouth, X. If. 
Organized iu 1803. 


church of the Hampton churches as well as the 
churches of Haverhill and Stratham. 

Following is the list of pastors who have served 
the church : 

Revs. Elias Smith, 1802; Moses Howe. 1826-1836; Aimer 
Jones, 1837-1S3S; David Millard, 1838; E. N. Harris, 1840- 
1842; Geo. W. Killin, 1842-1845; A. M. Averill. 1845-1850; 
Thomas Holmes, 1850-1853; Chas. Bryant, 1853-1853; O. P. 
Tnckerman ; A. G. Comings; B. S. Fanton, 1855-1857; *Thos. 
Holmes. 1857-1859; Moses Howe. 1859-1860; I. F. Water- 
house, 1860-1865; *C. P. Smith. 1868-1872; *John A. Goss, 
1872-1SS5; G. D. Hainer, 1885-1 S87 : *John A. Ilainer, 18S7- 
1890; W. R. Spaid, 1890-1891: *J. P. Marvin. 1892-1894; 
*Myron Tyler, 1895-1900; F. II. Gardner, 1901—, now in 
the eighth year of his pastorate. 

To celebrate the one hundredth anniversary of 
the church, appropriate exercises were held April 
5, 1903. Rev. John A. Goss gave an historical ad 
dress in the morning. A union service was held 
in the afternoon and Rev. Geo. W. Gile, of the 
Baptist Church, preached. The evening services 
were conducted by the pastor, Rev. F. H. Gardner, 
who gave an address on "Thanking God and Tak- 
ing Courage." 

The present membership is one hundred and thir 
ty. It is in this church that ''The Centennial of 
Religious Journalism" is to be held next Septem 
tier. It was while Elder Elias Smith was pastor 
of the church that he began to publish the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty. 

Providence (Va.) Christian Church 
This church Mas organized in 1804 with Rev. 
Nathaniel P. Tatem as pastor. For the first twenty- 

Still living. 


Haverhill. .Mass. 
Organized in 1806. 


five years of its existence the membership average 
was probably fifty. In 1817 a conference session 
was held there. During the second twenty-five 
years of its existence 153 persons were admitted 
as members.. During the years 1854-79, the church 
felt the blighting effects of the Civil War, but yet 
it welcomed into its fellowship 12G persons. 

The last quarter century of its history has not 
been quite so prosperous, owing to the fact that the 
location is not now so favorable for work, and re- 
movals and withdrawals have had their silent but 
powerful effect upon its life. It has had great and 
good men for pastors and officers, and we trust that 
the busy life of enterprise which now prevails in 
the Southland may soon touch the immediate neigh- 
borhood of the old church so that the strength of 
youth may be renewed and noble service yet be 

South Christian Church, Haverhill, 
The South Christian Church, of Haverhill, Mass., 
was organized April 0, 18(H). Previous to litis 
there had been preaching at intervals for three years 
by Elders Elias Smith ami Aimer Jones. Elder 
Smith first visited Bradford in ISO:;, and preached 
in the home of John Marble Several people from 
Haverhill attended, among whom was Frederick 
Plummer. At this meeting the young man's atten- 
tion was arrested, he soon afterward confessed 
Christ, and in 1812 became pastor of what is now 
the South Christian Church. Before the church 


was organized, fifty-four persons were baptized by 
Elders Smith and Jones. The final organization of 
the church was effected in the house of Silas Plum- 
mer, then standing on the south side of Merrimack 
Street, opposite the present site of the Academy of 
Music. For several years meetings were held in 
private houses. 

The first meeting-house was a plain brick structure 
situated on the corner of Washington and Essex 
streets, known as the "Christian Union Chapel." 

Many revivals commenced in this chapel and spread 
throughout the town. It was known far and near 
as the "Kevival church," and was the leading church 
in the community. Both pulpit and pew were out 
spoken against slavery and intemperance. 

In 1860 the old building was entirely remodeled 
and rededicated. 

October 6, 1873, John Pilling and Jesse Simonds. 
for a consideration of $1,000, purchased the site for 
the present church building. 

October 25, 1ST:!, -The First Christian Society of 
Haverhill" was incorporated and continued until 
June 18, 1902, when the "South Christian Church of 
Haverhill, Mass.," became an incorporation and the 
society by general consent was dissolved. 

The present house of worship was erected in 1874. 
The vestry was formally dedicated April 2, 1874. 
and the main building September 2, of the same 
year, Eev. Alva H. Morrill preaching the sermon. 
Many changes and alterations have been made since. 
A new pipe organ has been installed, a ladies' parlor, 
and steel ceilings have been added and redecorating 
has been done. In 1905, the church was the happy re- 


cipient of a beautiful parsonage, the donor being 
Mrs. Eliza Pilling. It was given in memory of her 
late husband, John Pilling. 

The growth of the church in members in recent 
years has been encouraging. In 1889 the member 
ship of the church was 89, now it is 220. During 
the present pastorate 132 have been received into 
the church. The present membership of the Sun 
day-school in all departments is 272. 

"One hundred years for Christ! Who can com 
prebend it? Noble deeds, not written upon the 
pages of memory, but recorded in the Lamb's Book 
of Life." 

Woodstock (Vt.) Christian Church 

The Christian Church in Woodstock, Vermont, is 
the result of the union of three organizations of 
the Christians, all of which were in existence in 
1h is town about a century ago. In 1 SOI Rev. 
Abner Jones sowed the seed, and in 1806 Rev. Elias 
Smith gathered the first congregation of Christians 
— thirty-six in number. In the year 1808 there 
were 107 baptisms. Rev. Frederick Plummer with 
Rev. John Rand hold meetings at the court-house 
in September, 1810, and the result was forty con- 
versions. The former remained as pastor of the 
three churches, now united, till 1813. The Rev. 
John Rand served the church until 1816, when Rev. 
Jasper Hazen began his fruitful ministry of thirty 
years of service, both for the church and town. 
The present building was dedicated in 1827. Rev. 
.Moses Kidder was Hie next pastor, serving the church 


Woodstock, Vermont 
Organized in 1S06 


continuously for 50 years and leaving behind him 
the living influence of a godly life. Rev. E. 0. 
Fry, now in Japan, was pastor aboui two years, 
and was followed by Rev. M. T. Morrill, now Mis- 
sion Secretary, who remained ten years, and Rev. 
C. A. McDaniel, who has just resigned after a pas 
torate of three vears. 

Knob Prairie (Enon, O.) Christian Church 

Near (he beginning of the nineteenth century, 
sometime during the year 1806, the religious spirit 
of Hie time gave birth to a Christian organization 
which was destined to contribute largely to the 
nation's welfare. The Christian denomination was 
yet in ils infancy, only a few years having passed 
since the first movements which led to an organiza- 
tion of (hose who accepted Christ alone as their 
creed, when Barton W. Stone and Wm. Kinkade be- 
gan preaching in this part of the country. The min- 
istry of these two men soon led to the organization 
of i he church known for all these years as Knob 
Prairie Christian Church. The first meeting which 
led lo the organization of this church was held 
in the old log house which still stands on the Baker 
place, about two miles east of Enon, Ohio. 

A tier a few years the old log house was replaced 
l>y a frame building, which was so long and widely 
known as the Old Knob Prairie church. 

In 1851 a new brick church — the present building 

was erected in the village. In 1852 it was dedi- 
cated to the Lord by Revs. Daugherty and Simonton. 

a a 









The devoted and consecrated band of men who have 
ministered to this people are : 

Rev. Francis Montford, the first resident pastor, Revs. 
N. Summerbell, T. M. McWhinney, P. McCullongh. the 
Siinontons, the Kyles, Melyn Baker, Levi Purviance, Nathan 
Worley, Caleb Worley, D. F. Laclley, Asa W. Co-an, Myron 
Tyler. E. A. DeVore, G. B. Merritt. G. D. Black, G. W. 
Choate, W. H. Orr. Fred Strickland. D. B. Atkinson, Arthur 
S. Henderson. T. C. Benson. A. R. Bosworth, Henry Cramp- 
ton. Clarke B. Kershner, W. II. Sando. Ercy C. Kerr and 
the present pastor, C. C. Jones. 

The one hundredth anniversary services were held 
July 14-15, 190(3, in the present church building. 
Many of the ex-pastors, friends and almost the en- 
tire membership of the church, were in attendance. 

Eaton (Ohio) Christian Church 

The church now known as the First Christian 
church of Eaton, was organized in 1807 ; by El- 
ders David Purviance and Barton W. Stone. For 
several years the Christians worshiped with other 
denominations in "the Old Public Church. " Doc 
trinal matters divided the church about the year 
1829, but in 1841 the scattered members were again 
brought together in fellowship. From the year 1807 
complete records are available. Rev. Hugh A. 
Smith is the present efficient pastor and the mem- 
bership is now 356. Among Eaton's pastors we 
notice many well-known names: David Purviance, 
Reuben Dooley, William Kinkade, E. W. Hum- 
phreys, T. M. McWhinney, James Maple, C. W. 
Oaroutte, W. H. Orr, J. G. Bishop, Henry Cramp- 
ton, J. F. Burnett and W. D. Samuel. The 
organization has had three buildings. The present 


one was dedicated Feb. 10, 1895, during the pas- 
torate of J. F. Burnett, D. D. 

The church has never enjoyed a greater degree of 
activity and spiritual usefulness than now. 

North Christian Church, New Bedford, 

Sunday, Jan. 25, 1807, a company of Christians 
met at the home of Obed Kempton, corner of Pur- 
chase and Middle streets, New Bedford, with the 
thought of organizing a new church. Thirteen per- 
sons, former members of the Dartmouth Baptist 
church, in the presence of their former pastor, El- 
der Daniel Hix, united and formed a church, to 
be known simply as Christian, part of what soon 
came to be known in Xew England as the "Christian 
Connection." The membership rapidly increased 
and the following year a church was erected, which 
was the first built by the Christians in. New Bedford, 
and one of the first in New England. Before the 
building was shingled, and during a hard thunder- 
shower, a large crowd gathered in the unfinished 
basement of the church and listened to a sermon 
by that dauntless reformer, Elder Elias Smith. 

The church had no settled pastor until 1811, when 
Elder Benjamin Taylor came to them, but such 
men as Daniel Hix, Elias Smith, Frederick Pluni- 
mer, John Gray, Douglass Farnham, and Dr. Ab- 
ner Jones ministered to them on different occasions. 
In 1822, during Moses Howe's ministry, a great re- 
vival took place. Charles Morgridge was pastor from 
1826-1831. Under the labors of Rev. Stephen Lov- 

New Bedford, Mass. 
Organized in 1807 


ell the church was very prosperous. May 29, 1833, 
a new house, seating 1,500 people, was dedicated— 
and quickly the congregation grew and filled the 

In 1834 Elder Morgridge was again called to the 
pastorate and remained until 1841, carrying on the 
work with much success. Then followed: 

Rev. Silas Hawley, Rev. Philemon R. Russell, Rev. Albert 
G. Morton, Rev. William R. Stowe, Rev. David B. Millard, 
Rev. John Orrell, Rev. Samuel W. Whitney, Rev. Tyler C. 
Moulton, Rev. Austin Craig, Rev. Albert J. Kirkland, Rev. 
Oliver A. Roberts, Rev. S. Wright Butler, Rev. William T. 
Brown, Rev. W. J. Reynolds, Rev. Chas. J. Jones, D. D., 
and Rev. James McAllister, D. D. 

The North Christian Church celebrated its hun- 
dredth anniversary January 27-28, 1907, by appro- 
priate services and exercises. Beautiful souvenir 
booklets were issued as a permanent memento. 
Its history is closely linked with the city's his- 
tory, and it has played a large part in the re- 
ligious and social life of what was once the greatest 
whaling port of America. Nearly fourteen hundred 
names appear on the church roll, exclusive of the 
present membership which is not far from four 
hundred and fifty. 

Christian Church, Yo;k, Maine 


The York Christian church w 7 as first organized 
May 13, 1808, by Elder Elias Smith, at the home of 
John Tenney, with a membership of twenty-six. 
September 8, of the same year, at the close of a re- 
ligious meeting held in Mr. Tenney's orchard, Elder 

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Peter Young was ordained its first minister, but 
remained as pastor less than a year. Elder Moses 
Safford was chosen pastor and continued so until 
his death, April, 1S16. While pastor, seventeen 
members were added to the church. For two years 
there was no minister, and then Elder Mark Fernald 
was called to the church and remained until 1829. 
During his pastorate thirty-eight members were 
added to the church. jElder Peter Young, having 
returned to that part of the country, was again 
chosen pastor and remained four and one-half years. 
A great revival came to the church and fifty new 
names were added to the church list. For nearly 
three years the church was again without a leader. 
At this time Elder E. L. Kobinson came to preach 
for them. He was followed by Brother Abner Hall, 
then Elder Thomas Bartlett, Elder Stephen P. Pick 
ford and Elder Charles E. Goodwin. 

Elder Goodwin labored among the people for 
twenty-one years with much success, and during 
his stay one hundred and twenty-four members were 
added to the church roll. Elder Joseph H. Graves 
then came and filled the pulpit, followed by Elder 
IT. Short. During these last seven years thirty- 
eight members enlisted in the cause of Christ. In 
1881 Elder James R. Phillips commenced the pas 
toral work of the church, remained three years and 
was succeeded by Elder J. W. Card, then Elder B. S 
Maben. While Rev. Maben was here Sister H. Liz- 
zie Haley came and helped conduct a revival for 
four weeks, and as a result twenty -four were taken 
into the church. After this pastorate Rev. W. B. 
Flanders commenced his labors with the church, 


staying from 1887 until 1891. Following him came 
Rev. C. V. Parsons, who commenced his pastorate 
with this people, and on May 13, the new church 
edifice was dedicated. After working about three 
years he resigned and Rev. W. G. Voliva was chosen 
pastor, followed by Elder T. G. Moses. May 13, 
1896, the 88th birthday of the church was celebrated 
by a reunion and roll-call. The clerk reported a 
membership of one hundred and twenty-four, of 
whom sixty-eight responded by name and twelve 
by letter. Each year at this time the church held 
a reunion until 1900. 

Tn May, 1900, Elder Moses resigned and Rev. John 
A. Goss became pastor and is still with the church 
to-day. The membership is now eighty-eight. The 
church celebrated its one hundredth anniversary, 
May 13, 1908, with a public meeting. 

First Christian Church, Milan, N. Y. 
This church was organized in the summer of 
1 sos, and worshiped for several years in a building 
called a Union meeting-house, the Baptists being 
die stronger. About the year 1824, the Christians, 
under the preaching of Elders Shaw, Perry and 
other pioneer ministers, grew in numbers and in- 
fluence; finally the Baptists sold their share in the 
building to our people, who erected the present 
building in 1825, Elders I. X. Walter, Badger and 
others preaching here occasionally. Since 1833 they 
have had a settled pastor. This is called (lie "Mother 
Church" of the Christians in 1 >utchess County; from 
this church four other churches have been organized. 


viz., Clove, Stanfordville, Schultzville, and West 
Pine Plains. The Milan church has had her strug- 
gles, but through all these years she has stood the 
storm, and from her pulpit the gospel has been 
faithfully preached, and the principles of our people 
set forth. 

To-day the property is well preserved, in good 
repair, and congregations are good, for a country 
church. Her present pastor, Kev. B. S. Crosby, is 
serving; the church for the second time. 



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Or the Development of our Denominational Life 
and Work 

Our Educational Institutions 

BY J. B. WESTdX, 1>. D.. LL. D. 
President Christian Biblical Institute 

The early founders of our churches were men of 
education and ability, among the foremost of their 
time. In these respects James 0*Kelly was quite 
the peer of Bishop Francis Asbury. whose autocratic 
methods he opposed and refused to submit to. His 
associates were men of leading minds. David Pur- 
viance, of Kentucky, and afterward of Ohio, was 
not only a man among the foremost in intelligence 
and ability as a speaker, but a leading practical 
statesman in the legislature of both states. Barton 
W. Stone and William Kinkade were educated men 
and vigorous thinkers. Abner Jones, of New Eng- 
land, was an educator and physician before he was 
a minister, and Elias Smith was one of the in- 
fluential and able Baptist preachers in New Eng 
land, a popular pastor of a city church, brilliant 
and strong as a preacher, too independent, as it 
proved, to be kept within the traditional limitations 
of his denomination. But though educated them- 
selves, they did not realize the importance of educa- 
tion for their successors. Indeed, they did not set out 


to build up a denomination, but to be free men, to 
preach a free gospel, and to win souls to Christ. 

Besides, they made the not uncommon mistake of 
considering things which they found co-existing as 
related to each other as cause and effect. They saw 
a professional education and salaried settlement of 
the prevalent ministry associated with a spirit of in- 
tolerance, sectarian bigotry, and religious apathy. 
They took the former to be the cause of the latter, 
and often denounced both reliance on professional 
education and stipulated salaries as cutting the 
nerve of spiritual power and success in the winning 
of souls. So, along with their consecrated zeal 
their earnest application of gospel truth, their suc- 
cess in winning souls to Christ who had not been 
touched by the old methods, and their wide charity 
among those who were real believers, they did not 
spare their shafts of sarcasm against the educated 
"hirelings" who enjoyed the fat places and popular 
esteem, but who stood in their way, and whose 
ministry was barren of spiritual results. In spite 
of the fervor of their zeal and the splendor of their 
immediate success, the ill results of their mistake 
remained long after them. It has been only by de- 
grees that it could be outgrown at all ; it has been 
an incubus on their successors' progress and an 
obstacle hard to overcome in all the denomination's 

When, however, the constructive period came, and 
it became necessary to take the field along with 
others in organized work, the mistake became ob- 
vious ; especially so when it was seen that the young 
people of the families who were ambitous for good 


education had to go to schools where the tendency 
was to lead them away to other denominations. 
But this awakened the people only to the necessity 
of furnishing the means of secular education under 
religious influence which would keep alive the re- 
ligious spirit and the love for the church of their 
parents. The prejudice against special training for 
the ministry was strongly entrenched. The earliest 
movements in educational lines were for secondary 
schools and academies, located among their own 
churches and under their own teachers, for such ed- 
ucation as the public schools could not give. 


As far as I know, the first definite movement in 
this direction was in New England or New York; 
I am not certain which was first. In the late thir- 
ties, or early forties, a vigorous movement was made 
to establish an academy in New Hampshire. There 
had been some talk of a school in Massachusetts, 
but it bad not materialized. The New Hampshire 
movement, with the influence of all the leading 
ministers of New England at its back, resulted in 
the establishment of an academy in Durham, New 
Hampshire. Of this Eev. O. B. Cheney, afterwards 
the honored president of Bates College, Lewiston, 
Mo., was at one time principal. This academy was at 
Durham for some years, then removed to Wolfboro. 
back to Durham, and then to Franklin. Here a 
wealthy gentleman, named Proctor, made a very 
favorable conditional offer for the permanent es- 
tablishment of the academy, but our churches failed 
to meet it, other parties accepted it, and our efforts 

President of Palmer Institute-Starkey Seminary 


came to naught. It was the mistake and misfortune 
of our eastern people. 


The educational movement in the state of New 
York was more successful. At its annual session in 
1839, the New York Central Conference decided 
to establish an academy "on free and liberal prin- 
ciples." A committee of nine was appointed, with 
Rev. Ezra Marvin, an enthusiastic and able young 
minister, at the head, to carry the work into exe- 
cution. "Elder Marvin" was pastor of churches in 
the vicinity of Starkey. He threw time and heart 
into the work, raised money in that neighborhood, 
secured money enough to warrant the establishment 
of the school in the town that gave it its name. 
This was the beginning of Starkey Seminary. Un- 
der the same energetic leadership, money was raised 
in the Central Conference and churches of the state, 
and a lot of about one and a half acres was secured 
for a building, with a proviso in the deed, however, 
that it should never be used for other than "literary 
purposes." This was explained at the time to be 
a safeguard against its being used for a theological 

The first building was erected, and in November, 
1842, the school was opened with Rev. Charles 
Morgridge as principal. Under him and other prin- 
cipals the school continued with varied success till 
the fall of 1847, when Prof. Edmund Chadwick was 
secured as principal. Prof. Chadwick brought new 
life to the seminary. He was a graduate of Bowdoin 
College and Bangor Theological Seminary. In ad 


dition to his education he was a practical teacher, 
of Christian spirit, a man of resources, energetic, 
hard-working, self-sacrificing and faithful. His 
character made him friends. Library and apparatus 
were obtained for the school, and in 1848 a charter 
was secured and with it a share in the state's edu- 
cational funds. He built up the school and put it 
on a sound foundation. At the close of his admin- 
istration in 1861 it had a faculty of eight teachers 
and four assistants. 

On this faculty was Prof. O. F. Ingoldsby. He 
had been educated at Starkey, had proven him- 
self an efficient teacher, and he became Prof. Chad- 
wick's successor. He, too, was an efficient, enthu- 
siastic, self-sacrificing man. Under him the Chad- 
wick spirit continued. The early }<ears of his prin- 
cipalship suffered from the depletions incident to 
the Civil War, but the interest rallied and a new 
hall became necessary for the accommodation of lady 
students. Under his energetic endeavors the money 
was raised and Hathaway Hall was built and ready 
for occupation in December, 1800. He continued as 
principal till 1873, the school meantime holding its 
high rank and sending out strong men and women 
into the active pursuits of life. After a few years 
of retirement he was recalled and was principal 
from 1878 to 1885. The lives of Chadwick and In- 
goldsby have been largely the life-blood of Starkey. 

Being self-supporting and without endowment, un- 
der subsequent headships the seminary lacked funds 
for repairs, and the buildings suffered in conse- 
quence. About 1890 Hon. Francis A. Palmer came 
to the rescue. First he aided in repairs to the old 

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buildings. Next he decided to build a new building 
on new grounds nearer the beautiful lake which is 
so charming a part of the scenery. Land was pur- 
chased, a president's residence and a- new hall 
erected, with first-class rooms and appointments for 
educational purposes, and students' rooms and din- 
ing-room for students. "Palmer Hall' was dedi- 
cated in September, 1900. Grounds have been beau- 
tified and enlarged in the finest taste, and a sub- 
stantial backing furnished. Rev. Martyn Summer- 
bell, Ph. D., D. D., is president and the outlook for 
the future is most flattering. (See note, page 447.) 


A movement for a school in Ohio, in the vicinity 
of New Carlisle, was agitated but dropped. 

The establishment of academies preceded by many 
years any movement for a college. In the late 
forties, Mr. A. M. Merrifield, of Worcester, Mass., 
in conjunction with Elders Oliver Barr, David Mil- 
lard and others, instituted an active agitation for 
a college for the entire denomination. The papers 
and leading ministers in all parts of the United 
States and Canada joined in approval. The time 
seemed opportune. A convention was called to meet 
in Marion, Wayne County, New York, in October, 
1850, the first really national convention the de- 
nomination had ever held. It was numerously at- 
tended and enthusiastic. Plans for establishing a 
college were adopted, but entirely inadequate. Com- 
mittees were appointed for carrying the plans into 
execution. Funds w T ere raised on paper and the 
enthusiasm, especially in Ohio, ran high. Antioch 


College was established in Yellow Springs, and 
Horace Mann called to be president. But the mis- 
take was made of relying on individual notes en- 
titling to a- free scholarship on the college on each 
note of $100, given with the understanding that 
the principal should never be called for as long as 
the 6 per cent, interest was paid. Under Horace 
Mann, who identified himself with our people, 
splendid educational work was done, an exemplary 
record made, and a high ideal incorporated into 
the school. But the financial plans and methods 
proved a failure, as money was not forthcoming 
and ultimately the College passed from our con- 
trol. It is still doing a good work as an undenom- 
inational school, under Dr. Fess, a liberal Methodist, 
as president. Some grand men and women have 
gone forth from its halls. 


By degrees the prejudice against theological edu- 
cation began to give way, especially with the men of 
leading intelligence and influence. When by some 
wealthy and benevolent Unitarians a theological 
school was established in Meadville, Pa., with Dr. 
Rufus P. Stebbins at its head, and some of our 
own men, like Revs. David Millard and Austin Craig, 
as lecturing professors, and an open door offered to 
young men for our ministry, several availed them 
selves of the opportunity. They took courses of 
study and came back to our churches, especially in 
the west, and brought talent and scholarship and 
zeal to their work. Dr. Stebbins was a devout and 
scholarly Christian man, highly honored and be 


loved by all who knew him. In theological views 
and evangelical spirit he was in closer harmony with 
ns than with the large body of the Unitarians 
themselves; and the influence of his spirit and 
teaching on the young men under him was inspiring 
in the best direction. But circumstances led to a 
weakening of the bonds of co-operation, and gome- 
thing more was felt to be needed to meet our de- 
mands. At the Marion Convention where An- 
tioch College was launched, regard was still mani- 
fest to the prejudice against special preparation 
for the ministry. It was carefully and cautiously 
averred that Antioch was not to be a theological 
school. Still, such an impetus was given to the 
educational spirit that at the meeting of the An- 
tioch Provisional Committee in 1852, where the loca- 
tion of the College was decided on and Hon. Horace 
Mann invited to become president, it was also 
decided to undertake to add a theological depart- 
ment to the College. Rev. Oliver Barr was appoint- 
ed soliciting agent, and he entered the work with ef- 
fective zeal. But his sudden death in a railroad 
accident in Norwalk, Conn., brought an end to the 
enterprise. But his martyrdom to the cause was the 
end of opposition to theological education among us. 


Not long after the establishment of Antioch the 
educational spirit was awakened in Indiana. A 
private school and academy was started in Merom, 
Sullivan County, in which Rev. E. W. Humphreys 
was an active factor and principal teacher. This 
developed with increasing interest and was endorsed 

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President Union Christian College 



by the conference. In 1858, the Indiana Conferences 
took it up and determined to raise it to the rank 
of a college, erect a new building on the banks of 
the Wabash, and provide an endowment. The work 
was undertaken with enthusiasm and success. 
Among the early presidents were Doctors Nicholas 
Sunmierbell and Thomas Holmes. But the financial 
mistake was made again in relying on individual 
personal notes. An endowment of $100,000 or more 
on paper faded away, more was raised and only 
partly collected. Meantime the educational work 
went on successfully and good results have been 
achieved for Indiana and Illinois and other parts 
more remote. Many of her alumni and other stu- 
dents have done valuable work and filled important 
positions to the credit of their alma mater. A 
few years ago, Hon. Francis A. Palmer added 
$30,000 to $20,000 raised by other friends for an 
additional endowment, making a fund of about 
$75,000. Under Dr. C. J. Jones, as president, money 
was raised for extensive repairs and improvements. 
With the opening of the current school year, Dr. 
O. B. Whitaker entered on the presidency with in- 
spiring prospect of success. 


Our first educational institution in the Southern 
States was opened in 1852, in Graham, N. C, under 
the joint approval of the then two Southern Con- 
ferences. It was named Graham Institute, and Bev. 
John B. Holt was made principal. Until 1857 it 
was conducted as a high school for boys, was self- 
supporting and successful. Among the students of 

President of Elon College, North Carolina 


that period were Doctors W. S. Long, J. W. Wellons, 
and others of national repute. In 1S57 it was 
chartered by the legislature of North Carolina as 
Graham College, and Prof. W. H. Doherty from 
Antioch was elected president. It grew in favor 
and prosperity until the outbreak of the Civil War, 
when it suffered such depletion that its doors were 
shut, and subsequently the property was sold. 

In 1865, Rev. (now Dr.) W. S. Long opened a 
high school in Graham in a small brick building. 
The school prospered in his hands, and, to provide 
larger accommodations, other property was acquir- 
ed. Finally, Rev. W. S. Long and Rev. I). A. Long 
acquired the old Graham College property, and to 
it the school was removed. W. S. Long was still 
president, and the school was endorsed by the North 
Carolina Christian Conference. About 1873, D. A. 
Long purchased the entire property, and became 
president. He secured its incorporation as Graham 
Normal College. Upon his resignation in 1883, to 
become president of Antioch College, W. S. Long- 
became president of Graham Normal College. Its 
prestige continually increased, and strong men, who 
have later made their mark in public affairs of 
church and state, were numbered among the stu- 


In 1888 the General Convention (South), under 
the advice of an intelligent committee, took steps to 
build a college. A Provisional Board was appointed, 
with President W. S. Long as chairman, to select 
the site and oversee the erection of the building. 


A site on the North Carolina Kailroad, seven miles 
west of Graham, was secured, a fine building erected, 
adequate to immediate purposes, a charter for "Elon 
College" was granted, and the new college opened 
in September, 1890. 

He continued as president for a number of years, 
and to his business ability, self-sacrificing energy 
and devotion, added to his success as an educator, 
Elon College is largely indebted for its success. 
The Southern churches, though crippled in their 
finances as a result of the war, responded loyally 
to his effort, and in return were largely rewarded 
by an increase of numerical, spiritual and financial 
strength. After the resignation of Dr. Long, for 
eleven years Eev. W. W. Staley, D. D., was its 
president. Though he did not reside at the col- 
lege, he was its executive officer and exercised gen- 
eral oversight over its work, giving to the college 
the benefit, both educationally and financially, of 
his wisdom and executive ability. When he resigned, 
the college was entirely free from debt. It has a 
fair endowment, which was recently increased 
$50,000 by Hon. Francis A. Talmer's joining $30,000 
to $20,000 raised by themselves. The present presi- 
dent is Dr. E. L. Moffitt, under whom and his col 
leagues, it is doing an encouraging work. 


Of late years the interest of our people in the 
North, especially in Ohio and northern Indiana, has 
centered around Defiance Gollege. This institution 
was started as a Female Seminary by citizens of 
Defiance and an adjoining county from the sale of 

1'. W. McKEYNOLDS, A. M., B. I). 
President of Defiance College 


their lands appropriated to educational uses. A 
fine large brick building was erected on a campus 
of ten acres in the northern part of the city of 
Defiance, which is located at the junction of the 
Auglaize and Maumee rivers, the location of the old 
Fort Defiance of the times of General Anthony 
Wayne. Subsequently it was made a seminary for 
both sexes. In the late nineties, under the presi- 
dency of Dr. Latchaw, a movement was made with 
some success to enlist the interest of the Christian 
churches of Ohio. On the undertaking to establish 
a university in Muncie, Indiana, Dr. Latchaw went 
to Muncie. Then the Trustees of the Seminary 
engaged Prof. P. W. McKeynolds, an associate of 
Dr. Latchaw, to accept the presidency, promising 
him a substantial backing. He consented, and Miss 
Wilson, another associate professor, remained with 
him. Since that time the institution has taken on 
a new life; order, discipline, activity and thorough- 
ness have been introduced, a college charter ob- 
tained, and fifteen acres more have been added to 
the campus. The growing patronage demanded an 
additional building for dining-hall and rooms for 
lady students. By the contribution of $10,000 by 
Mr. Trowbridge, a citizen of Defiance, and the aid 
of others, Trowbridge Hall was erected. The first 
year of its occupancy it was seriously damaged by 
fire ; but by the aid of citizens of Defiance and other 
friends, with the contribution of $5,000 from Mr. 
Andrew Carnegie, it was rebuilt with a large ad- 
dition furnishing rooms also for boys. The college 
has some invested endowment and measures are on 
foot, with the endorsement of the Ohio State Chris- 


tian Association, for a substantial addition. It 
should have $200,000 more. It has fine, up-to-date 
philosophical apparatus, a fair library, athletic 
fields, both for ladies and gentlemen, and a fairly 
appointed gymnasium. In the summer of 1907 the 
Christian Biblical Institute was removed from Stan- 
fordville, N. Y., for which a fine new building is in 
process of erection. This is spoken of in another 
place. The three buildings will make a well-ap- 
pointed, well-appearing, commodious and convenient 
educational plant. Defiance sustains a faculty of 
about fifteen teachers, able, enthusiastic, and devoted 
to their work. The discipline and moral tone is of 
the highest order. Besides its regular work, it 
sustains a summer school which is popular and well 
attended. President McReynolds is a self-sacrificing 
Christian, adapted to his work to a rare degree, and 
has the implicit confidence of all who know him. 
The outlook for Defiance is promising. 


As has already been said, the early prejudice 
against theological schools and theological educa- 
tion began to give way soon after the establishment 
of Antioch College. The first movement for such a 
school undertaken by the efforts of Rev. Oliver Barr, 
came to an end with his tragic death. No other de- 
cided movement was made in that direction till 
1SG6. In that year, the American Christian Con- 
vention, at its Quadrennial session in Marshall, 
Michigan, decided on the establishment of such a 
school for the benefit of all the denomination, and 
a board of trustees was appointed to raise the 


First President of Christian Biblical Institute 

(See page 137) 


money, found and control it. It was to be located 
in the state of New York. This board immediately 
put agents into the field and money was raised, 
largely on notes again, for its endowment. They 
obtained a charter from the legislature of the state 
in April, 1868. Key. Austin Craig, D. !>., was elected 
president, and the school was opened in the fall of 
1868 in rooms of Starkey Seminary, in Eddytown, 
Yates County. The instruction consisted chiefly in 
lectures by the president, but soon another teacher 
was added to give instruction in English and New 
Testament Greek. While here the interest of Hon. 
David Clark, of Hartford, Conn., became enlisted in 
its behalf, and he became a most important support- 
er. In 1872 the Institute was removed to Standford- 
ville in Dutchess County, where a farm with new 
buildings was purchased and suitable additional 
buildings erected, chiefly through the munificence of 
Mr. Clark. The expenses of the school were met by in- 
terest on the notes and donations from the churches 
and friends. Some notes were paid, many failed of 
any payment, and on some interest was continued. 
Some legacies and donations were made, and the 
money for the most part carefully invested. Thus 
the endowment was kept good and additions care- 
fully guarded, so the Institute has never allowed 
itself to be deeply in debt, nor to divert its funds 
from their proper uses. The Institute continued 
its excellent work under the presidency of Dr. 
Craig until his sudden death in August, 1881. In 
October, 1881. Professor J. B. Weston of Antioch 
College was elected as Dr. Craig's successor, taking 
his place at the beginning of 1882, and has continued 

* m mm m 

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Defiance, Ohio 

President Christian Biblical Institute 


in the office till now. The remoteness of Stanford- 
ville from the center of onr population was a 
detriment to its efficiency in the work for which it 
was intended, and in the summer of 1907, in re- 
sponse to liberal inducements and a conviction of 
advantages for its work, it was removed to De- 
fiance, Ohio, to grounds donated by Defiance Col- 
lege from its campus. Here a new building is in 
process of erection for its use, to be known as 
Weston Hall. This building is to be near the 
present college buildings, and so located as to con- 
stitute with them a convenient and unified group. 
It will contain six recitations rooms, a Y. M. C. A. 
Hall, a convenient and well-appointed residence as 
well as a large audience room, and in the basement, 
a capacious gymnasium for use of both institutions. 
It is to be of two stories, above a nine-foot stone 
basement, the upper stories of brick, with stone 
trimmings and surmounted by a dome. It is ex- 
pected to cost from $30,000 to $35,000. 

In Defiance the Institute is centrally located, and 
easily accessible from all directions. It will have 
the advantage of co-operation with the college in 
general work, besides sustaining for itself a special 
faculty of five or six resident professors and many 
non-resident lecturers, among whom is Marion Law- 
rance, the world-renowned Sunday-school specialist. 
These advantages, the scope and thoroughness of the 
instruction given, the free and evangelical spirit of 
the school, together with the economy of expense, 
will render it an inviting school for any who are 
preparing for the ministry or other Christian work. 



Of importance in its locality is Palmer College, 
in LeGrand, Iowa. This, too, has arisen from an 
academy chiefly by the endorsement and support of 
the Iowa conferences. In raising funds and giving 
character to the school much is due to the persistent 
energy and self-sacrificing efforts of Key. D. M. Hel- 
fenstein, D. D., who was its president from 1890 
to 1899. This college too is indebted to the munificent 
liberality of Hon. Francis A. Palmer, of New York. 
He put $30,000 to $20,000 raised by the immediate 
friends, making an endowment of $50,000. In recog- 
nition of this the name of the school was changed 
from LeGrand Christian College to Palmer College. 
The building is of brick, and contains a chapel and 
forty rooms, besides attic and basement. The loca- 
tion is in the central part of Iowa, and has the con- 
fidence and support of the Iowa churches. Under 
Dr. Helfenstein's presidency, and that of Rev. Car- 
lyle Summerbell, for several years his successor, and 
of the present president, Rev. Ercy C. Kerr, the 
college has done and is doing a successful work for 
the churches and the people of the state, and gives 
encouraging promise of increasing success. 


Our people in Canada have had no institution of 
learning of their own within their own territory. 
They have been liberal patrons of the Chris- 
tian Biblical Institute and other institutions in the 
states. Of late years, through the earnest and wise 
direction of Prof. John N. Dales, they have had 
very advantageous alliances, first with Queen's Col- 



President rainier College 


lege, Kingston, and later with McMaster University 
of Toronto. Prof. Dales is an Honor Graduate and 
post graduate of Toronto University, and was for a 
number of years a teacher in the Collegiate Institute 
at Kingston. He had the confidence of the faculty 
of Queen's University and by this means was able 
to secure advantageous privileges for students. 
More recently he has been called to a professorship 
in McMaster University of Toronto, a Baptist in- 
stitution of liberal spirit. This has the advantage 
of a location nearer the body of our Ontario church 
es, and of having an active church of our own in the 
city. Besides being a college man, Prof. Dales is 
a superior practical teacher, a public-spirited man, 
loyal to his church and its principles, a good organ- 
izer, and a believer in progressive activities. He has 
at his back, or at his side, the confidence and sup- 
port of our Ontario brotherhood, ministers and 
churches. The strength and influence of our min- 
isters and churches are on the increase, as a 
consequence. This arrangement is doing good work 
for Ontario. 


West of the Mississippi and south of Iowa we have 
two colleges, one in Missouri and one in Kansas. 
Both are of limited means but of sterling quality. 

Weaubleau Christian College, in Weaublean, 
Hickory County, Missouri, is a local enterprise, but 
has done grand work. At first it was an academy, 
in a building erected by the local church, with rooms 
for the school in the first story and an audience 
room for the church above. Rev. John Whitaker, 
D. D., was both pastor and principal. It was 


chartered in 1869, opened in 1871, re-chartered 
as a college in 1891, when it was pro- 
vided with a new building. A thriving rail- 
way town has grown up around the college, 
and has done the chief work in sustaining it. Dr. 
Whitaker continued president till 1906, rendering 
a service rarely equalled. Besides being an efficient 
pastor and organizer, he has shown himself to be 
an educator, and an educator of educators, as is 
seen by the number of superintendents and princi- 
pals he has sent out to public schools in cities and 
towns of Missouri and states farther west. In 1906 
he was succeeded in the presidency by his son, Rev. 
O. B. Whitaker, under whose administration the 
college prospered. The college is still doing suc- 
cessful work. It should have adequate endowment 
to enable it to enlarge its efficiency. In 1907 Rev. 
Fred Cooper, A. B., succeeded Rev. O. B. Whitaker, 
and is now president of this institution. 


Kansas Christian College, Lincoln, Kansas, was 
established in 1882, by the Kansas Christian Con- 
ference, with Rev. Thomas Bartlett as principal. It 
afterwards arose to the rank of a college. President 
Bartlett continued at its head for eight years and 
did much to give the institution a high rank. Suc- 
ceeding him, after three years under President 
Cameron, Dr. O. B. Whitaker, son of Dr. Whitaker, 
of Weaubleau, Mo., was president for twelve years. 
It has won the patronage of citizens of the vicinity 
and at a distance, regardless of denominational af- 
finities. It has a good stone building, is run on a 

< 2 
i— i <i 

President Weaubleau Christian College 


business basis, and does not encumber itself with 
debt. It has an efficient Normal department and 
has its representatives in the public schools of Kan- 
sas and elsewhere. It exerts a wide influence moral- 
ly and religiously as well as educationally. Kev. 
Geo. R. Stoner, A. B., is president of this college, 
having succeeded Dr. O. B. Whitaker, resigned. 

In concluding this sketch of our educational his- 
tory it must be said that the founders of our 
body, — grand, intellectually strong, broad-minded, 
progressive men, as they were, — in important re- 
spects taking a position a century in advance of 
their time, and one towards which the Christian 
world is fast approaching, — in some other lines made 
sad mistakes. These were chiefly the outgrowth of 
their protest against the state of things then ex- 
isting, and which they believed to be in restraint of 
spiritual life and of the freedom essential to the 
growth of spiritual life; organized churchhood was 
against them, and it was cold ; a professionally edu- 
cated priesthood was against them, and it was cold. 
They were for spiritual life, then and there. They 
did not look forward and plan for an organized, 
solidified body to propagate itself and its special work 
in the future. Their work was for immediate re- 
sults, and as such was effective. Their organizations 
at first were local and for local purposes. They 
took no organized interest in education, and pro- 
fessional education for the ministry was under their 
ban. Later their successors awoke to the necessity 
of measures for consolidated general work. Then the 
necessity for organization and education became evi- 
dent. But the early-indoctrinated and long-con- 


tinued habit had so ingrained itself, that the new 
life was obstructed and was slow in getting hold 
of the general interest as strongly as it ought. Be- 
sides, some of the early educational enterprises were 
undertaken by unwise and unbusinesslike methods, 
and resulted in financial embarrassments. But 
gradually, by patient persistency, these obstacles 
have been overcome. It may be truly said that our 
institutions of learning were never in so good and 
hopeful a condition as now. Never has the harmonious 
co-operation in their behalf been so strong as now. 
Never have they been so well officered and so well 
patronized as now. Never have the business affairs 
been so well administered. The eastern churches 
suffer a loss in the removal of the Christian Bib- 
lical Institute to Ohio, but New England has for 
a long time drawn largely on the west for its sup- 
ply of ministers and will probably continue so to 
do. But all the schools are in need of larger material 
resources. It is hoped and believed that the in- 
creasingly awakening interest will see that this 
need is met. 
Defiance, Ohio. 

Note. Starkey has been largely under the leadership of its 
own students. Since Prof. Chadwick, Prof. Ingoldsby, who held 
the longest term as principal, and Prof. G. R. Hammond 
next in length of term was of the Starkey students. Prof. 
Chadwick's sons and others are on the board of trustees. 
Most notable of these is Mr. Wellington S. Bassler, the 
president of the trustees — Mr. Bassler was of the class of 
1809, became trustee in 1S7<> and has missed but one 
regular meeting of the board since 1881. He has been con- 
tinuously tbe president of the board. He is a prosperous 
merchant of Middleburgh, Schoharie Co., N Y., editor of 
tbe local paper, and always a wise and loyal friend and 
supporter of Starkey. 

President Kansas Christian College 




President Christian Publishing Association 

The Christian Church was founded by the fathers 
on broad and liberal principles. These principles 
had as their advocates strong men, men of capacity 
and force. These men believed in the principles 
of their church and they sought methods and oppor- 
tunities to teach others these principles. The prin- 
ciples of Christian liberty; freedom of religious 
thought and action ; the interpretation of God's 
word by each believer, and the fellowship of all 
the followers of Christ under the simple but all- 
embracing name, Christian, were themes that our 
fathers believed should be heralded, for they were 
lights that should not be hid ''under a bushel," but 
should be put upon the candle-stick that their 
beneficent rays might shine out and give light and 
warmth to a world which was then groping in the 
darkness of religious thralldom and feeling for the 
light of liberty. With such impulses and desires it 
was but natural that the early Christians should 
seek to establish religious newspapers and period- 
icals, and publish tracts and books to disseminate 
the religious principles they loved and desired to 

With such thoughts in mind, Elias Smith, of 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, one of our deepest 
thinkers and ablest pioneer preachers, established 
the Herald of Gospel Liberty, the oldest religious 
newspaper in Ihe world, whose centennial birth- 
day we celebrate this year. The first issue of this 


paper was on September 1, 1808. Rev. Smith con- 
tinued to publish this paper until the close of the 
year 1817, but he did not publish his paper from 
Portsmouth all these years. It Avas issued at Port- 
land, Maine; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; then back 
at Portsmouth again. Smith finally moved his paper 
to Boston. Here he sold it to Robert Foster, who 
moved it again to Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
Here it was published from 1818 to 1835 by Mr. 
Foster; he had, however, changed the name and is- 
sued the paper under the name of The Christian 


On January 1, 1835, at the home of Abram Drake 
in Hampton, New Hampshire, was held a meeting 
of Christian preachers and other brethren ; this 
meeting being for the purpose of forming an organi- 
zation to publish a religious newspaper and books. 
The result of this meeting was the organization of 
the Eastern Christian Publishing Association. This 
Association had as its first officers, Elder Noah 
Piper, President; Elder Simeon Swett, Recording 
Secretary; Elder S. E. Brown, Corresponding Sec- 
retary; B. F. Carter, Treasurer. This Association 
also had an Executive Committee composed of El- 
ders Elijah Shaw, R. Davis and J. C. Blodgett. 
This Association in the year 1835 purchased the 
Christian Herald of Robert Foster and again 
changed its name. Its new name was the Chris- 
tian Journal, and the first issue bearing this name 
was on the 2nd day of April, 1835, and was from 
Exeter, New Hampshire. The Association had made 


Elder Elijali Shaw its editor, and His name ap- 
pears as such on the first issue. The Eastern Chris- 
tian Publishing' Association continued in business 
for many rears, publishing' the paper until March, 
1850, but not all the time under the same name, but 
all these years edited by Elder Shaw. The Associa- 
tion seemed to have the idea that an occasional 
change in the name would be helpful and aid its 
circulation among the people; at any rate this 
Association published the paper first under the 
name of Christian Journal; secondly as the Chris 
tian Herald and Journal, and then as the Christian 
Herald. We have followed the Herald of Gospel 
Liberty under its various names and publishers 
until March, 1850. Its lasl publisher during that 
period was the Eastern Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation, organized as we have seen, in 1835. 

In March, 1850, the Christian General Book As- 
sociation of Albany, X. V., purchased the Christian 
Herald of the Eastern Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation, and it was consolidated with the American 
Christian Messenger, and published for one year as 
I lie Christian Herald and Messenger. 

Early in 1S51 the Christian Herald was repur- 
chased by the Eastern Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation. The paper was then moved to Newburyport. 
Mass., where on March 13, 1851, the first issue was 
under the mime of Herald of Gospel Liberty, which 
name ii has borne ever since. 

In ISUl* the Christian Messenger and Palladium 
was purchased by the Eastern Christian Publish 
ing Association of the Christian General Book 
Association and consolidated with the Herald 

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of Gospel Liberty, which was published by the East- 
ern Christian Publishing Association at Newbury- 
port, Mass., until January 4, 1868, when it Avas sold 
by the Eastern Christian Publishing Association to 
the Christian Publishing Association and moved to 
Dayton, Ohio, where it was consolidated with the 
Gospel Herald, and continued to be published by 
this Association under the name of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty. 

Although the Eastern Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation came into existence very early in our church 
history, yet it was not the first organization of its 
kind in the history of the church. While the brethren 
were active in New England and were disseminating 
knowledge of the church by preaching, by issuing a 
paper and publishing books and tracts, in that day 
it was a long ways from New England to New York. 
The means of communication between these two sec- 
tions of our country were poor and limited so that 
the one section knew but little of what the other 
one was doing. 


Prior to the organization of the Eastern Chris- 
tian Publishing Association The Gospel Luminary 
was started at West Bloomfield, New York, by Rev. 
David Milliard in 1825. In the year 1827, the Gen- 
eral Christian Conference, now called the American 
Christian Convention, met at West Bloomfield in 
New York, where the paper was published. This 
Conference endorsed the paper and recommended 
that it be moved to New York and that if be pub- 
lished from that city. The recommendations were 


carried out and the paper, changed in form and 
size, was published in New York City for a time 
under the management of the General Christian 
Conference, then called the United States Christian 


From the memoirs of Rev. Joseph Badger we find 
that before the Association was formed in New Eng- 
land one had been organized in Central New York. 
He uses the following language : 

The Gospel Luminary, started at West Bloouafiekl in 
1825, bad been in 1827 removed to tbe City of New York, 
and tbougb ably conducted in tbe main, tbe feeling became 
strong and general in tbe State of New York tbat some- 
thing more perfectly adapted to tbe wants of tbe people should 
be issued; accordingly the Genessee Christian Association, 
composed of some of tbe most experienced ministers and 
competent men, was organized December. 1831, with a 
constitution and officers for tbe purpose of publishing, 
purchasing, selling and distributing, such books and pub- 
lications, as the wants of tbe Christian Connection should, 
in their judgment, require; also to assist young men in 
the ministry with libraries and such other means of im- 
provement as might be within their power; and especially 
did they contemplate, as their first work, the establish- 
ment of a periodical at Rochester, New York, whose ob- 
jects were announced to be the vindication and dissemina- 
tion of gospel truth, etc. 

Of this new monthly periodical, B. Miller. O. E. Morrill, 
and Asa Chapin were the Executive Committee, and .1. 
Badger, Editor. A prospectus for this work called The 
Christian Palladium . a name sacred to liberty and its 
defense, was issued by Mr. Badger January, 1832. 

The Christian Palladium was the name, however, 
of a iiapcr issued years before by the Rev. Joseph 
Badger at Pittsfield, New York. The Gospel Lum- 
inary was probably merged info the Christian Pal- 
ladium, as thai paper was continued for many years 


thereafter, and we will have occasion to refer to it 
again in another connection. However, we find 
reference to the Luminary at a later date. 



What seems to us a little strange at this distant 
day is, that in October, 1831, The Christian Book 
Association should be organized in New York City 
and then in December following, "The Genessee 
Christian Association"' should be formed. The Gen- 
eral Conference of the Christian Church, then called 
the United States Christian Conference, met in New 
York City at the time this Association was formed, 
and a constitution for the Book Association was 
adopted. From the minutes of that conference the 
following is copied : 

Constitution of the Christian Book Association adopted 
at the General Christian Conference, Holden in Neio York. 
October 3, 1831. 

This Association seems to have been formed with 
a large view of what should be done by a publishing 
association. The stockholders of the Association 
met in the Christian chapel, Friday, October 7, 1831, 
and elected the following persons as trustees, to 
wit: — Martin Kochensperger, James Taylor, James 
McKeen, Esq., John Duckworth, John S. Taylor, 
Simon Clough, William Lane, Frederick Plummer 
and Isaac C. Goff. 

Agreeably to the constitution of said Association 
the trustees elected the following officers: Simon 
Clough, President; Isaac C. Goff, Secretary: F. 
Plummer, Treasurer. 


An Executive Committee of five persons was 
elected to carry into effect the business and objects 
of the Association as follows : Simon Clough, Wil- 
liam Lane, Frederick Plummer, Isaac C. Goff, and 
James McKeen, Esq. 

While the organization of the Christian Book 
Association in October, 1831, seems to have been 
the first organized effort to establish a publishing 
association by the Christian Church, this Association 
was soon to be followed by the organization of the 
Genessee Christian Association in 1831. These as- 
sociations were soon, however, to be followed by. 
a larger concern which seemed to swallow up or 
take the place of the two. 

Besides the printing of the religious papers, in- 
dividual enterprise had printed hymn-books prior 
to 1831; for a collection of hymns published by 
Elder Matthew Gardner, had reached its eighth 
edition in the year 1829. 

In 1832 the United States Christian Conference 
met at Milan, New York, and voted to dissolve; 
the closing sentence of the minutes being: ''This 
Conference is dissolved forever." It seemed to be 
the opinion of those who attended the convention 
of 1834 that the dissolution of the United States 
Conference dissolved the Christian Book Associa- 
tion, which had been organized in 1831. This view 
seems to be reasonable, for the convention of 1834 
organized a new book association. 

Immediately after the dissolution of the United 
States Christian Conference, Isaac N. Walter headed 
a movement for the re-organization of the Confer- 
ence, or the calling of a general convention. As 

P= s 


the result an informal convention was held in June 
in the City of New York which provided for a 
general convention, which met at Union Mills, New 
York, in 1834, and organized 


Joseph Badger, editor of the Christian Palladium. 

in the issue of November 1, 1834, says : 

The convention lasted four days, and resulted in an 
organization of a Christian General Book Association. A 
full account may be expected in our next. 

The next issue seems to have been November l.~>, 
1834, for in that he says: 

We now redeem our pledge to give a further account of 
the convention. The following minutes and acts of that 
body, we think, will give a general view of what they have 
done and intend to do. The formation of the Christian 
General Book Association is designed to be a business 
department for the whole connection. 

It is not to be a court of appeals ; it is not to legis- 
late upon the faith of our brethren, but simply to super- 
intend our books and periodicals, that the connection may 
assume a character; that the public may not be imposed 
upon; and to allay those jealousies and fears of individual 
speculation which have heretofore existed. 

At the convention of 1834 the following resolu- 
tions were passed ; 

Resolved, That we so far adopt a resolution of the Milan 
Convention, that ibis convention now form and organize 
itself into an association to be known by the name of 
"Christian General Book Association," composed of one del- 
egate from each local conference. 

Resolved, Thai the officers of tins Association be a presi- 
dent, two secretaries, and an executive committee of twelve, 
which executive committee shall transact and manage such 
business as may be conformable to the instructions and 
powers we give them. 

Resolved, That the only object of this Association is to 
publish or cause to be published such periodicals, books 
or publications, as they or their executive committee shall 
from time to time deem advisable. 


This Executive Committee was given specific pow- 
ers and directions by resolution : 

First. To publish or cause to be published a semi- 
monthly periodical of the character and form of the Chris- 
tian Palladium-, at the present location of that periodical, 
and in case a removal should be necessary, that it be 
fixed at the nearest convenient place. 

Second. To make such improvements in said periodical 
as its patronage and funds shall permit by putting all the 
profits arising therefrom into the work. And also to issue 
any other publications, which thev mav deem warrant- 

Third. To appoint or remove the editor of said period- 

The Association also resolved to begin the pub- 
lication of its periodical the first of May, 1835. 

The first Executive Committee of the Association 
was appointed in 1834, and comprised the following 
Elders: David Ford; Elijah Shaw; Ira Allen; John 
Spoor. Jr. ; David Millard ; Joseph Marsh ; Mark 
Fernald : Oliver Barr; Jasper Hazen ; Isaac N. Wal- 
ter ; Joshua B. Hines ; and Frederick Plummer. 

Elder Joseph Badger was selected as editor. A 
resolution was also passed that the Christian 
Psalmist and Millard & Badger Hymn-Book (by 
the consent of the proprietors) become the property 
of the Christian General Book Association and be 
introduced to the churches as the hymn-books of 
the connection. By resolution the first regular 
meeting of the Association shall be held in four 
years from the first Wednesday in the month of 
October in such place as the Executive Committee 
shall appoint, six months' notice to be given in the 
periodical published by the Association to the con- 
ferences, for the appointment of their delegates. 

That this Association was intended to be a con- 


solidation or continuance of all the former asso- 
ciations and publishing organizations of New York 
State is evidenced by the following resolution passed 
at this session : 

Re-solved, That this Association is not bound for the 
fulfillment of any contract or contracts which have been 
made by either the Christian Book Association, the Milan 
Convention, or the Genessee Christian Association. 

A resolution was also passed approving the course 
pursued by Elder J. Badger, in conformity to the 
advice of Elders Hazen and Spoor, in publishing 
the Christian Palladium in its present semi-monthly 

The first officers of the Association were : Presi 
dent, Elder Frederick Plummer, of Philadelphia; 
Secretaries, Elder Simon Clough, of Fall River. 
Mass., and Elder David Millard, of West Bloomfield, 
New York. 

The Christian General Book Association met 
quadrennially at the same time as the Christian 

The first meeting of the Association after its or- 
ganization was at the Christian chapel in New York 
City, October 3, 1838, and continued in session three 
days. Elder A. Jones called the meeting to order. 


President, Elder Isaac N. Walter. 

Secretaries. Jasper Hazen and Oliver Barr. 

Editor of Christian Palladium, Elder David 

In October, 1842. Elder Jasper Hazen was elected 
President, and Elder Seth Marvin was made First 
Publishing Agent. 



It was at this session of the Christian General 
Book Association held in October, 1842, that the 
following was passed : 

Resolved, unanimously, that the petition of the Ohio 
delegation, for the concurrence of this body to publish a 
periodical in the state of Ohio, as soon as the time shall 
admit, auxiliary to the Christian Palladium, to be under 
the direction and control of an association t© be organized 
by the Christian conferences in the Western states, be 

In October, 1846, Elder Shaw was elected presi- 
dent of this Association and in October, 1850, Elder 
David Millard, New York, was elected president. 


The Western organization first formed was the 
Ohio Christian Book Association, organized at 
Ebenezer Chapel, Clark County, Ohio, April 24, 
1843, with the following officers : Elder J. G. Keeder, 
President; Elder E. Williamson, Secretary-Treas- 

The Executive Committee was Elder Jacob G. 
Reeder, Derostns F. Ladley, Arthur W. Sanford, 
Robert McCoy, and Elijah Williamson. 

At this meeting it was decided to publish a semi- 
monthly paper to be called the Gospel Herald. 
Elder Isaac X. Walter was chosen first editor, and 
the first number of the paper bears date October 2, 
1843, and was issued at Xew Carlisle, Ohio. 

One of the first matters considered after the or- 
ganization was the publication of a Hymnary, and 
the Association took steps to ascertain the wishes 
of the church upon this matter. 


In October, 1843, the Association adopted a con- 
stitution and by-laws. 

In February, 1844, Elder Isaac N. Walter was 
appointed the first agent of the Association, and 
served until June 10, 1845, when he resigned as 
agent and Elder D. F. Ladley was appointed book 
agent for the Association. 

On the 14th of December, 1846, M. D. Baker was 
elected president of the Association and Elder I. N. 
Walter, publishing agent. 

On December 16, 1846, Elder I. N. Walter, having 
served as editor of the Gospel Herald since the or- 
ganization of the Association, tendered his resigna- 
tion as editor and publishing agent, which was ac- 
cepted and Elder James Williamson was appointed 
publishing agent and James Williamson and James 
W. Marvin became editors of the paper. 

On October 23, 1848, John Phillips was elected 
president of the Association, and James Williamson 
was ordered to publish the sixth volume of the 
Gospel Herald. January 22, 1850, he was ordered 
to publish Vol. VII of the Gospel Herald upon 
his own responsibility, if the number of subscribers 
would justify him in so doing. 

On April 1, 1850, James W. Marvin resigned his 
position as associate editor and James Williamson 
became the sole editor of the paper, and was con- 
tinued its editor until after the Association changed 
its name. 


At a general convention or meeting of the Ohio 
Christian Book Association held October 20, 1852, 


at Ebenezer Chapel, the place of its organization, the 
name of the Association was changed to the Western 
Christian Book Association. 

The Association had gone beyond the limit of the 
state of Ohio, and was spreading westward over the 
stakes of Indiana and Illinois, hence the demand 
for a more comprehensive name. Jacob G. Eeeder 
was chosen the first president of the Association 
under its new name, A. W. Sanford, secretary, and 
John R. Miller, treasurer. The tenth volume of the 
Gospel Herald was published by the Western Chris- 
tian Book Association at Springfield, Ohio, with 
James Williamson as its editor. John R. Miller 
was appointed book agent. 

March 2, 1853, the Association passed a resolu- 
tion that the Gospel Herald should be published on 
Friday of each week; thus making the publication 
a weekly paper instead of a semi-monthly. 

On January 12, 1854, a resolution was passed 
that Yol. XI. of the Gospel Herald should be pub- 
lished weekly at $1.00 per annum, invariably in 
advance. The publication was to be from Yellow 
►Springs, Ohio. It was published at Yellow Springs 
from March, 1854, to May 12, 1855, when it was 
moved back to Springfield, Ohio. 

In 1856, James Maple and James Williamson be- 
came editors of the Gospel Herald, and the paper 
was published by John Geary and Son, at Colum- 
bus, Ohio. In 1859, John Ellis became editor and 
publisher, and the paper was removed to Dayton, 
Ohio. In 1861, The Christian Banner of Indianapolis, 
Indiana, was consolidated with the Gospel Herald, 


and H. T. Buff was associated with John Ellis as 
editor for one year. 

In April, 1863, Elder E. W. Humphreys became 
editor and moved the paper to Eaton, Ohio. 

In 1863-1864, William Worley was president of 
the Association. Elder E. W. Humphreys was em- 
ployed to edit and publish Vol. XXI. of the Gospel 
Herald, beginning on the 27th day of May, 1864, at 
a salary of $600.00. 

On December 15, 1N<;4, the Executive Committee 
of the Western Christian Book Association met at 
Richmond, Indiana ; this being the first meeting of 
the committee elected by I he Association at ils ses- 
sion held at Ogden, Henry County, Indiana, Decem- 
ber 14, 1864. William Worley was then president 
and J. T. Lynn, secretary. E. W. Humphreys was 
chosen as general agent and J. T. Lynn was elected 
editor of the Gospel Herald from December 26, 1864, 
to the close of the current volume. 

On January 17, 186."), Elders Humphreys and Lynn 
were released from their connection with the Gospel 
Herald as editor and publisher. Elder Lynn, 
however, to remain to superintend the issue of 
No. 37 of the Gospel Herald. At this time Elder 
Henry Y. Rush was appointed editor and publisher 
of the Gospel Herald, from the 25th of January, 1865. 

On January 31, 1865, Elder Humphreys resigned 
as general agent of the Publishing Association. 


At the meeting of the Executive Committee held 
January 31. 1865, Elder J. T. Lynn was appointed 


as Soliciting Agent for all territory west of the line 
of the state of Ohio, and Elder Peter McCullough 
for all territory east of the western line of Ohio. 

About May 1, 1865, the Gospel Herald was moved 
from Eaton, Ohio, to Dayton, Ohio. Elder H. Y. 
Rush was continued as editor and W. T. Hawthorne 
was chosen publishing agent at a salary of |900.00 
per year to be paid only after all other expenses 
were paid. 

On April 28, 1865, the appointment of W. T. 
Hawthorne as publishing agent was rescinded and 
Elder Rush was made publishing agent as well as 
editor. W. T. Hawthorne, however, from June 29, 
1865, was again made publishing agent at a salary 
of $800.00, and Editor Rush's salary was fixed at 

On March 8, 1866, Elder Rush was continued as 
editor of the Gospel Herald and Sunday-School 
Herald at a salary of $800.00, but W. T. Hawthorne 
was relieved from his duties as agent, and Oliver 
A. Roberts was appointed publishing agent in his 

October 31, 1866, W. A. Gross appears as agent 
of the Association. At the meeting of the Executive 
Committee held on this date the following resolu- 
tion was passed: 

Resolved, That the President and Executive Committee 
be instructed to call a meeting of the stockholders and 
conferences representing the Western Christian Book As- 
sociation to meet at Covington, Ohio, Tuesday, November 27, 

The basis of representation at this meeting was 
as follows: 


Each conference in the United States is entitled to 
one delegate for every $500 subscribed to the Publishing 
House fund, and each Christian conference not so repre- 
sented shall be entitled to one representative. 


At the meeting of the stockholders and members 
of the Western Christian Book Association held 
at Covington, Ohio, November 27, 1SG6, the name of 
the Association was changed to the Christian Pub- 
lishing Association, and the old board of the West- 
ern Christian Book Association was elected to be 
trustees of the new Christian Publishing Associa 

William Worley was elected first president of 
the Association and Peter McCullough first sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees. 

On March 25, 1867, Rev. H. Y. Rush was elected 
editor of the Gospel Herald and Sunday-School 
Herald by the Board of Trustees of the new Associa- 
tion. He was to serve one year, from May 1, 1867. 


The Triennial Convention was held at Hagers 
town, Indiana, November 19, 1867. William Worley 
was elected president and P. McCullough, secretary. 

At a meeting held in Dayton, Ohio, December 4. 
1867, Elder C. A. Morse was authorized to visit 
Newburyport, Mass., and negotiate with Elder D. P. 
Pike and others in the purchase of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty } which was then published by the 
Eastern Christian Book Association. 


At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of the 


Christian Publishing Association, December 30, 
1867, Elder C. A. Morse reported a consolidation 
of papers and a contract for the purchase of the 
Herald of Gospel Liberty, at a price of $1200.00, 
which contract was accepted by the Board of 
Trustees. Elders D. P. Pike and H. V. Rush were 
made editors of the consolidated papers for one 

By the purchase of the Herald of Gospel Liberty 
by the Christian Publishing Association, both the 
Gospel Herald and Herald of Gospel Liberty be- 
came the property of the Association, and H. Y. 
Rush and I>. P. Pike, editors respectively of the two 
papers, became the first editors of the consolidated 
papers under the old name of Herald of Gospel 

The first issue of the Herald of Gospel Liberty 
after the consolidation was on the 4th day of Jan- 
nary, 1868. • 

December 30, 1867, Rev. W. A. Gross was appoint- 
ed general agenl of the Association for the period of 
one year from January 1, 1868. 

March 4, 1868, H. Y. Rush was elected editor of 
the Herald to serve from May 1, 1868, to May 1, 
1869. At the same time O. A. Roberts was elected 
office agent. 

After the sale of the Christian Herald in 1851 by 
the Christian General Book Association this Asso 
ciation continued to publish the Christian Palladium 
at Albany, New York, until 1854, with Jasper Hazen 
as editor. From 1855 to 1860, the Palladium was 
published by the Association at Camptown, (Irving- 
ton), X. J. In 1860 it was moved to New York 


City, where it was published until January, 1861. 
Moses Cummings was its editor from 1855 to the 
end of 1861. 

In January, 1861, the Christian Palladium was 
consolidated with the Christian Messenger and the 
papers continued to be published under the name 
of "Christian Messenger and Palladium." This con- 
solidation took place at the close of the 13th volume 
of the Messenger and the 30th volume of the Palla- 
dium. After the consolidation the Christian Mes- 
senger and Palladium was published by the Chris- 
tian General Book Association for nearly two years, 
when it was purchased, as we have seen above, by 
the Eastern Christian Publishing Association and 
consolidated with the Herald of Gospel Liberty. 
After the sale of the Christian Messenger and Palla- 
dium in December, 1862, the Christian General Book 
Association probably went out of existence, as no 
further mention of it is made in connection with any 
of our publications. 

The trustees of the Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation. March 4. 1868, bought of J. L. Falkner, of 
IXayton, Ohio, property on the soutkeas! corner of 
Sixth and Main streets, Dayton, Ohio, for $11,500.00. 
The purchase was made by William Worley, Peter 
McCullough and W. A. Gross. On July 14, 1868, 
O. A. Roberts, office agent, resigned and J. J. Sinn 
tnerbell was elected publishing agent. TTe con- 
tinued to serve as agent until May 27, I860. Wil- 
liam Worley was then put in charge of the office and 
on August 4, L869, the trustees elected Elder L. 
Coffin, of New York, as office ageni for the balance 
of the term of J. J. Rummerbell. 



June 21-22-23, 1870. 

This general meeting was called to order by 
President Elias Smith. The report of the Committee 
on Finance showed the gross assets of the Associa- 
tion to be 120,721.00. At this triennial session the 
Christian Publishing Association, in accordance with 
plans adopted by the Christian Convention (not 
the American Christian Convention) assembled in 
Ogden, Ind., December 14, 1S64, and amended by 
the Christian Convention at Covington, November, 
1866, did, on the 23d day of June, 1870, adopt a 
revised constitution on a stock basis. The new 
constitution provided for biennial meetings instead 
of triennial meetings, which had been in vogue for 
some time. Elias Smith was elected president of the 
Association and H. Y. Rush was continued as editor. 
February 1, 1871, A. L. McKinney was elected 
agent of the C. P. A. On February 28, 1871, oc- 
curred the death of Elder Elias Smith, president 
of the Christian Publishing Association.- He died 
at his home at Woodstock, Ohio. 

The first biennial session of the Christian Pub- 
lishing Association was held at Troy, Ohio, from 
June 18 to 21, 1872. This session Avas held in con- 
junction with that of the American Christian Con- 
vention. A. L. McKinney was elected president of 
the Association and H. Y. Rush continued as editor 
of the Herald of Gospel Liberty. McKinney only 
served, however, until January 22, 1873, when he 
resigned and Perry Stewart was elected to fill the 


This biennial session of the Christian Publishing 
Association was held at Dayton, Ohio, June 23, 
1874. Elder A. C. Hanger was elected president and 
H. Y. Bush continued as editor. 


At this time the first publishing house was com- 
pleted at the cost of 116,000.00 of which $6,700.00 
was borrowed money. The new publishing house 
had been occupied since December 1, 1872. The 
publishing house equipment at that time cost $4,500.- 
00 with an indebtedness against the same of 

The third biennial session was held June 20, 1876, 
at Covington, Ohio. Elder A. C. Hanger was re- 
elected president and H. Y. Rush continued as 

The fourth biennial session was held at Dayton, 
Ohio, June 18, 1878. 

The fifth biennial session was held at West Lib- 
erty, Ohio, June 15 and 16, 1S80. A. C. Hanger 
was re-elected president. 

The sixth biennial session was held at Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, June 13, 1882. A. C. Hanger was 
re-elected president. 

The seventh biennial session was held June 10, 
1884, at Utica, Ohio. Rev. George H. Hebbard of 
Lakeville, New York, was elected president. 

The eighth biennial session of the Christian Pub- 
lishing Association was held at New Bedford, Mass.. 
October 6, 1886. President G. H. Hebbard presiding. 
Rev. C. J. Jones, editor of the Herald of Gospel 
Libertii, made a verbal report of the condition <>l thai 


publication. The constitution of the Publishing Asso- 
ciation was amended. By this amendment the mem- 
bers of the Christian Publishing Association became 
the same as the members of the American Christian 
Convention. Eev. D. A. Long. was elected president, 
and Elder C. J. Jones re-elected editor of the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty. J. P. Watson was elected assistant 
editor of Sunday-school literature. Dr. C. J. Jones 
served as editor until July 3, 1888, when he resigned 
as editor and Rev. J. P. Watson was elected editor 
to fill the vacancy. 


The first quadrennial session of the Christian 
Publishing Association was held at Marion, Indiana. 
October 8, 1890, Rev. D. A. Long, president, pre- 

At this session amendments were made to the 
constitution, and the constitution as adopted at 
that time remains unchanged to the present. At 
this session a resolution was adopted, authorizing 
the sale of the first publishing house in Dayton, 
Ohio. D. A. Long was elected president and J. P. 
Watson, editor. 


November 6, 1890, the first publishing house was 
sold to a railroad company for $22,000.00 and the 
deed ordered made by the president and secretary. 
bearing date November 17. 1890. After April 
1, 1891, the business of the Publishing Association 
was done in rented quarters until April !, 1905, 
when the new publishing house, buill in 1904, was 
first occupied. (See page 454.) 

February 3, 1891, Rev. Mills Harrod resigned as 


publishing agent to take effect February 16, 1891, 
and Rev. T. M. McWhinney was appointed as his 
successor, who continued to act until August 11, 
1891, when he resigned and George E. Merrill, of 
Troy, Ohio, was elected as agent. 


January 12, 1893, the. Christian Publishing As- 
sociation was incorporated at Dayton, Ohio. The 
incorporators being T. M. .McWhinney, Daniel Al- 
bright Long, C. W. Choate, George D. Black, E. A. 
DeVore, and W. A. Gross. The Articles of En corpo- 
ration are as follows : 

These Articles of Incorporation of tlie. Christian Pub- 
lishing Association, Witnesseth ; That the undersigned, a 
majority of whom are citizens of the state of Ohio, desiring 
to form a corporation not for profit, under the general 
corporation laws of said state, do hereby certify. 

First, the name of said corporation shall be. The Chris- 
tian Publishing Association. 

Second, Said corporation shall be located and its prin- 
cipal business transacted at Dayton, in Montgomery County. 

Third, the purpose for which said corporation is formed 
is: The object of this Association shall be to promote the 
union of Christians, and the conversion of the world by 
the publication of books, tracts and periodicals, and do 
such other work as may with propriety be done by a Chris- 
tian Publishing Association. 

In Witness Whereof, We have set our hands, this eleventh 
day of January, A. D. 1893. 

T. M. McWhinney 
Daniel Albright Long 
K. A. DeVoee 
George D. Black 
( '. W. Choate 
W. A. Gross 

The State of Ohio. County of Montgomery, ss. On the 
11th day of January, A. D. 100."., personally appeared be- 
fore me the undersigned, a Notary Public within and for 
said county, the above named, T. M. McWhinney, C. W. 


Choate, Daniel Albright Long, E. A. DeVore, George D. 
Black, and W. A. Gross, who each severally acknowledge 
the signing of the foregoing articles of incorporation to 
be his free act and deed, for the uses and purposes therein 

Witness my hand and official seal on the day and year 
last aforesaid. 

Frank E. James, Notary Public. 

[seal] Montgomery County, Ohio. 

The trustees elected D. A. Long- president, and 
C. W. Choate, secretary. ' 

January 9, 1893, C. W. Choate resigned as trustee 
and secretary and A. H. Morrill was elected sec- 
retary of the Board of Trustees. 

The second quadrennial session was held October 
10, 1S94, in the "Old South Church/' Haverhill. 
Mass. S. S. Xewhouse was elected president. J. J. 
Suinmerbell was elected editor of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty and J. P. Watson was elected 
editor of the Sunday-school literature. 

January 3, 1895, George E. Merrill was re-elected 
publishing agent and served until January 2, 1896, 
when he resigned as agent and Bode M. Stoddard 
was elected to the vacancy. He continued as agent 
until January 5, 1899, when he was succeeded by 
Rev. W. D. Samuel, as publishing agent. 

The third quadrennial session was held at New- 
market, Canada, beginning October 28, 1898. Rev. 
W. D. Samuel was elected president, Rev. Henry 
Crampton, secretary. Rev. J. J. Summerbell re- 
elected editor of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, and 
Rev. J. P. Watson re-elected Sunday-school editor. 
Rev. W. D. Samuel served as president until Jan 
uary 1, 1900, when he resigned his office and O. W. 
Whitelock, of Huntington, Indiana, was elected to 
the vacancy bv the Board of Trustees. 


The fourth quadrennial session of the Christian 
Publishing Association was held at Norfolk, Va., 
beginning October 13, 1902. O. W. Whitelock was 
elected president; A. C. Cable, secretary; Rev. J. J. 
Sumnierbell was re-elected editor of the Herald of 
Gospel Liberty, and J. P. Watson was re-elected 
editor of the Sunday-school literature. 

On March 3, 1904, the Board of Trustees of the 
Association appointed O. W. Whitelock, Isaac H. 
Gray and D. M. Helfenstein to locate and purchase 
a site for a New Publishing House. This committee 
was also authorized "to build a new publishing house 
when a location is secured and property purchased." 

At this meeting A. C. Cable resigned as secretary, 
and Henry Crampton was chosen to fill the place. 

On the 14th day of April, 1904, the committee pur 
chased of Maggie R. Bollinger, for the Association, 
the lot at the corner of Fifth and Ludlow streets, in 
the city of Da} r ton, Ohio, on which the present pub- 
lishing house now stands, at the price of $28,000.00. 

Soon after the lot was purchased, plans w T ere made 
and a new publishing house was erected and com- 
pleted at a total cost, for grounds and building, of 
$74,373.45. The equipment of the new house was 
valued at $10,267.18, making the total value of the 
new publishing house and equipment October 1, 
1906, $84,640,63, as reported to the quadrennial 
session of the Association held at Huntington, In- 
diana, October, 1906. 

The new publishing house was formally dedicated 
June 22, 1905, and has been occupied ever since. 

Rev. W. D. Samuel served as publishing agent 
until the 3d day of January, 1901, when he resigned 


and J. N. Hess was elected to fill the vacancy. Mr. 
Hess has been the publishing - agent of the Asso- 
ciation from that time to the present. (See page 455.) 
The fifth quadrennial session was held in the city 
of Huntington, Indiana, October 9-15, 1906. 0. W. 
Whitelock was re-elected president, Henry Cramp- 
ton, secretary, and are serving at this time. Rev. 
J. Pressley Barrett was elected editor of the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty and Rev. S. Q. Helfenstein, editor 
of Sunday-school literature. 


In 1844 Elder Daniel W. Kerr established the 
Christian Sun, which has continued to the present 
time. For four years during the Civil War, however, 
the publication was suspended. This paper is owned 
and controlled by the Southern Christian Conven- 
tion, which body elects its editor and publisher 
once in two years. The present editor and publisher 
is Rev. J. 0. Atkinson, D. D., who has served con- 
tinuously since May, 1900. 


The Christian Luminary was published at Osha- 
wa, Canada, beginning in 1845. The Christian Mag- 
azine was published at Eddystone, Ontario, in 1866. 

The Christian Vanguard is the only publication 
of the Christians now in existence in Canada. It 
was issued for the first time in January, 1891, and 
has been published continuously ever since. Elder T. 
Garbutt was its first Editor-in-Chief, and Prof. J. 
N. Dales Associate Editor. Elder Garbutt contin- 
ued its editor until about six vears ago, Avhen Prof. 



Dales became Editor-in-Chief, and is serving in that 
capacity at the present time. The Christian Van- 
guard is published by the Ontario Christian Confer 
ence from Newmarket, Canada, and is now in ils 
sixteenth volume. W. G. Sargent, of Toronto, Csui 
ada, is Business Manager. 

Huntington, Tnd. 




Mission Treasurer 

The first ministers of the Christians one hundred 
3"ears ago, and more, were nearly all home mis- 
sionaries in the sense that they traveled and did 
much evangelistic or revival work ; and this they 
did without appointment or salary by any mission 
board or society; indeed, usually at their own 
charges without any outside remuneration what 

Quite early in the Nineteenth Century, as confer- 
ences were organized, resolutions were passed and 
plans of more or less efficiency were adopted, look- 
ing to the enlargement of the work in the local 
conferences. But during the most of the century 
there was little missionary work done in the gen- 
eral or organized form. 

Looking at it from our view-point we can but 
think that if the Christian Church had given her- 
self more fully to the great work of world-evangeli- 
zation, she would have been more fully in keeping 
with our Lord's idea, and would have made much 
greater progress. But as the years have been going 
by she has been receiving new conceptions of her 
Lord's command to "preach the Gospel to every 
creature ;" and to understand better the true philos- 
ophy in relation to the church, that it is evan- 
gelization or fossilization, expansion or extinction. 


But for the last fifty years and more, especially 
for the last two decades, she has been coming into 
line with the aggressive spirit of the age for the 
world's conquest for Christ, and herein lies her 
hope, not only for her future growth, but for her 
very life and usefulness for the future. 

In 1844 we find the missionary spirit among the 
Christians beginning to crystallize into organized 
form. In that year a call was made for a meeting 
"for the purpose of organizing a Missionary Society 
on such a plan as we shall agree to lay before, and 
urge upon, the attention of our churches." This 
call was signed b} T the following ministers: Elijah 
Shaw, Henry Frost, J. B. Weston, P. R. Russell, 
N. F. Nason, W. H. Russell, A. C. Morrison, Geo. 
W. Hutchinson, and O. J. Wait. 

From the Gospel Herald of March 20, 1S45, we 
learn that an organization had been effected in 
Ohio which was called, "The Ohio Christian Home 
Missionary Society.-' 

About this period some writers in our periodicals 
were speaking earnest words on the subject of mis- 
sions, especially home missions. As samples we 
give the two following quotations. In the March 
number of the Christian ' Herald David Millard 
says : 

I send in my feeble response to the call for a convention 
of missions. Situated as I now am in the far west (West 
Bloomfield, N. Y.) I may not be able to attend such a con- 
vention in New England, but if my name, or my voice, can 
do anything for the object, use them in the Herald. Among 
our people the subject of missions has been permitted to 
slumber too long. Churches and conferences have been 
looking to their individual wants. 


In the July, 1845, number of the same paper, a 

writer says: 

Our brethren of the several conferences must not let 
this missionary spirit die among them. Keep the ball roll- 
ing ! Pass it round ! Kindle up the fire ! Provide the ma- 
chinery ! * * * I sincerely hope that no conference will pass 
over this matter without organizing a Missionary Society. 

On the fifth of the following November, 1845, at 
Lynn, Mass., the Home and Foreign Missionary So- 
ciety of New England was organized, — at the same 
time and place of the organization of the New Eng- 
land Christian Convention. 

Later there was a more general missionary or- 
ganization effected called the '"American Christian 
Church Extension Society/' which had at its head 
a secretary. Practically nothing was done by this 
society until October, 1878, at the American Chris- 
tian Convention, held at Franklin, Ohio, when J. 
P. Watson was elected Mission Secretary. Dr. Wat- 
son inaugurated what was called "The Children's 
Mission,'' receiving dime contributions, these con- 
tributions gradually enlarging. During the first 
eight years of Dr. Watson's administration, from 
1878 to 1886, he succeeded in raising $17,031.31 for 
home mission work, and much efficient work was 
done in the home field, and considerable foreign 
missionary sentiment was created. 

At the session of the American Christian Con- 
vention held in New Bedford, Mass., in October, 
1886, a more concrete and effective organization 
of the Missionary department of the denominational 
work was effected, in the form of a "Missionary 
and Church Extension Department" of the Con- 
vention. Rev. J. P. Watson was re-elected for an- 


other four years as Mission Secretary. With him 
were associated four other persons constituting a 
"Mission Board," which board was charged with 
the management of the Missionary Department of 
the Convention. This board elected its own record- 
ing secretary and treasurer. Eevs. J. P. Watson, 
N. Summerbell, D. D., J. G. Bishop, E. A. DeVore 
and W. T. Warbinton constituted this first Mission- 
ary Board. 

At the Norfolk session of the Convention in 1902, 
the membership of the board was increased to nine 
persons. Up to this time the calls for the two an- 
nual missionary collections were to be made by the 
Convention Secretary, and the money was to be 
sent to him, and by him transmitted to the mission 
treasurer. At this Convention the constitution was 
so amended as to place the entire management of 
the mission department in the hands of the Mission 
Board, subject only to the Convention or its ex- 
ecutive committee, including the making of the mis- 
sion calls and collecting missionary money. Since 
that time it is expected that all missionary money 
designed to be used by the Mission Board will be 
sent direct to the mission treasurer. 

In 1S8G, at the New Bedford, Mass., Convention, 
a Woman's Board for Foreign Missions was organ- 
ized, and in 1890, at the Marion, Ind., Convention 
a Woman's Board for Home Missions was organized. 
Each of these Boards has a permanent membership 
of twenty-five women. In addition each of these 
has a Life Membership. This membership is con- 
stituted by the payment, at one time, in the Foreign 
Board of $25, and in the Home Board by the pay- 


ment of $10. These two national Woman's Boards 
organize Conference Woman's Boards, and these in 
turn organize Auxiliary Missionary Societies in 
the churches. These woman's boards and societies 
co-operate with the General Board, and have been 
active forces in missionary work in their respective 

Up to the Huntington Convention, in October, 
1906, both the home and the foreign work were car- 
ried on under the one department. At that Con- 
vention it was divided into two departments, the 
Home and the Foreign, each department having its 
own secretary, but both working under the one 

Until the New Bedford Convention, in 1886, prac- 
tically the only missionary work done by the de- 
nomination was in the home field. With the ex- 
ception of some agitation of the subject of foreign 
missions and the gathering of $1,281.00 with which 
to begin the work, almost nothing whatever had 
been done for the vast heathen world. At this Con- 
vention the Mission Board was authorized to com- 
mence foreign missionary work, and Japan was se- 
lected as the field in which to begin. The follow- 
ing January, 1887, Rev. D. F. Jones and his wife, 
Amelia P. Jones, the Christians 1 first foreign mis- 
sionaries, sailed from New York, going by the way 
of England, where they tarried awhile, reaching and 
commencing work at Ishinomaki, Japan, the fol- 
lowing May. Since that time twelve other mission 
aries, including wives, have been sent by our Mis- 
sion Board to that interesting and important field. 

in January, 1901, the Board sent its first mis 


sionaries to Porto Rico, this island having been se- 
lected as our second foreign missionary field — 
though most denominations now doing missionary 
work on this island regard it as a part of their 
home field. Our first missionaries to Porto Rico 
were Rev. D. P. Barrett and his wife, Eva Olyn 
Barrett; Rev. H. J. Rhodes was sent with them un- 
der appointment for one year, to assist in locating 
and opening the work. Three other missionaries 
have since been added to our force of foreign work- 
ers in this field. 

It is now 21 years since we commenced foreign 
missionary work. During this time the Board has 
sent, including wives, 14 missionaries to Japan, and 
6 to Torto Rico, averaging nearly one a year. 

Suffice if for me to say further, that for the 
amount of money the Church has contributed for 
missions, home and foreign, and for the number 
of workers the Board has thereby been enabled to 
employ and support, the results have been all that 
the Church could with reason expect; and that af- 
ter having given 35 years to pastoral and evangel 
istic work and 17 years exclusively in the adminis 
trative department of our missionary work, and 
with the pretty extensive knowledge I have been 
able to acquire of the Christian Church and its 
enterprises, it is my honest conviction that the de- 
nomination has no enterprise that signifies more 
for its own growth and usefulness, and to the cause 
of God in general, or that has larger claims upon 
the sympathetic co-operation and financial support 
of the entire brotherhood than has the cause of 
missions — which is God's own appointed plan for 


world-evangelization, giving the gospel to all peo- 
ples, that all may have at least a chance to look and 
live — to believe and be saved.* 
Dayton, Ohio. 

* The limit of words allowed for this article has necessitated 
its brevity. But for a much fuller historical account of the 
missionary work of the Christians, its growth, trials and triumphs ; 
where and when ; missionaries, home, native and foreign ; moral 
wilderness turned to fruitful fields, ungodly in the home land and 
heathen in non-Christian lands transformed into believing, work- 
ing Christians ; churches organized, church-houses built, Christian 
schools established ; cuts and biographical sketches of a number 
of the workers and more, we must ask you to patiently wait for 
our forthcoming book, which we hope may be out at no very dis- 
tant day. — J. G. B. 


UELKilOUS J O U i; N AL I S M 480 


President Northwestern (Ohio) Christian Conference 

An interdeuominational prayer-meeting was held 
in the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian church, New York, 
November 13th and 14th, 190G, in commemoration 
of the Centennial of the "Haystack Prayer-meeting," 
at Williams College, which was the beginning, out 
of which grew the American Board of Commis 
sioners for Foreign Missions, and the real Foreign 
Missionary w T ork of the American churches. 

At the same place November 15, 1906, a meeting 
of laymen was called, which meeting appointed a 
committee of twenty-five laymen to confer with the 
Missionary Boards concerning the following plans : 
1. To project a campaign of education among lay- 
men. 2. To plan for the evangelization of the 
world in this generation. 2. To form a commission 
of fifty or more laymen to visit the mission fields 
and report. 

A meeting of this committee was held in New 
i'ork, December 9, 190G, an executive committee of 
nine was named and this committee arranged to 
present the plans of the movement to the Conference 
of Mission Secretaries of the United States and Can- 
ada, which was done January 9, 1907, at Philadel- 
phia, and the plans were endorsed as presented. 

Six public dinners were held in the spring of 
1907, in New Y r ork, Philadelphia, Chicago, Balti- 
more, Toronto and Boston, and were attended by 


about twelve hundred men, many of them being 
leaders of mission work in their respective denom- 

The Laymen's Commission of fifty men to visit 
mission fields, has been made up, and has gone on 
its tour of inspection and visitation. 

A denominational movement was inaugurated 
among the men of the Presbyterian church, at Oma- 
ha, in February, 1907; the men of the Southern 
Presbyterian Church are also organized with a 
committee in each presbytery, and are securing one 
layman in each congregation to represent the move- 

The Southern Baptists, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, the Episcopal Church, and the Con- 
gregational Church have recognized the movement, 
and organizations have been begun among the North- 
ern Baptists, the Baptists of Canada and the Chris- 

Interdenominational committees are being organ- 
ized in the large cities of the United States and 
Canada. Six laymen were sent to England in May, 
1907, and held mass meetings in London, Bristol, 
Sheffield, Edinburgh and Liverpool. The latter was 
attended by eighteen hundred men. 

October 19, 190G. a meeting of one hundred busi- 
ness men was held in Topeka, Kansas, which re- 
solved to increase the mission contributions of To- 
peka from |8,000.00 to f 25,000.00 per year. 

At St. Joseph, Mo., October 22, a similar meeting 
was held and recommended that the mission con- 
tributions of St. Joseph be increased from f 12,000.00 


to $50,000.00 per year, and appointed a committee 
of business men to conduct the canvass. 

Representatives of the Anglican, Methodist, Bap- 
tist, Presbyterian and Congregational Churches, of 
Toronto, Canada, beld a meeting, November 9, 1907, 
and were addressed by J. Campbell White and 
others. It was resolved to raise $500,000.00 for 
foreign missions among the churches of Toronto, 
during the year. 

The Toronto Globe said: 

Not in many a year, perhaps never before, was a meet- 
ing in Toronto so significant in its influence as the gather- 
ing of a hundred prominent citizens on Saturday afternoon 
in the unconcealed interest of Christian Missions. 

Meetings of similar nature were held during 
the months of November and December in nine 
cities of the United States. 

Rev. M. T. Morrill, Foreign Mission Secretary, 
attended the Laymen's meeting in Philadelphia. In 
his report he says : 

Nothing in late years has seemed so full of promise for 
the cause of missions as this movement. The intensity of 
interest and feeling, the determined conviction, the direct 
offer of the laymen to supplement the work, were very im- 

Hon. O. W. Whitelock, president of the Christian 
Publishing Association, attended the Chicago meet- 
ing, April 8, 1907. In his report he says: 

The end sought was to arouse a greater sentiment 
among laymen in the cause of missions, that their hearts 
might he touched with an unquenchable thirst for the 
evangelization of the world. 

At a session of the Eel River, Indiana, Christian 
Conference, August 15, 1907, at Wakarusa, Indiana, 
an evening was given to the Laymen's Movement. 


An address was delivered by A. M. Heidlebaugh, 
president of the Northwestern Ohio Christian Con- 
ference, in which the origin, growth and possibili- 
ties of the movement were discussed. 

At the Miami Ohio Christian Conference, Septem- 
ber 2, 1907, a men's meeting was held, with one 
hundred men in attendance, and was addressed by 
Hon. O. W. Whitelock, in a strong plea to the men 
of the denomination in behalf of missions. In the 
evening Mr. J. Campbell White, of New York, ad- 
dressed the conference. At the close another meet- 
ing of men was held. After an earnest conference, 
a committee was appointed to report a plan to fur- 
ther the movement, which committee recommended 
a standing committee of five to look after the organ- 
ization of the movement within the conference and 
secure a representative in each church of the con- 

At the Northwestern Ohio Conference, September 
27, 1007, Hon. O. W. Whitelock delivered an address, 
in which he discussed, with peculiar force and apt- 
ness, the importance and obligation of the true 
mission spirit. 

The Indiana State Conference, at Muncie, In- 
diana, October 22, 1907, held a men's meeting and 
appointed a committee to foster the Laymen's Move- 
ment in that state. 

The Ohio State Christian Association, held at 
Lima, Ohio, November 5, 1907, endorsed the Lay- 
men's Movement, and the Secretary of Missions was 
instructed to push it among the conferences of the 
state. At a special meeting for men, Mr.- H. E. 
Clemm, of Troy, Ohio, chairman of the standing 


committee on Laymen's Movement in the Miami 
Conference, gave an address, and this was followed 
by an informal meeting, in which plans were dis- 
cussed for reaching the men of the church in the 
interest of missions. 

Much interest is being manifested in the Movement 
throughout the denomination, and it is probable that 
it will be vigorously pushed. The plans seem to 
possess the possibilities of great good, and, if prop- 
erly carried into execution, will, no doubt, result 
in a substantial and lasting benefit to the cause of 
rhristian Missions. 

Ottawa, Ohio. 





Since the day when Miriam led the women of 
Israel in their anthem of praise; since those same 
wise-hearted women gave of their handiwork to 
adorn the tabernacle; since Deborah led the ar- 
mies of Israel to victory, and Sisera fell by the 
hands of a woman, there have always been, in every 
age of the world, noble and faithful women who 
have "come up to the help of the Lord against the 
mighty." How many of the beautiful words of our 
Savior were spoken to a woman ! 

"Not she with trait'rous kiss her Savior stung, 
Not she denied Him with unholy tongue ; 

She, while apostles shrank, could danger brave, 
Last at the cross, and earliest at the grave." 

Paul speaks appreciative words of "those women 
who labored with me in the gospel.'* Wherever 
the cross has been planted, God has OAvned and 
used those women whose hearts have been open for 
the King of Glory to come in. 

The Christian denomination has had its share 
of consecrated women who have given freely of 
their lives and love and service that the cause of 
Christ might advance. Just how much the denom- 
ination owes those women eternity alone will reveal. 


In the year 1812, a woman preacher by the name 
of Nancy Cram went to Charleston, New York. 
She was a member of a Free W T ill Baptist church. 



but had associated considerably with the people 
of the Christian denomination, and had embraced 
their principles. While visiting a relative in 
Charleston, she was invited to hold meetings. A 
wonderful revival followed, during which scores 
were converted. At the end of several months 
there was a general desire for a church organiza- 
tion, and Mrs. Cram started out to find a minister 
who would baptize the converts and organize a 
church. She first went to New Hampshire, but 
could induce no one to go. She then journeyed 
to Woodstock, Vermont, where several Christian 
ministers were holding a general meeting, and suc- 
ceeded in persuading one of them to go within two 
weeks, and two others within two months. Mrs. 
Cram returned to Charleston with the good news. 
Within a month a church was organized which for 
many years was large and prosperous. An unusual- 
ly large number of Christian ministers have come 
from that church. 

Mrs. Cram continued to preach in the eastern 
part of New York. In the summer of 1814 she held 
meetings in Ballston and surrounding towns. 
Crowds flocked to hear her, and often the services 
were held in groves and orchards, there being no 
available building large enough to hold the au- 
diences. A church was organized in that place in 

Mrs. Cram's public labors extended over only four 
years, as she was called to her reward in January 
of 1816; but the fruits of her labor were abundant. 
At least seven men who afterward became minis- 
ters of the gospel were led to Christ through her 



labors, among whom were John Ross and David 

One of Nancy Cram's converts at Ballston was 
Mrs. Abigail Roberts, who was probably the best 
known woman of the Christian denomination, dur- 
ing its earlier years. Mrs. Roberts began preaching 
in 1S16, and preached continuously until 1828. 
From that time until her death in 1841, she was a 
great sufferer from disease, and for months at a 
time was unable to engage in any public work. 

The story of her life is more fascinating than 
fiction. She gave up home with all its comforts; 
gave her children over to the care of others; and 
traveled up and down through New York, New Jer- 
sey, and Pennsylvania, receiving no salary, but only 
such articles or money as people were disposed to 
give her. Much of her journeying was on horse- 
back, through severest storms and intense cold. 
Sometimes suffering persecutions, finding churches 
closed against her, oftentimes bitterly denounced 
by ministers of other denominations; yet she could 
say with that old hero of the cross, 

None of these things move me, neither count I my life 
dear unto myself, so that I might finish my course with 
joy, and the ministry which I have received of the Lord 
Jesus, to testify the gospel of the grace of God. 

There is record of at least four churches which 
were organized chiefly through her efforts. In Jan- 
uary, 1827, Mrs. Roberts went to Warren County, 
New Jersey, and began holding meetings in several 
neighborhoods. At Everettstown a meeting-house 
had been erected a short time before, being desig- 
nated as a Methodist church, but, according to the 
articles of agreement, it was to be free for all 


It E L I G I O U S JO U R N A LISM 501 

Christians to worship in, when not occupied by 
the Methodists. A request was made for the use of 
this building for Mrs. Roberts, but it was not grant- 
ed. As access to no building large enough was to 
be had, a proposition was made looking toward the 
raising of funds and building a church. At Mil- 
ford, in April, 1827, a public meeting was called, 
and five persons were appointed to solicit subscrip- 
tions and carry the plan of building into effect. In 
November of the same year this house was opened 
for public worship, and later a church was organ- 
ized. Mrs. Roberts and her family resided in Mil- 
ford for several years, she having the pastoral 
oversight of that church when her health would 

Mrs. Roberts was a very convincing speaker, and 
ministers of opposing religious sentiments did not 
often care to discuss those differences with her in 
public. She was indeed a workman who needed 
not to be ashamed, and she might truly have said 
at the close of her earthly life, "I have fought a 
good fight, T have finished my course, I have kept 
the faith." 

There were three other women who were con tem- 
poraries with Mrs. Roberts — Miss Ann Rexford, a 
very eloquent speaker, who labored mostly in the 
eastern part of New York, and traveled considera- 
bly with Mrs. Roberts; Mrs. Sally Thompson, who 
had been expelled from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church because she felt it her duty to preach; and 
Mrs. Sarah Hedges, who preached mostly in cen- 
tral New York, and did much to advance the cause 
of the Christians. 



In 1821 Mrs. Mary Stogdill, of Greenville, New 
York, moved to Canada, a few miles north of 
Toronto. She was about the first of the Christians 
to go to Canada. Being denominationally alone, 
she longed for the church of her choice, and wrote 
many letters to her former home, some of which 
were published in the Christian Herald, expressing 
the wish that some Christian minister might go 
to Canada. She lived to welcome twelve ministers 
to her home who were instrumental in organizing 
several Christian churches. On the fiftieth an- 
niversary of the first Christian church in Canada, 
there were thirty church organizations and twenty- 
three church buildings belonging to the denomina- 
tion. All of these church-members' except those 
who joined by letter were brought to Christ directly 
or indirectly by the labors of Mary Stogdill. Like 
the Mary of old, "she did what she could." 

There is scarcely a section of the country not 
associated with some of our early women preachers. 
Rachel Hosmer and Sabrina Lamson, of Vermont, 
who were working in that state about the time when 
Mrs. Roberts was doing her most active work in New 
York; Hannah Corner and Elizabeth Stiles, of 
Maine ; Rebecca L. Miller, who preached in Ohio and 
Virginia, and was a remarkably eloquent speaker ; 
Barbara Kellison, whose labors in the west will long 
be remembered — these are a few names on the honor 
roll of early times. 

Our early women preachers were not ordained ; 
but to the Christians belongs the distinction of 
regularly ordaining the first woman ordained since 
the fifth century, Mrs Melissa Terrell, who was 



ordained in 1S0G, and is now living in California. 
Since that time scores of our women have been set 
apart for the sacred calling of the ministry. At 
present there are at least forty regularly ordained 
women in our Conferences. We hesitate to mention 
the names of any, since it is impossible to speak of 
all, and all have been faithful workers in the vine- 
yard of the Lord. At least four women have worked 
in our home mission fields under direction of the 
Mission Board. Mrs. N. E. Lamb, Mrs. Maggie Wal- 
lace, Mrs. Vina Wilgus. and Mrs. Sarah M. Bailey. 
Tn all the galaxy of names of women preachers 
There are perhaps none that shine brighter than 
those of Rev. Mary A. Strickland and Rev. H. Lizzie 
Haley, A. M. They were both highly educated 
women and preachers of unusual ability. Their 
services were much in demand as evangelists, and 
both will doubtless have many stars in their crowns 
of rejoicing. Mrs. Strickland labored principally 
in Indiana, and Miss Haley in New England and 
the Middle States. 

Yes; we are proud of our women preachers. God 
lias wonderfully used and blessed their efforts to 
hasten the coming of TTis kingdom upon earth. 


There is, perhaps, no Avoman's name more familiar 
to the young people of our denomination than that 
of Mrs. Ella S. Watson, who gave such efficient aid 
to her husband in his duties as editor of our Sun- 
day-school literature, and whose stories in the Sun- 
day School Herald were always read with intense 
interest by old as well as by young. 




Our educational and benevolent institutions owe 
not a little to women. When Antioch College was 
founded in 1850, it opened its doors to women — 
the first college in America to grant equal rights 
in every respect to men and women, both in the 
class room and on the faculty. Miss K. M. Fen- 
nel 1 and Mrs. Lettice S. Holmes were valued 
members of the first faculty of Antioch. Mrs. 
Holmes was also a member of the first faculty 
of Union Christian College. While Rev. N. Summer- 
bell, D. D., was president of Union Christian Col- 
lege, his wife earnestly interested herself in the 
welfare of the students, and organized the Young- 
People's Prayer-Meeting, which is still a prominent 
feature of the college. Although now merged into 
a Christian Endeavor Society, Mrs. Summerbell is 
still honored as the founder. 

Franklinton Christian College has always ap- 
pealed strongly to the sympathies of our women. 
Mrs. Emily G. Wilson, of Philadelphia, built the 
first dormitory and also generously endowed the 
institution. Several women have also served on the 
Board of Control of the college. 

In 1894 the Aged Christian Minister's Home was 
incorporated through the efforts of Mrs. Lois L. 
Sellon, she having previously raised $1,500 for the 
purchase of a house and lot in Castile, New York. 


The missionary annals of our church are replete 
with the names of women who have given their 
time, their money, their influence, and themselves, 



that this most glorious work of the church might 

In 1878 the Mission Secretary of the American 
Christian Convention, Rev. J. P. Watson. I). D., 
inaugurated "The Children's Mission." Miss Olive 
Williams, of Troy, Ohio, gave the first dime. The 
first letter published in the Children's Mission 
Column of the Herald of Gospel Liberty was writ- 
ten by Miss Donna Murray, of Covington, Ohio. 
This was really the beginning of our general mis- 
sionary work. In 1884 Dr. AVatson recommended 
the appointment of women as Foreign Mission Sec- 
retaries for the Conferences. In 1S85 the following 
had been appointed : Rev. Ellen G. Gustin for Mas- 
sachusetts ; Rev. Emily K. Bishop for New Jersey ; 
Mrs. K. M. -Judy for Ohio; and Mrs. O. K. Hess for 
Indiana. In July of the same year the first woman's 
missionary society was organized by Mrs. Gustin 
at West Mansfield, Massachusetts.* The same year, 
at a missionary meeting held at Craigville, Mas- 
sachusetts, Mrs. Bishop suggested that Secretary 
Watson be asked, with the consent of the editor, 
to devote one column in the Herald of Gospel Lib- 
erty to a Foreign Missions Department. This sug- 
gestion crystallized into reality. Thus the begin- 
ning of our regular missionary publications was 
due to the wise thonghtfulness of a woman. 

At the quadrennial session of the American 
Christian Convention, held at New Bedford, Mas- 
sachusetts, in 1886, the Woman's Board for Foreign 

* There are records of Women's Missionary societies in Mich- 
igan as early as 1850, but their work was of a very limited nature, 
being confined principally to I heir own conference or slate. 


Missions was elected, consisting of twenty-five wom- 
en, including the following officers: Mrs. Achsah 
E. Weston, President; Mrs. Emily K. Bishop, Vice- 
President; Miss Annie E. Batchelor, Recording Sec- 
retary; Mrs. Ellen G. Gustin, Corresponding Sec- 
retary; and Mrs. Elizabeth D. Barry, Treasurer. 

Four years later, at Marion, Indiana, the women 
of the Convention organized a Woman's Board for 
Home Missions, with the following officers : Rev. 
Mary A. Strickland, President; Mrs. O. H. Keller, 
Vice-President; Miss Ella Kiefer, Recording Secre- 
tary; Mrs. J. P. Watson, Corresponding Secretary; 
and Mrs. D. A. Long, Treasurer. The Convention 
voted to make this Board auxiliary to the Home 
Mission Department of the Convention. 

Thus our women became fully organized for work. 
What these Boards, together with the Conference 
Boards and local societies with their constituents, 
have done for the missionary interests of our de- 
nomination would fill a volume; and in one short 
article we cannot even mention the names of these 
noble women. Suffice it to say that they have not 
worked to "be seen of men," but "He who seeth in 
secret" will reward them openly. 

At the quadrennial session of the American Chris- 
tian Convention, in 1906, the two Woman's Boards 
inaugurated a Cradle Roll Department, with Mrs. 
Emma S. Powers, of Dayton, Ohio, as the first 
superintendent. She has set as her aim the en- 
rolling of one thousand babies before the - Quad- 
rennial in 1910. The latest development in our 
Woman's Boards is the appointment of a superin- 
tendent of Young People's Work, Mrs. Alice M. 


Burnett, of Dayton, Ohio, who also holds the office 
of Corresponding Secretary of the Home Board. 

The Christian Missionary has been given much 
valuable aid by the women. The publisher will 
tell you that the largest lists of subscribers have 
been sent in by women. They have always con- 
tributed to its columns, and served on the editorial 
staff. Mrs. M. P. Jackson, Mrs. Achsah E. Weston, 
Miss Annie E. Batchelor, Mrs. E. K. Bishop, and 
Mrs. E. G. Gustin have served in this capacity, the 
two latter being associate editors at the present 

But the women have aided the missionary work 
not only by their prayers and interests, but with 
their money also. Of the six who gave the first 
$4,500 as an endowment fund, five were women. 

Our brothers, after the lapse of years, recognized 
the capabilities of women in missionary work, and 
in 1S98, Mrs. Ada O. Warbiuton was elected a mem- 
ber of the General Mission Board ; and she was su- 
perseded by Kev. Hannah W. Stanley in 1902; and 
she in turn by Mrs. Athella M. Howsare. These 
women have proved wise and careful counselors. 

This sketch would not be complete without men 
tion of the presidents of the Home and Foreign 
Boards. Mrs. Achsah E. Weston, the first president 
of the Foreign Board, was a woman of rare talents. 
By her words, her writings, and her leadership she 
was a tower of strength. She wrote the first tract 
that was published by the Christians about foreign 
missions. Not only in mission circles was she a 
leading spirit, but she was an educator of no small 
ability, and for many years was a teacher in the 



Christian Biblical Institute. When she laid down 
her earthly work, April 3, 1899, the future looked 
dark and lonely to those women who had worked by 
her side on the Foreign Board. In August of the 
same year Mrs. Gustin was chosen as the new presi- 
dent. She had always been connected with the work, 
having faithfully filled the office of Corresponding 
Secretary since the Foreign Board was organized. 
From that time until the present she has been the 
beloved leader of the Board. Aside from what she 
has done for missions, she has held several pastor- 
ates, and was the member elected by our Woman's 
Boards to serve on the inter-denominational commit 
tee to arrange the United Mission Study Course for 
women's missionary societies. 

It is doubtless true that no one woman has done 
more for the cause of missions among the Chris- 
tians than Mrs. Emily K. Bishop. She has been 
the Vice-President of the Foreign Board since its 
organization, and in reality the only president 
that the Home Board ever has had, as Mrs. 
Strickland resigned soon after her election, and 
before any work had been done. But in addition 
to all that she has done in connection with our 
Woman's Boards, she has labored unceasingly 
in the interests of our general missionary work. 
During the sixteen years in which her husband 
was Mission Secretary of the American Chris 
tian Convention she worked by his side in the mis- 
sion rooms, day after day writing and planning 
for the spread of the gospel. She traveled with him 
up and down throughout the country, speaking, or- 
ganizing missionary societies and conference boards, 



and doing all in her power to create interest in 
the cause so dear to her heart. All honor to these 
noble women and their co-laborers. 

Last, but jet first, are those women who have gone 
from among us to carry the light to those who sit 
in darkness — our missionaries. How familiar their 
names are to us : Mrs. Amelia P. Jones, who, with 
her husband, was our first missionary to Japan; 
Mrs. Alice G. Rhodes ; Mrs. Ida P. Woodworth ; Miss 
Christine Penrod ; Mrs. Susie V. Fry, principal of 
the Utsunomiya Christian Girls' School, Japan, the 
support of which the Woman's Board for Foreign 
Missions has assumed; Miss Alice M. True; Mrs. 
Edith P. McCord; Mrs. Katherine W. Garman, to 
Japan; and the following to Porto Rico; Mrs. 
Eva O. Barrett; Miss Jennie Mishler, and Mrs. Mat- 
tie S. White. Mrs. Jones has entered into rest; Mrs. 
Rhodes is serving in the home land ; but the others 
are still on the foreign field. A more loyal, con- 
secrated, and self-sacrificing band it would be hard 
to find. Self-sacrificing, did I say? That is what 
we say, but they — oh, no; they deem it a blessed 
privilege to break the bread of life to starving mul- 
titudes in other lands. 

When all has been said that can be said, the half 
will not have been told of all women have done 
for ours or any other denomination. How many 
men owe their success in life to a godly, praying 
mother. Dr. J. J. Summerbell, in dedicating his 
"Life and Writings of Nicholas Summerbell" to 
his mother, pays her this loving tribute: "Whose 
long companionship and efficient aid made the life 
of her husband, N. Summerbell, so successful and 



useful in the ministry." What was true of his life 
is true of scores of other lives. After all, the home 
is woman's kingdom, and it is here that she wields 
her mightiest influence, unheralded though it he. 
It is said that the strength of a nation is in its 
homes. This is equally true of our churches. 

"A house is built of bricks and stones, of sills and posts 
and piers ; 
Rut a home is built of loving deeds, that stand a thousand 
A house, though but a humble cot, within its walls may 
A home of priceless beauty, rich in Love's eternal gold. 
The men of earth build houses — halls and chambers, root's 
and domes. 
But the women of the earth — God knows the women 
build the homes." 



of Shrewsbury, Vermont, now in her ninety-sixth 


of Gulf Mills, Pa., now in her ninety-ninth year. 




Editor Sunday-School Literature 

After the publication of this article, will there 
some one arise and state that he is the descendant, 
the grandson of the Christian minister who organiz- 
ed the first Sabbath-school in "the Christian Connec- 
tion?" If so, I wish he might arise now and give 
me information which I most eagerly long for, 
as I am unable to ascertain where the first "Sab- 
bath-school" was organized, or who had the courage 
to "follow the methods of the sects," and adopt 
their ways of instilling the truth into the minds 
of the young, and thus prepare material from which 
there should arise able defenders of the Christian 
principles. But some one started a Christian Sab 
bath-school ("Sunday-school" is a name that came 
into use later), and drew upon himself many ad- 
verse criticisms, for there were many who did not 
favor the movement in the Christian connection, 
and the reason is not far to seek. Soon after "the 
rise of the Christian Church," the leading sects 
adopted Sunday-school methods for the purpose of 
instilling their peculiar dogmas into the minds of 
the young, which, from their view-point, was a wise 
method of procedure, but one that did not appeal 
to those who would have the young grow up free 
from sectarian bias. The catechetical method was 
used and the questions were largely framed on 
the catechism and other man-made formulas; so, at 


first, it seemed that the Sabbath-school and the 
catechism were inseparable adjuncts, consequently, 
some stoutly opposed the Institution that held with- 
in itself the leaven that would work in such a love 
of the truth as to drive out sectarian bigotry and 
bring God's people closer together in the love of 
and adherence to the Scriptures of divine truth. 
Others were slow to see the effectiveness of the Sab- 
bath-school; , but it was not long till some of the 
fathers saw the leverage the Sunday-school would 
give them on the mind of the young, and making 
practical the statement, "the Bible the only creed,'' 
they made use of the Sunday-school as a means of 
imparting a knowledge of divine truth, and adopted 
the Bible as the text-book of the organization ; and 
those who were early taught its principles, and be- 
came "rooted and grounded" in the Christian faith, 
became "seed beds" for the propagation of the Chris- 
tian principles, as is shown by the example of one 
sister in Iowa in an early day, who, rather than 
join the sects, upon hearing of a Christian minister 
in an adjoining county, rode twenty-five miles on 
horseback to get him to come and preach in her 
neighborhood and organize a Christian church. Her 
efforts were rewarded, and the church stands 
to-day as a monument to her loyalty and devotion 
to the truth. But many of the churches held aloof, 
and were pained to see their children gathered into 
the schools of their brethren "yet under the yoke." 
During the "thirties" of the last century, the more 
wide-awake churches began to see their opportuni- 
ty and organized Sabbath-schools and Bible classes, 
and churches that did so, secured for themselves 


a tenure of life not realized by sister organizations 
that neglected the "open door." The movement was 
not general, but local. We have something analo- 
gous within the time of our own recollection. The 
churches that early adopted Christian Endeavor 
methods, and organized Christian Endeavor socie- 
ties, became stronger, more missionary in spirit and 
practice, and more efficient in the home field. So 
the churches that introduced Sunday-school methods, 
other things being equal, are the ones that have been 
strongest and done the most efficient work. In 
those early times, as in all times, there were lead- 
ing spirits who sought to inspire the churches to 
action in the work of organizing schools and Bible 
classes, among whom were the editors of our re- 
ligious periodicals. These men used tact, some- 
times introducing the subject by means of clippings 
from their exchanges, showing the great advantages 
other denominations were realizing by means of the 
Sunday-school. As late as 1840, the work was looked 
on as somewhat tentative, as shown by a resolution 
passed by the Indiana Bluffton Christian Conference, 
which reads thus: 

Resolved. That we consider Sunday-schools beneficial, 
where they are properly conducted, and we, therefore, re- 
quest the brethren to recommend and establish them in 
every church where it is convenient. 

From the minutes of the New Hampshire Christian 

Conference, held June 12, 1840, I glean this : 

The committee on Sabbath-schools beg leave to make the 
following report : Whereas, well conducted Sabbath-schools 
and Bible classes are of the highest importance to the young 
of our congregations, and may be regarded as nurseries of 
the church: Therefore. Resolved, That we recommend to all 
the churches within the bounds of this conference, to estab- 
lish and sustain them in their respective societies. 

524 T HE C E N T E N N I A L O V 

In the same volume of the Palladium, this is 

found : 

We as a people, have too long been indifferent on the 
subject of Sabbath-schools. And by our neglect, have lost 
ground, which now might have been yielding an abundant 
harvest, had we, in due season, availed ourselves of Sab- 
bath-schools and Bible class instruction. While we have 
slumbered, the neighboring sects have been busily engaged 
in planting, in the minds of our children and youth, the 
seeds of their peculiar dogmas. . . . Good policy says, let 
every church have connected with it a nourishing Sabbath- 
school and Bible class. 

During the forties and fifties, more of the con- 
ferences turned their attention to this institution. 
Some of them began to have committees on "The 
Sabbath-school," and the churches maintaining 
them, gave reports, telling the number of scholars 
enrolled. The Sunday-school literature of that 
time consisted of, 

Sunday-school Hymn-Books, Lessons of Love, First Ques- 
tion Book for Little Children, and Jesus the Messiah, a his- 
torical question book, all published in our own denomina- 

Our churches being mostly in rural districts, few 
schools were held the entire year. April and May 
were the months of opening and reorganizing. 

At the first annual meeting of the "Christian 
Publication Society," June 5, 1857, the secretary, 
P. Roberts, suggested the publishing of Sunday- 
school books and a Sunday-school paper. In the 
Christian Palladium of September 25, 1857, is an 
announcement as follows : "We will publish a paper 
called the Christian Sunday-School, on as good paper- 
as the Youth's Penny Gazette,'' etc., but looking 
through the later files I fail to find any mention 
of the paper, so I presume the Sunday-school con- 
tinued to take the Youth's Penny Gazette and The 


Children's Friend till 1865, when the Sunday-School 
Herald was started. In the Memoir of Daniel Hix, 
page 137, this is found : "In the summer of 1835 the 
first Sunday-school was organized at Hixville." 
Whether this means the first one at Hixville, or 
the first one in the conference, or in the state, or 
in the connection, I am unable to learn. Methods in 
vogue at that early time may be learned from the 
reminiscences of some of our older ministers and 
the reports of Sunday-schools given at their yearly 
picnics. From the Westerly, Rhode Island, Sunday- 
school's report this is copied: "Enrollment, 100; 
verses of Scripture committed to memory and re- 
cited, 17,000 plus/' Rev. D. E. Millard, D. D., says : 

The first Sunday-school of the Christian Church I had 
any knowledge of, was the one in West Bloomfield, N. Y., 
in the church of which my father was then pastor — 1842-3. 
I do not know who organized it, but at that time, Rev. Asa 
Chapin was superintendent, and succeeded in maintaining 
a very good school for some time. In those days Sunday- 
schools in our country churches were not very numerous 
and were lightly attended. 

This from Rev. Thomas Holmes, D. D.: 

My recollections of my first Sunday-school experiences 
are very vivid, and very interesting to me. They com- 
mence about 1830. I know nothing about organizers, but 
the method of the school of which I was a member can 
never be forgotten. It was in a country schoolhouse. 
Classes were formed according to ages of members. Each 
member was instructed to commit as many verses as possi- 
ble during the week, and the teacher heard each recite the 
verses learned, and gave credit for the number recited. 
Each scholar selected his or her lesson from any portion 
of the Bible preferred. Psalms and Proverbs were fre 
quently chosen because the verses were short. I chose the 
New Testament. My first lesson, I remember, was the 
third chapter of Matthew. I remember reciting also, at 
one lesson the 25th chapter of Matthew, 46 verses. This 
method has always appeared to me the best that has ever 
been adopted for children and young people. The scholar 
soon had large portions of the Bible at tongue's end, and 


they were ready for use during all the rest of his life, for 
they were seldom forgotten. 

Rev. D. W. Moore says: 

The first Sunday-school that I remember of attending 
was about 1842, in a log schoolhouse in the district where 
my father, lived in Logan County, Ohio, about one mile 
from our home. This school was held irregularly for several 
years, usually beginning in May and holding till September. 
There was little or no organization, and few if any regular 
teachers, but when the scholars assembled they were formed 
into classes, and some one who was considered competent, 
or willing to act as teacher, would take the class. The 
scholars were usually quite well behaved, and not half so 
troublesome to manage as those of the present day. We 
had no "Lesson Helps," or study of the lesson beforehand, 
but the exercises consisted in reading several chapters 
(perhaps half a dozen), without any comment or explana- 
tion, the work of the teacher being simply to pronounce the 
hard words that the pupil could not pronounce. It was 
also customary to request the school to memorize Scripture 
verses during the week, and repeat them in the class dur- 
ing the session of school. Some of the bright scholars 
would sometimes recite forty or fifty verses at a single 
session. Frequently a large part of the time was taken up 
by some class in their recitations. The singing was from 
church hymn-books and the hymns such as "A charge to 
keep I have." "Broad is the road that leads to death," 
"Amazing grace, how sweet the sound," or "Blest be the tie 
that binds," with a prayer at the opening and closing. 

A felt need of a Sunday-school paper published 
by our own people, among the Sunday-school work- 
ers of the Christian Church in the early sixties, 
led to a discussion of the question in the Herald 
(Gospel Herald) and resulted in the beginning of 
the Sunday- School Herald, which is still published 
at Dayton, Ohio. When the churches of the country 
adopted the International Lesson Series, and Les- 
son Helps were prepared by different denomina- 
tions, our people for a time procured "Helps" from 
other houses, but as these were thought to be sec- 
tarian and erroneous in their teaching, a sentiment 
grew up in our schools in favor of "Quarterlies," 


published by our own people, and in 1882, "Our 
Teacher's Guide and Scholar's Help" was published 
under the editorship of Asa W. Coan. This brought 
new strength to our Sunday-school cause and the 
Sunday-school as an institution became one of the 
main channels of religious life and Christian ac- 
tivity in the Christian Church. 

From the middle of the last century and onward 
conferences have given special attention to, and 
heard reports from, schools within their bounds, and 
many of tbem have adopted the plan of the Sunday- 
school Institute, thus devoting a part of the time of 
conference to various phases of Sunday-school work. 
By the adoption of helpful methods, this insti- 
tution has become a factor of great potency in the 
Christian Church. Before the close of the last cen- 
tury there were over twelve hundred Sunday-schools 
in active organized work, in touch with, and, in a 
measure, under the control of the American Chris- 
tian Convention. Thus the Christian Church recog- 
nizes the Sunday-school as a power for good and a 
safeguard for the young, that is found in no other in- 
stitution except the Home, and since the latter is so 
far inferior, in many instances, to what the Lord de- 
signed it, and the instruction therein received other 
than helpful, the great field of activity for the Chris- 
tian Church to-day, is found in the Sunday-school, 
and by means of the Cradle Roll and the Home De- 
partment, the field is being worked with some degree 
of efficiency. The church holds within its grasp 
great possibilities through careful, prayerful, organ- 
ized work in the Sunday-school. 

Dayton, Ohio. 




President Toronto Christian Endeavor Union 

Every great forward movement in the history of 
the church has had its genesis in, and has been the 
direct outcome of, the need of the church at the 
time of its uprising. To instance the missionary 
work of Paul as giving the character of universality 
to the message of Christ; the Lutheran reformation 
in its break with the effete forms of Catholicism; 
Calvinism in its systematizing of the new religious 
thought; Wesleyanism in its effort to breathe new 
life into the formalism of a decadent church; the 
modern missionary movement under Gary, to arouse 
a church on duty at home to its duty abroad ; the 
Sunday-school to quicken the church to a sense of 
its duty to the child; the Y. M. C. A. and the young 
man — to instance these is enough to make the con- 
tention hold good. It is noticeable, moreover, that 
with one or two exceptions, all these great move- 
ments are inseparably attached to the name of some 
individual whom God has raised up for the specific 

What has been true of other great movements 
in the church is true of the Christian Endeavor 
organization. It is the direct outcome of the con- 
dition, and the need of the church. It is not at all 
to be supposed that the founder of the first Christian 
Endeavor Society, at ^Williston, Maine, had an eye 
to the need of the church at large, or any idea of 


the proportions which the society would attain in 
so short a time ; but rather, that, studying the prob- 
lem of his own church, he endeavored to meet its 
needs by banding his young people together, for 
definite service, and purposeful development of 
Christian life. It happened, however, that the needs 
of one church in a generation, in an age when the 
four corners of the earth were brought so closely 
together, were, in the main, the needs of every other 
church ; and the society, originally intended to solve 
the problem of the young man and the young woman 
and the Kingdom of God, in a particular locality, 
proved to be the organization that could success- 
fully meet the need in tens of thousands of churches 
in every sphere of Christian activity, the world over. 
What were the distinguishing marks of the church 
of a quarter of a century ago, that called into being 
the Christian Endeavor Society? First, unused, and 
consequently, more or less vitiated power of the 
young man and young woman. The Sunday-school 
was doing a heroic work up to a certain point, and 
that, the danger point of every young man and 
young woman's life. For a time the youth, merging 
into young manhood, were likely to be untouched by 
the church. Here was stored untold power, that 
might be utilized for Christ. But the church stood 
hopelessly looking on, now and again exerting some 
effort, Avith bars of its own fashioning, to move this 
mighty mass forward, all-forgetful of the dynamic 
of service, as the great means to the end. In the 
second place, it was a period of unusual evangelistic 
fervor. Weary of polemical struggles, the church 
was finding vent for its life in a new and living 


way — seeking the individual for Christ. The grad- 
ual reaction within the church was manifesting it- 
self in every quarter, and the church was subcon- 
sciously endeavoring to meet the problem of the 
} T oung people in this way. With the evangelistic 
fervor, and the submerging of the greatly magnified 
controversial element of the past, however, another 
change, far-reaching, and to the church at large, 
probably imperceptible, was taking place — a simpli- 
fying of its message. Christ as a universal Savior 
to all who accept Him, and the consequent life of 
righteousness, issuing in service, was the burden of 
its delivery. With the simplifying of its message, 
and its evangelistic zeal, there arose, what con- 
stitutes itself a fourth element of the church, at 
the time of the birth of Christian Endeavor — a grad- 
ual co-operative tendency among all denominations. 
Evangelistic services were held in great centers. 

The Christian Endeavor Society in a most provi- 
dential manner met the condition of the church 
directly and comprehensively. It said, "We will set 
free this vast reserve of power, stored in the young 
people of onr church, in service for Christ," and 
exultingly the young man and young woman sprang 
up at the call. The first place for that reserve of 
power to find vent was in leading others to Christ, 
and the Endeavor Society set a place for the as- 
sociate member, where he might be won for God. 
Young people for the most part are not systematic 
theologians though they may be Biblical scholars; 
and so the Christian Endeavor Society emphasized, 
not the points of controversy, but the essentials of 
Christian faith. But the essentials of Christian 


faith form a base upon which people of all denom- 
inations may stand, and with a larger outlook, and 
clearer vision of the purpose of Christ, and the need 
of the world, interdenominational amity found vent 
in the large fellowship of the Christian Endeavor 
Society. When the conservative element in the his- 
toric churches scented danger, and probably justly 
so, the Christian Endeavor Society, rising to the 
need again, while enjoying interdenominational fel- 
lowship, embodied in its pledge the feature of de- 
nominational loyalty, elements that, with condi- 
tions as they are, and in the gradual evolution of 
the church, must be harmonized. 

Christian Endeavor has had, however, to work 
out these principles in definite forms, and the suc- 
cess attending the development of the movement 
must be attributed, in part, to the manner in which 
this has been done. At the forefront we must put 
the pledged allegiance to Christ, upon which Chris- 
tian Endeavor insists. The somewhat nebulous 
transition point in the young person's life in the 
former regime, is clarified in the definite, signed 
vow to serve the Master. Not only are young peo- 
ple asked in a general way to render obedience to 
Christ, but definite lines of activity — witnessing 
for Christ, daily communion with Him, and attend- 
ance at divine service — needs universally recognized 
among Christian people, are opened up, and gen- 
erally required. More recent developments have 
been the "Quiet Hour/' "Tenth Legion," "Macedo- 
nian Phalanx," and "Christian Endeavor Home Cir- 
cle." It put itself in favor with the better classes 
by insisting upon the needs of good citizenship and 


intelligent endeavor in the development of the state. 
Two negative features of the movement which 
have added materially to its success, have been the 
absence of over-organization, and the fact that no 
appeal for funds has been made. Like all great re 
ligious movements, it has won its way by appeal to 
the inner life and not to externals. 

The marvelous success that has attended its de- 
velopment in the scarcely over one quarter of a 
century of its existence, has vindicated the essential 
elements of its constitution. Over sixty-seven thou 
sand societies in all parts of the world, with a mem 
bership of over four million, and a past membership 
of over ten million attests its far-reaching influence. 
And this with no mention of the tens of thousands 
of denominational young people's societies that are 
the real offspring of the Christian Endeavor Move- 
ment. Its constitution has been translated, and is 
in use, in over thirty different nations. Thirty-seven 
million young people's religious meetings, with an 
attendance of one billion one hundred million ; con- 
ventions, by far the largest religious gatherings the 
world has ever known; fifteen millions of dollars 
given to missions and other charitable purposes : 
religious impulses that can never be tabulated; and 
all this in twenty-five years. What hath God 
wrought ! 

Its future we cannot predict. However the chang- 
ing conditions of the church may affect it, it will 
stand forth on the pages of the history of the church 
as one of the great movements in bringing the world 
to Christ. 

Toronto, Ontario. 






The Christian Orphanage was authorized by The 
Southern Christian Convention in session 1896 at 
Burlington, 1ST. C, and funds to be collected for 
the same by the children known as "Band of Cous- 
ins" in the "Children's Corner" of the Christian 
Sun. Deacon D. J. Mood was then secretary of 
"The Band of Cousins," and continued till Febru- 
ary, 1897, when Rev. J. L. Foster, then of Raleigh, 
N. C.j was elected secretary, and known as "Uncle 
Jim," and was continued as secretary till May. 1908, 
when the late session of the Convention abolished 
the office of Secretary of Children's Orphanage 
Fund. From year to year the work has grown from 
a few hundred dollars till last year's report showed 
over $3,000 in cash for one year's work. The fund 
for building the orphanage is largely due to the ef- 
forts and prayers of the children. Thousands of little 
letters have been written and published in the Chil- 
dren's Corner, and these letters accompanied by a 
nickel, a dime, or any amount they felt able to give. 
December 27, 1904, the Board of Trustees accepted 
subscriptions of over one thousand dollars towards 
paying for land, from the citizens of Elon College 
and community, and located the Christian Orphan- 
age on the north side of the Southern railroad, on 
a site of 112 acres of land. In the summer and fall 
of 1905, the Children's Building was erected; the in- 



side work being finished in the summer of 1906. 
The trustees in charge during the period of locating 
and building were Rev. W. S. Long, D. D., 


^ 1 

K 1 

.- m 

Ww : - 

Elon College, N. C. 

chairman, Graham, N. C. ; Captain W. J. Lee, 
Norfolk, Virginia, and Rev. J. L. Foster, of Ra- 
leigh, North Carolina. 

The building is of brick, two stories high, 116 
feet on the front, with nine small bed rooms, five 
large ones; with nice chapel and large dining-room, 
two large wards for little children with necessary 
closets, etc., nice sitting-room with double office, 
kitchen and pantries. 

The new board of trustees elected May, 1906, after 
having had the inside work finished, elected Rev. 
J. L. Foster, Superintendent, and he entered upon 
his duties October 1, 1906, and the building was 
sufficiently furnished by January 1, 1907, that the 


trustees declared the Orphanage open and ready 
for the reception of inmates. 

The first child to arrive at the Home was Lelia 
May Canada, of Durham, N. 0., and from time to 
time others have been received till May, 1, 1908, there 
were 24 present. Miss Dora Edwards, of Raleigh, 
N. C, is housekeeper and Mrs. Susie H. Kissell, of 
Durham, N. 0., assistant, Mrs. Myrtle W. Foster as 
teacher. "Uncle John," (John H. Carrington, col- 
ored) is the first farmer, and has proven himself 
efficient and faithful. 

The Orphanage now has a large barn which will 
accommodate four horses and six cows, with com- 
fort; and also furnish storage for a large supply 
of food for horses and cattle; most necessary out- 
houses have also been built, and the farm is being 
brought into cultivation and liberal crops planted. 
They now have 1 horse, 1 mule, 1 colt, 5 milch cows, 
one 1 year old calf. Wagons, harness, etc., have been 
added as best we could. It is the purpose of the 
administration to add land and fixtures as fast as 
their limited means will permit. The institution 
is now in need of a large lot of cattle and hog wire 
for fencing, mowing machine, grain drill, etc. It 
is the purpose of the trustees to fill the institution as 
rapidly as the support will justify. The present 
building will accommodate about 45 children with- 
out crowding and furnish rooms for matron, teach- 
ers and have office' and reception room. 

The Orphanage is owned by the Southern Chris- 
tian Convention, and is so chartered by North Car- 
olina that it must forever remain under the control 
of the Christians. 


The support is from the children's work, volun- 
tary offerings from churches, Sunday-schools, aid 
societies and friends. Most of the churches in the 
Southern Christian Convention make a "Thanksgiv- 
ing offering" each year; this greatly helps in the 
support of the work. Two bequests have been made 
to the orphanage, but as yet we do not know the full 
amount. Deacon Jesse Windborne, deceased, of Elon 
College, N. C, and Deacon E. A. Hyslop, of Nor- 
folk, Va., each has made provision whereby the 
orphanage will begin its great work by using said 
funds in putting up memorial buildings, or invest- 
ing for permanent endowment funds. 

This brings us to one of the most beautiful features 
of Christian charity, that with a few thousand dol- 
lars a very substantial and serviceable building may 
be built, which will last for generations and be the 
permanent home of orphan children. It is said that 
the three sweetest words are "mother, home and 
heaven." In these orphan homes your Christian 
charity will help in supplying a home, and filling 
the place of a mother, and will aid in leading the 
children to heaven. May the Lord guide others in 
helping this worthy institution of our church. 

Elon College, N. C. 





To Rev. P. R. Sellon and his wife, Lois L. Sellon, 
belong the honor of first conceiving the idea of a 
home for aged ministers and their wives among 
our people. It was not until after Bro. Sellon's 
death that his wife determined to found this home 
as a memorial to her husband. She agitated the 
matter in her home town, Castile, N. Y., and at 
conferences and conventions. 

At last, on March 29, 1894, there assembled at the 
home of James S. Frost, in Henrietta, X. Y., the 
following persons — Lois L. Sellon, Latham Coffin, 
James S. Frost, John B. Weston, B. S. Crosby, 
Isaac C. Tyron and J. W. Wilson, who proceeded to 
organize and adopt bj'-laws. Rev. Latham Coffin 
was elected president of the board, Rev. B. S. Cros- 
by, secretary, and James S. Frost, treasurer. 

At this time there was but little money on hand 
and no location selected. Mrs. Sellon worked from 
now on with untiring zeal in raising money for the 
purchase of a house. In Castile alone she raised 
$1,440, including her subscription of $300. In 1895 
$1,602.13 had been raised. 

During this time Mrs. Sellon had been corre- 

* Since this article was written the Board of Trustees has voted 
to remove this Home from Castile, N. Y., to Lakemont. N. Y. 
A house and four acres of land have been bought, overlooking 
beautiful Seneca Lake, and before the close of the year the 
removal will be accomplished, giving the home many advantages 
over the present location. Needy miuislers and their wives, or 
widows, will be gladly received. — F. 








I— I 











sponding with Francis A. Palmer, President of the 
Broadway National Bank in New York City, who 
was interested in the enterprise, and gave $10,000 
as an endowment fund for the home, on the day of 
the annual meeting, May 15, 1895. 

A home was purchased in Castile, N. Y., and on 
May 15, 1895, Rev. B. S. Fanton and wife paid their 
entrance fee, thus becoming the first persons to 
enter the home. 

About 1897 Mr. Palmer visited the home and 
made some needed improvements, which he paid for 

In 1899 the increasing number of old people made 
it necessary to enlarge the building. Again Mr. 
Palmer aided them. 

Rev. Alden Allen and wife are conducting the 
home at present. 

Donations have come from friends from time to 
time and endowments have been made, but the in- 
come from the endowments is not sufficient to keep 
up the home, hence the necessity for donations. 

The Board of Trustees at present are as follows: 
Rev. J. W. Wilson, Newark, N. Y., President; Mer- 
ton Phelps, Caledonia, N. Y., Secretary; James S. 
Frost, Lakemont, N. Y., Treasurer; Rev. J. B. Wes- 
ton, Defiance, O. ; Rev. M. Summerbell, Lake- 
mont, 1ST. Y. ; Rev. John MacCalman, D. D., Coving- 
ton, 0.; Rev. F. S. Child, D. D., Fairfield, Conn. 

This is a beautiful Christian Home, where the 
ordinary comforts are enjoyed, within a short dis- 
tance from the Christian Church, and where minis- 
ters of good standing, who have preached twenty 



years and are fifty years of age, may go. Widows 
or wives of ministers may also find a home there. 
A fee of $150.00 is required from each man and 
$100.00 from each woman. 

Lakemont, N. T. 





Although all writers of hymns have not become 
famous, and most of the hymns written, even by the 
authors of famous hymns, have never gained popu- 
lar acceptance, yet each branch of the church uni- 
versal has no doubt had worthy song writers. While 
it is true that the Christian denomination has 
not produced many hymn-writers, and none of these 
have written any great number of hymns, yet some 
hymns of high order found in our Christian 
Hymnary, and a few in other collections, were writ- 
ten by those who have found sweet fellowship with 

We take pleasure in giving such credit and in- 
formation as we have been able to obtain concern- 
ing the hymn-writers of the Christian denomination. 
Much of this information has been furnished me by 
Rev. D. E. Millard, I). D., of Portland, Mich., himself 
a writer of several very worthy songs and hymns. 

Rev. W. 0. Gushing was the author of a number of 
hymns, some of which have found wide acceptance. 
In "Gospel Hymns" we find the following written 
by him: — "Ring the Bells of Heaven," ''When He 
Cometh to Make up His Jewels" "Hiding in Thee," 
"Beautiful Valley of Eden," "To be There," and "I 
am -Waiting by the River" found in the "Gospel 
Hymnal." Some of these have been used extensively 
in revival meetings and general evangelistic work. 
The author was a graduate of Meadville Theological 


School, about 1848, and served as pastor of Chris 
tian churches in New York State. He was greatly 
beloved by all who knew him, and was a gentle and 
sweet spirited man. 

Elder David Millard was the poet of his day 
among the Christians. In his Memoirs, edited by 
his son, we have several of his poems with some 
hymns, but none of these have come into general 
use in later years. 

He and Elder Badger edited a collection entitled 
"The Millard and Badger Hymn-book" which was 
first published about 1830, and for a number of 
years was the standard hymn-book in many of our 
churches in New York State. Elder Millard com- 
posed several hymns in that collection. The titles 
of lliree have been given me by his son: — "Meeting 
of Three Friends," •'Hymn for Saturday Night/' 
and "The Star of Bethlehem." Only a few copies of 
this hymn-book are now to be found. 

Rev. D. E. Millard inherited the poetic gilt of liis 
venerable father, and has composed a number of 
songs and hymns for special occasions. Some of 
these have appeared in Strickland's collections. The 
Convention Song, used at the opening of the Ameri- 
can Christian Convention, at Marion, Ind., in 1S90, 
was written by him. Also the Reunion Hymn, sung 
at the same Convention when the Northern and 
Southern wings of the Christian Church were re- 
united after a separation of thirty-six years. 

Bro. Millard has written, and still writes, songs 
for Sunday-school assemblies, soldiers' re-unions 
and other occasions. We would gladly give titles 
and extracts if space would permit. 


Rev. W. Day has written many excellent hymns, 
and a number of short poems by him have appeared 
in the Herald of Gospel Liberty. His life and work 
have proven the sincerity of his purpose and the 
sweetness of his spirit, and his songs will live in 
the hearts of many long after he has entered into his 
reward. One of his hymns may be found in The 
Christian Hymnary, No. 651. "0 Teach me, Father, 
to Submit." 

Rev. A. G. Comings has written some hymns, 
one of which. "How siceet the hour of prayer,'' may 
be found in the "Gospel Hymnal," No. 735. Bro. 
Comings lived to a ripe old age, and his life was full 
of good fruit. 

Rev. John Ellis has left one hymn to the Chris- 
tians. "The White Pilgrim." (Elder Joseph Thomas) 
which will long be cherished by many in 
memory of that departed saint, and has been 
sung by hundreds who never knew its author. 
or who '•'The White Pilgrim'' was. This eccentric- 
man, who dressed in white garments, was bounti- 
fully gifted by nature, and became a traveling- 
evangelist who attracted large crowds. He died of 
smallpox, while on a journey homeward from the 
eastern states, at Johnsonburg, X. J., April 9. 1S35, 
at the early age of forty-four years. He contributed 
a number of articles and some poetry to our denom- 
inational journals. It was while standing beside 
his grave that Elder Ellis composed his lines on 
"The White Pilgrim,'' which begin as follows :■ — - 

I came to the spot where the "White Pilgrim lay. 

And pensively stood by his tomb. 
When in a low whisper a voice seemed to say. 

"How sweetly T sleep here alone. 


The tempest may bowl and the loud thunders roll, 

And gathering storms may arise. 
Yet calm are my feelings, at rest is my soul, 

The tears are all wiped from my eyes." 

Rev. Warren Hathaway, pastor of the Blooming 
Grove church, New York, has written some hymns 
of high order. Two of these may be found in the 
late edition of "The Christian Hymnary." The first, 
No. 165, is a noble rhythmic tribute to tlie '■'Presence 
and Love of God." 

The following exquisite lines occur in the second 
stanza : — 

There's not a leaf in yonder bower, 

Or gem that sparkles in the sea, 
Or blade of grass, or tender flower. 

But has a voice of love to me — 
A voice that speaks of God. 

Another by him in the same collection, No. 433, 
begins, "The Savior speaks to every heart:' 

The thought, sentiment, and poetic composition 
of Bro. Hathaway's hymns would take rank with 
some of the best in the hymnology of our day. 

Rev. B. 8. BateheJor has contributed one number 
used in the Christian Hymnary, which displays the 
deep devotional spirit of the man, as well as his ex- 
cellent literary style and graceful ease of expression. 

It is a prayer befitting every devout worshiper 
of God in the public assembly. We quote from the 
third stanza : — 

Where'er thy servants worship Thee, 

From east to farthest west, 
Upon the land, or on the sea, 

May all in Thee be blest. 

Dr. N. Summerbell, one of the most remarkable 


and gifted writers of our body, has left a great 
number of poetic effusions, from among which a 
Doxology has been preserved in the Christian 
Hymnary, No. 129. 

To God, the great, eternal oue. 

To Jesus Christ, His only Son, 
Be ceaseless praise and glory given, 

By all on earth, and all in heaven. 

Among others of our people who have written 
very worthy hymns, we make mention of Rev. T. C. 
Moulton, one of the committee who compiled the 
Christian Hymn Book issued in 180"); Rev. W. W. 
Stalei/, a member of the committee which compiled 
the Christian Hywmary in 1801, and Rev. H. Lizzie 

There are others no doubt who should have favora- 
ble mention in this article for our Centennial Boole. 
but the writer has been unable to secure such informa- 
tion as would make more complete this very im- 
perfect sketch of our own hymn-writers. It is to 
be hoped that this branch of devotional literature 
will be cultivated by our people even more than it 
has been in the past, and that the quality and care- 
ful selection of our hymnody will be kept up to a 
high standard, for it is the highest and holiest 
medium through which the devotional spirit of a 
people can be expressed. 

Centerville, Ohio. 




Ex-President Fmnklinton Christian College 

After the close of the Civil War many of the 
colored members of the Christian Church in the 
Southland thought it desirable to have a conference 
of their own, and by the assistance of Dr. 1). A. Long 
and others, the North Carolina (colored) Conference 
and the Virginia (colored) Conference were organ- 
ized. The members were then only few in number. 
but there has been a wonderful increase since the or- 
ganization. They soon felt the necessity of a better 
education and knew that education was absolutely 
necessary to their continued existence. The Rev. 
Geo. W. Dunn came into correspondence with the 
Rev. J. P. Watson, D. D., Mission Secretary of the 
Christian Church, and through his efforts Rev. Geo. 
Young was sent to Franklinton, X. G, and opened 
a school in the old church, situated near the present 
more commodious church building. The people were 
eager to learn, and it was soon apparent that a 
school building must be erected to accommodate the 
increasing demand for room. Rev. Geo. Young was 
sent there first in 1881 and by the close of 1882 the 
present college building was ready for occupancy. 
It has chapel and hall on first floor, five rooms in- 
cluding library on second floor, and three large 
living rooms for young men in the attic. It was 
soon apparent that a boarding-house must be pre- 

Franklinton, N. C. 

'resident Franklinton Christian College 


pared for those who came from a distance and Mrs. 
Emily Wilson of Philadelphia visited the school and 
at once began the erection of the boarding-house, 
now used by the college, and named it Gaylord Hall, 
in memory of her father. It contains fifteen rooms 
and is used for a boarding-house for all the students 
and lodging-house for young ladies. It was 
thoroughly furnished by Mrs. Wilson with all that 
was necessary for its use. 

In a short time afterward the North Carolina 
Conference bought a lot adjoining the campus and 
built a residence for the president. This was, un- 
fortunately, destroyed by fire in 1901. The school 
was first incorporated for a term of years as the 
Franklinton Literary and Theological Christian In- 
stitute, but in 1S91, through the influence of Rev. J. 
F. Ullery, the Legislature of North Carolina granted 
it a perpetual charter as "Franklinton Christian 

Mrs. Wilson started an endowment fund which 
now brings an income of about $500.00 yearly. The 
late Rev. O. J. Wait left $1000.00 by will, and a num- 
ber of smaller bequests have come in from time to 
time, but its main support musl come from the free 
will offerings of the brotherhood of the Christian 
Church. In 1905 the Board of Control bought 8:J 
acres of land about one mile north of the college 
and are planning for an Industrial College. Last 
summer they made 70,000 brick to begin building 
with as soon as the funds are raised. 

The school was at first controlled by the Mission 
Board, but was soon transferred to a Board of 
Control, but in 1902 this Board was abolished and 


the college was put in the hands of the Educational 
Board of the American Christian Convention. In 
1904 the Board of Control was re-created by the 
American Christian Convention and the college was 
again put into its hands. The present members of 
the Board of Control are Rev. John Blood, 
Treasurer, Lewisburg, Pa.; Rev. J. L. Foster, Sec'y, 
Elon College, X. C. ; Rev. W. H. Hainer, Irvington, 
X. J. : Rev. F. H. Peters, Coshocton, Ohio, and Rev. 
P. S. Sailer, Norfolk, Va. 

Rev. Geo. Young, of New York, was president 
from the starting of the school until 1889, then 
Rev. C. A. Beck, of Pennsylvania, one year; Rev. J. F. 
Ullery, of Ohio, one year ; Rev. N. Del McReynolds, 
(>r Ohio, six years; Rev. Z. A. Poste, of New York, 
seven years, and Rev. H. E. Long, of North Carolina, 
the present president, four years. The first colored 
member of the faculty was H. E. Long, in 1891, and 
since 1904 all the members of the faculty are colored. 
The main objects of the college have been to prepare 
young men and women for teachers in the public 
schools and to train young men for the ministry. 
II has turned out the best equipped teachers in 
all the adjoining counties by the hundreds in its 
existence of only a little over twenty-five years. As 
the college was established to meet the absolute 
needs of the church, so has the growth of the church 
kept pace with the growing usefulness of the col- 
lege, but has outstripped it in its growth and edu- 

From a feeble beginning there are now three 
conferences in Virginia and North Carolina, viz. : 
North Carolina, Virginia, and Eastern Atlantic, with 


94 ordained ministers, 58 licentiates, 121 organized 
churches and about 8000 members. A number of the 
older ministers and the great majority of the younger 
and middle-aged ministers are now, or have been, 
students of the college and their influence on the 
spiritual welfare of the membership cannot but be 
elevating, especially when you consider that almost 
every church has had one or more representatives 
at college. At one time one church, situated seventy 
miles from Franklin-ton, had nine students in school 
and most of them were preparing themselves for 

At the session of the North Carolina Conference 
in Cary, in 1906, an effort was made to organize a 
Franklinton Society within the Conference by ask- 
ing all present and former students to retire and 
meet in the schoolhouse adjoining the church. It 
was found that this would take every officer ex- 
cept treasurer, and the chairman of all the principal 
committees, so it had to be abandoned and the 
meeting was held during a recess of conference. 
The same condition of affairs will more than likely 
be found to exist in the other conferences. The 
conferences are well organized and pay due atten- 
tion to all the departments of church work, more 
especially Sunday-school, mission, and education. 
The Educational Committee is a very important 
one and the candidate for license, or for ordination, 
is most thoroughly examined by it. Although the 
standard is not as high as it is in some conferences, 
it is being gradually raised to keep pace with the 
demands of the membership. Every student that 
comes from a distance receives and assimilates les- 


sons in Christianity, literature, morality and social 
culture, and taking these home with him, of necessity 
imparts them to others, and thus there is a wide and 
increasing influence in these matters going out and 
year by year becoming more powerful. 

The colored ministers frequently visit the college 
to see their parishioners in attendance and are 
quick to see the advantage of such a visit to them 
and to the school. 

The library consists of about 2,000 bound volumes, 
besides a large number of magazines and pamphlets. 
These have all been contributed by friend's at differ 
cut times. Two libraries, that of Eev. Caleb Morse, 
and that of Rev. O. J. Wait, D. D., are a part of 
the books. Coming from so many different sources 
and at so many different times, there will be dupli- 
cate copies of some books, and the Board of Control, 
in 1894, authorized the president to give the dupli- 
cates to the parties who would make the best use 
of them. One pastor came twenty-five miles for a 
Rible dictionary. There were two in the library, and 
we sometimes needed both of them, but, realizing 
the need of the pastor, one copy was given to him 
and he went away rejoicing, literally hugging the 
book in his great joy. The next week some friend 
sent a copy of a better edition than we had ever 
before had in the library. Rev. M. M. Hester, of 
Durham, one of the oldest ministers of the conference, 
being within eight miles of Franklinton, walked 
there to get a copy of "Summerbell's Christian Prin- 
ciples" to replace the one he had, but had loaned 
it till worn out. He obtained it and went on his 
way rejoicing. Many tracts written by our brethren 









were sent, and these were sent to the churches and 
ministers as opportunity offered, thus spreading 
our principles in all outlying communities. 

It is safe to say that the progress of the school 
and the progress of the churches have gone hand in 
hand, and without one was successful the other 
must fail. Some mention should be made here of 
those who were instrumental in establishing the 
college, but the limits of this paper would not 
allow a mention of all. Rev. J. P. Watson, D. D., 
was the first of the white brethren who took the 
matter up and was instrumental in having the first 
teacher sent. In recognition of his services, many 
years ago a literary society was organized and 
named the Watsonians and is still in existence. 
His picture hangs in one of the schoolrooms and 
the students learn of their debt to him. Rev. Geo. 
Young, the pioneer teacher, went to Franklington 
without a schoolhouse, or any of the erpiipments of 
a school, with the promise of only one hundred dol- 
lars and his board, and laid deep the foundations of 
the college which others have successfully built upon. 
When he retired he left a college building, a board- 
ing-house and a president's residence. Let him be 
accounted worthy of honor. Deacon Jonathan E. 
Brush was very successful in raising funds for the 
college building and was a firm friend of the cause 
until his death. Rev. J. W. Wellons assisted very 
materially in the erection of all the buildings and 
has been a warm friend of the enterprise from its 
inception. Mrs. Wilson's work is mentioned in anoth- 
er part of this article. Rev. Geo. W. Dunn, who first 
set the forces to work by writing to Dr. Watson, im- 


ploring aid, is one deserving mention. The college was 
as dear to his heart as his church, for he considered 
them almost the same work. He was for years 
president of the North Carolina Conference 
(colored). He stood in the college chapel at the 
Alumni meeting in April, 1907, and, after speaking 
of the beginning of the work and his prayers for 
its success, now after attending commencement the 
night before and this meeting he was ready to say 
with Simeon of old, "Lord, now lettest thou thy 
servant depart in peace, for mine eyes have seen this 
great salvation." 

During a stay of six years at Franklinton, the 
writer and his family were treated with the greatest 
courtesy by all the citizens, and they look upon 
those years as the most pleasant and useful of their 

Very many others are worthy of mention, but 
space forbids. In conclusion let us consider that the 
needs of the college are still great, and let us be 
prepared to heed the appeals of the Board of Con- 
trol from time to time as they are made. 

Belief ontaine, Ohio. 


Officers of the American Christian Convention 

ItKV. W. D. SAMUEL, D. D. 








The American Christian Convention was not so 
named until 1866. Prior to that time, it had been 
known by several different names, as will be shown 
later on. It had met in Marshall, Michigan, in Oc- 
tober, 1866, when a new constitution was adopted, 
which changed the name to that of the American 
Christian Convention. This name had been recom- 
mended by the committee on organization, but there 
was not a unanimity of opinion in favor of the 
change, until several addresses had been made which 
finally turned the current of thought and feeling, 
and permanently fixed the new name for the Con- 

Our fathers saw very early that, if they succeeded. 
they must organize. Indeed, the American Chris- 
tian Convention was the legitimate result of our 
life and work as a people. It was in response to 
the spirit and demand of the age in which we were 
born, and through which we have lived, and is a 
necessity in the plans and energies of our life to- 

In a very correct sense the American Christian 
Convention is an evolution, an evolution of thought, 
of plan, of power, and of purpose. 

The Christians began holding general meetings 
very early in their history, but neither the thought, 
nor the plan, was deliberation, but the bringing of 


the ministry and laity together for a blessed fellow- 
ship in the spirit of prayer and praise, to have a 
refreshing from the presence of the Lord. The 
power was the power of the Holy Ghost, and the 
purpose was to save men. The same thought and 
power obtains to-day, but exists in different form, 
and expresses itself through different methods. The 
Convention has developed from the mass meeting 
of early days, to a deliberative body with limited 
powers of legislation. It now takes hold of the 
vital interests of the Church, and carries them for- 
ward with strong and effective force from year to 

In the early history of the Christians, it was quite 
common to hold "General Meetings" which were 
purely evangelistic in their nature and purpose. 
The ministers would travel many miles on horse- 
back, braving all the dangers of the early days, and 
the inconvenience of travel, that they might meet 
and spend some time together in preaching, praying, 
and enjoying each other's society in religious ser- 
vices. But in addition to these "General Meetings" 
there were, very early in our denominational life, 
conventions and conferences, which exercised 
authority over their membership. Some of the earlv 
conventions heard and approved the proceedings 
of the local and state conferences and were, to some 
extent, bodies having general supervision over all 
the bodies of which they were composed, but never 
interfering with the doctrines held by them. It was 
not uncommon for them to discuss abstract themes 
of faith and church polity, for the purpose of gaining 
greater light in the multitude of counsel. 


Such convocations dictated no articles of faith, 
presented no formulas of belief, except the generally 
conceded revelations of God. 

Of course these early conventions and conferences 
were purely voluntary, as there did not exist at 
that time local conferences from which delegates 
might be chosen. In these very early meetings, the 
churches were not represented by delegates, but 
were promiscuous assemblies, and very little order 
observed in them, but he that exerted the greatest 
influence, ruled the others. Rev. Mills Barrett, then 
of Norfolk, Va., said in 1839, that James O'Kelly 
as absolutely ruled one branch of the Christian 
Church, by his influence, as ever Bishop Asbury 
ruled the Methodist Church by his episcopal author- 

At what time these voluntary conferences ceased, 
and the churches began sending delegates, we have 
been unable to determine, but we know that tlie 
Western Xew York Conference was organized in 
L815, and the Eastern Virginia and the Eastern 
Xew York in 1818. This date is even later than the 
conferences that were held during the very early 
time of the separation from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. We have the minutes of a conference which 
held its seventh session in 1821. 

Two conferences were held at Beese Chapel, in 
Charlotte County, Virginia, one in 1792, and the 
other late in 1792, or early in 1793. From one of 
these meetings they sent John Chapel and E. Al- 
monds over the mountains with a petition for union 
with Rev. (Francis) Asbury. 

Their efforts were in vain. The next conference 


met on August 2, 1793, at Piney Grove church, in 
Chesterfield County, Virginia. There they con- 
demned the Episcopal form of government, but still 
desired union with their Methodist brethren. They 
prepared an address to the bishop, and asked that 
the Methodist form of government might be examined 
and tried by the Scriptures, and amended accord- 
ing to the Holy Word. That request was denied by 
the Methodist brethren. Mr. O'Kelly has this to 
say in regard to the fourth conference: 

And it came to pass on the twelfth month of 1793, about 
the 25th day of the month, we met pursuant to adjourn- 
ment at Manakintown, to receive the answer from (Francis') 
Asbury. Our friends made report that his answer to us 
was : "I have no power to call such a meeting as you wish, 
therefore, if five hundred preachers were to come on their 
knees before me, I would not do it." 

We formed our ministers on an equality, gave the lay 
members the balance of power in the legislature, and left 
the executive business in the church collectively. 

In those early days of the Christians, there were 
at least four different kinds of meetings, besides the 
regular church service. 

First : The Elders' Conference. This was an in- 
formal gathering of the elders, for consultation, 
about matters pertaining to the ministry and 
churches. It exercised no authority over the 
churches, but did arrange for the ordination of men 
called of God to preach His Word. 

Second : The General Meeting. This was a meet- 
ing for religious worship only ; it was usual for it 
to last two days, and to it, ministers and laymen 
came from quite a distance. When the weather 
would permit, the meetings were held in a grove, 
and large audiences attended, and as many as four 
sermons a day were preached. 


Third : The Annual Conference. These were or- 
ganized very much as they are to-day, and minis- 
ters and churches were members and reported to 
the annual session, and were subject to the rules 
and regulations which might from time to time be 

Fourth : The General Convention. At the first 
the General Convention was a voluntary assemblage, 
called general, because all denominations were in- 
vited to attend and participate; but later on it 
was composed of ministers, and delegates, appointed 
by the local conferences. Though its origin was 
quite informal, it soon came to be a body with 
power, and while it disclaimed any jurisdiction 
over the local church, it did at a very early date 
exercise authority over the local conferences com- 
posing it. 

It has been known as the Convention ; the United 
States Christian Conference; the General United 
States Christian Conference ; the General Chris- 
tian Convention ; the Christian Conference of the 
United States ; The General Quadrennial Christian 
Convention, and the American Christian Conven- 
tion. The United States General Christian Con- 
ference was its popular name for several years 
during the twenties. 

The first session was held in 1808, at Portsmouth, 
N. H. The next session was held in 1815, at Wind- 
ham, Connecticut, and the Rev. .John Kan 1 
was chosen Moderator, and Robert Foster, 
"Standing Clerk." In the year 1819, a session was 
held at Portsmouth, N. H. The minutes of this 
meeting are signed by Robert Foster as "Secretary, 


General Christian Conference." There were annual 
sessions held from this time on, excepting the years 
1828 and 1830, until 1832, when the Convention met 
at Milan, New York, and voted to dissolve the 
"United States General Christian Conference for- 
ever." In 1833 an informal convention was held 
in the city of New York, which arranged to hold 
a General Convention at Union Mills, New York, 
in 1834, which it did. From that time on, the meet- 
ings have been held quadrennially, and at the fol 
lowing places: In 1838, New York City. 1842. 
Stafford, New York. 1846, Union Mills, New York. 
1850, Marion, New York. 1854, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
1858, Clinton Hall, New York City. 1862, Medway, 
New York. 1866, Marshall, Michigan. 1870, Osha- 
wa, Canada. 1874, Stanfordville, New York. 1878, 
Franklin, Ohio. 1882, Albany, New York. 1886, 
New Bedford, Mass. 1890, Marion, Indiana. 1894, 
Haverhill, Mass. 1898, Newmarket, Canada. 1902, 
Norfolk, Va. 1906, Huntington, Indiana. 

A special session was held at Troy, Ohio, in 1872, 
the purpose of the session seeming to be an effort 
to define and establish the proper relationship be- 
tween the American Christian Convention and the 
Christian Publishing Association. 

The history of the Convention cannot be traced 
independent of the history of the Christian General 
Book Association, which is now the Christian Pub- 
lishing Association, and indeed it should not be, 
even though it were possible so to do. The busi- 
ness of the Christian General Book Association, 
having been committed to the management of a 
committee, it is not difficult to discover its growth 


and usefulness as from time to time they are set 
forth in the printed proceedings. 

As at present constituted (190S) the American 
Christian Convention exists to maintain and pro- 
mote the Charitable, Religious, Missionary, Educa- 
tional and Publishing enterprises of the Religious 
body known as Christian, and includes the follow- 
ing departments : Missions, Education, Publish- 
ing, Sunday-school, Christian Endeavor, and Fi- 
nance, with the societies and organizations auxilia- 
ry to the Convention or its departments. Each de- 
partment has a secretary, except the Department of 
Missions, which has two, a Secretary of Home Mis- 
sions and a Secretary of Foreign Missions. 

The membership is determined as follows: — 

First. Presidents or Principals of Institutions of learn- 
ing endorsed by the Convention, or recognized as co-operat- 
ing with it. 

Second. Presidents of Conferences, State Associations, 
and District Conventions, auxiliary to the Convention or 
co-operating with it. The Officers and Trustees of the 
Christian Publishing Association, the Editor of the Herald 
of Gospel Liberty, the President of the Woman's Board of 
1 hum' Missions, and the President of the Woman's Board of 
Foreign Missions. 

Third. Each local conference, except those of the South- 
ern Christian Convention, which is itself so entitled, may be 
represented by one minister and one layman for each seven 
hundred members, or major fraction: Provided, that no 
conference shall be deprived of representation by one min- 
ister and one layman in addition to the president. 

Fourth. The officers of this Convention, and the members 
of the Mission, Educational, and Sunday-school Boards here- 
inafter provided for, shall be members of the Convention 
until the close of the Quadrennial Session following their 

The following brethren have served the Conven- 
tion as presidents in I he order named, the year men- 
tioned being the year of their election to office: 


John Rand, 1815. Beniainin Taylor, 1819. Mark Fer- 
nald, 1822. Daniel Hix, 1823. Henry Sullings," 1827. Da- 
vid Millard. 1829. Simon Clough, 1831. Abner Jones, 1832. 
Frederick Plummer, 1834. I. N. Walter, 183S. Jasper 
Hazen, 1842. Elijah Shaw, 1846. D. P. Pike, 1850. R. B. 
Stebbins, 1S54. I. H. Coe, 1858. Amasa Stanton, 1862. D. 
P. Pike, 1866. I. H. Coe, 1870. A. W. Coan, 1878. J. W. 
Osborn, 18S2. D. A. Long, 1886. A. H. Morrill, 1894. O. 
W. Powers, 1S9S. W. D. Samuel, 1906. 

The following named persons have served . the 
Convention as secretary in the order named, the 
year mentioned being the year of their election : 

Robert Foster, 1815. David Millard, 1S27. Robert Fos- 
ter, 1831. Joseph Badger, 1S32. Simon Clough, 1S34. Jas- 
per Hazen, 1S38. John Ross, 1S42. J. R. Freese, 1850. N. 
Summerbell, 1S54. D. W. Moore. 1S62. N. Summerbell, 
1866. J. J. Summerbell, 1S70. J. F. Burnett, 1S94. 

In 190S the following named persons constituted 

the board of officers : 

President — Rev. W. D. Samuel, D. D., Piqua, Ohio. 
Vice-President— Rev. L. W. Phillips, Franklin, N. H. 
Secretary— Rev. J. F. Burnett, D. D., Dayton, O. 


Finance — Rev. John Blood, Lewisburg, Pa. 

Education— Rev. M. W. Baker, Ph. D., Lakemont, N. Y. 

Home Missions — Rev. O. W. Powers, D. D.. Dayton, Ohio. 

Foreign Missions — Rev. M. T. Morrill, A. M., Dayton, O. 

Sunday-schools — Rev. Thomas S. Weeks, Troy, Ohio. 

Christian Endeavor — Rev. A. C. Youmans, Albany, N. Y. 

Publishing — Hon. O. W. Whitelock, Huntington, Indiana. 

Mission Board.— Rev. J. G. Bishop, D. D. ; Rev. O. W. 
Powers, D. D. ; Rev. M. T. Morrill, A. M. ; Rev. Clarence 
Defur, A. M. ; Rev. W. P. Fletcher, B. A.; Rev. M. D. 
Wolfe; Mrs. Athella M. Howsare ; Rev. P. S. Sailer; Rev. 
W. H. Denison, D. D. 

Board of Education. — Rev. D. B. Atkinson, M. A., B. D. ; 
Rev. F. G. Coffin, A. M. ; Rev. W. G. Sargent, B. A.; Rev. 
P. H. Fleming, D. D. 

Sunday-school Board. — Rev. T. S. Weeks ; Rev. S. Q. 
Helfenstein, D. D. ; Rev. Edwin Morrell, D. D. 

PjOard of Advisors for Aged Ministers' Home. — Rev. J. 
W. Wilson ; Rev. T. M. McWhinney, D. D., LL. D. ; Rev. F. 
E. Gaige ; John B. Pease ; Robert Call. 


Board of Control of Franklinton College. — Rev. John 
Blood; Rev. W. H. Hainer; Rev. F. H. Peters; Rev. J. L. 
Foster ; Rev. P. S. Sailer. 


For Home Missions. — President — Rev. Emily K. Bishop, 
Dayton, Ohio ; Vice-President — Mrs. Clellie Loback, Darling- 
ton, Indiana ; Recording Secretary — Mrs. Athella Howsare, 
Versailles, Ohio ; Corresponding Secretary — Mrs. Alice M. 
Burnett, Dayton, Ohio ; Treasurer — Mrs. Abbie B. Denison, 
Huntington, Indiana. 

For Foreign Missions. — President — Rev. Ellen G. Gustin, 
Attleboro, Massachusetts ; Vice-President — Rev. Emily K. 
Bishop, Dayton, Ohio ; Recording Secretary — Mrs. Rebecca 
Coxen, New Bedford, Massachusetts ; Secretary Missionary 
Cradle Roll — Mrs. Emma S. Powers, Dayton, Ohio; Litera- 
ture and Mite Box Secretary— Rev. Emily K. Bishop, Day- 
tun, Ohio ; Corresponding Secretary — Miss Annie Libby, 
Saco, Maine; Treasurer — Mrs. Mary J. Batchelor, New 
Bedford. Mass. 

The Convention has given birth to our greatest 
enterprises, and has carefully fostered them in their 
youth, and encouraged them in their more mature 
years. In 1831 the Convention proceeded to organ 
ize a book association. The dissolution of the 
"United States General Christian Conference," in 
1832, created some confusion as to membership, and 
in 1834 another book association was organized by 
the Convention, which apparently drifted awaj 7 from 
the parent body, into a business organization, and 
did not return until the year 1886, when the consti- 
tutions of both bodies were so changed as to make 
the members of the Convention members of the 
Christian Publishing Association, though plans for 
such membership had been discussed at previous 
sessions of the Convention. 

In 1850 the Convention brought forth that great 
institution of learning, Antioch College, of Ohio. 
which opened its doors with equal privilege to both 


Norfolk, Va. 

Built as a memorial of tbe re-union of the Southern and North 
era branches of the Christian Church after a division of thirty 
six years over the issues of the Civil War, both sides contributing 
to its erection. 


sexes, and was presided over by Hon. Horace Mann, 
whose reputation as an educator was at least in- 
ternational, if not world-wide. 

In 1854 occurred the division of the church, 
North and South, over the question of slavery, and 
it was not until 1S94 that the division was removed, 
and the two sections made one again, although the 
plans for the reunion had been discussed and 
adopted at the Convention in Marion, Indiana, in 
1890. The Convention of 1806 discussed the plans 
of a Biblical School, and appointed a committee on 
location, and a board of trustees, and at the session 
of 1874 the buildings were formally dedicated. 

It was at the Convention of 1S78 that Doctor 
J. P. Watson was chosen secretary for the depart- 
ment of missions, who developed splendid arrange- 
ments for Home Mission work; but it was not until 
the session of the Convention at Albany, New York, 
in 1882, that an organization was effected that could 
be called regularly organized mission work. 

In 1878 the school at Franklinton, N. C, was es- 
tablished and opened in the interest of the man in 
black, and has been carefully fostered by the Con- 
vention from then until now. 

At the Convention of 1886, at New Bedford, Mas- 
sachusetts, the Convention authorized the sending 
of missionaries to Japan, the motion so to do being 
made by the Rev. J. J. Summerbell, D. D. During 
the sessions of 1804 and 1898 the question of de- 
nominational union occupied the time and thought 
of the Convention almost exclusively, but notwith- 
standing, the session of 1894 added much to its 


efficiency by making the Christian Endeavor a de- 
partment of the Convention itself. 

The Convention of 1906 was historic in that it 
elected two mission secretaries, one to have charge 
of the home, and the other the foreign work. The 
Convention has grown in strength and influence, un- 
til it now requires the entire time of the secretary, 
besides the work of the two mission secretaries, and 
the mission treasurer, each of whom gives his entire 
time to the duties of his office. 

I close this article in the words of the pres- 
ent editor of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, the 
Rev. J. Pressley Barrett, D. D. : 

Let us try for a moment to wipe out all the good that 
has resulted from the organization and work of the Amer- 
ican Christian Convention. Think of it, think well and care- 
fully. What would we lose? Nearly every city church 
that we now have, with a host of our country and village 
churches (for they were all practically planned for in these 
conventions), and conferences, must go. Not only were they 
planned for, but in many instances they were materially 
helped financially to a point in their history where they 
were not only able to stand alone, but were able to take 
part with them who had helped in the great work of help- 
ing others. If we had held no conventions of any kind, we 
should not have Union Christian College, nor Defiance, 
nor Elon, nor Palmer, nor Starkey, nor Christian Biblical 
Institute, nor Lincoln, nor Weaubleau. nor Franklinton ; 
and what would the Christian Church be to-day as an organ- 
ized body, if we were deprived of all the good influences 
which these institutions of learning have exerted in our 
behalf? Then if we had held no conventions, we should 
have no missionary work in progress, and that means that 
all the churches planted by the missionary labor of our 
people would have no place among us, and we should have 
no churches in foreign fields. Again, if we had held no 
great conventions and conferences we should not have to- 
day our Publishing House with its practical equipment for 
giving a Christian literature to our people, and that would 
mean that we had no books and papers, and no Sunday- 
school literature, and all this together would not lack much 
of meaning that our cause was dead and buried beyond the 


prospect of resurrection to earthly usefulness. Again, had 
we held no conventions and conferences as a people, we 
should have had no concert of action for moral reform, for 
civic righteousness and, indeed, no influence as a people 
for the larger fruitfulness of the Christian life. 

The truth is, about all we are, and all that we shall be, 
in this life, as a people, is due under God to the influence in 
one way or another of the great conventions and confer- 
ences which we have held in the past, and if we are to con- 
tinue to be a power for large usefulness in the kingdom of 
God, we must continue to hold these conventions and pub- 
lic gatherings of our people, or we shall decline and go 
backward to nothing in the way of real fruitage in the 
Lord's vineyard. 

Dayton, Ohio. 




President of Ontario Christian Conference 

A hundred years is long enough for a church to 
gain a varied, interesting and instructive history. 
We who enjoy to-day the fruits of the early plant- 
ing of our great-grandfathers, and the watering 
and nourishing of our more immediate fathers, should 
be very much helped by the knowledge of the course 
they have taken. It ought to help us to avoid their 
errors, and to cultivate their virtues, and to follow 
courses which have been for the furthering of our 
cause and the kingdom. It is well that the work 
in Canada is to have a place in our Centennial 
record, not only as a help to the Canadian brethren. 
but as an inspiration to our whole church. For to 
write a sketch of our Canadian work is to prove 
that very early our movement was splendidly mis- 
sionary, and that the heroism which cannot enjoy 
itself while others hunger was then a force. 

Mrs. Mary Stogdill, who had been converted un- 
der the ministry of Elder David Millard, in Green- 
ville, N. Y., came to Canada somewhere about 1820 
and settled at Newmarket. Having had a taste 
of the freedom of the Christian Church, she longed 
for its enjoyment in her new home. She accord- 
ingly wrote for a worker to visit them. Her letter 
is of real interest: 

Mary Stogdill to T. Brown. 

Dear Brother : — Having the opportunity I again take 
my pen. fearing my second letter never reached yon, as 






I have heard nothing from you since your first letter ; 
and that is a long time. Elder Doubleday has never seen 
me. Bro. Mclntyre has never visited us, although most 
anxiously have I looked for them. Think how great the 
disappointment, yet I still hope. Oh, persuade them to 
eome ! Tell them Paul sought other countries that he 
might not build on another's foundation. Bid them God- 
speed to this part of the vineyard, for the fields are white 
and ready to harvest. Have you seen Elder Millard this 
winter? Perhaps he would come, if he knew where to 
find us. I long for brethren, being such a tender lamb 
when I was transplanted from the flock at Greenville. 
Come in, ye heralds of the cross, and Jesus come with 

This was in the summer of 1821, and in a very 
short time the request was answered. Toward 
the close of August a young brother from 
New York, named Allen Huntley, arrived at 
her home. At that time Darius Mann was 
at Mrs. Stogdill's house and invited Bro. Huntley 
to go to Lake Simcoe and here, as early as October 
21st of the same year, Bro. Huntley was ordained, 
and our first church, now known as Keswick, was 
instituted with forty-three members by Elders J. 
T. Bailey and Simeon Bishop. Bro. Huntley stayed 
in Canada a little more than a year, but he began 
a work that has gone on ever since. 

Shortly after Bro. Huntley's return to New York 
two other young men, Bro. Nathan Harding and 
Elder Asa C. Morrison (the latter ordained for 
this special mission) were sent by the New York 
Conference to further the Canadian work. They 
probably did not stay long, but for some years the 
work seemed very dear to the brethren of New 
York State, and they continued to send men such 
as Bailey, Blackmar, Mclntyre, Goff, and others who 
did very much for the new movement. They were soon 






joined by workers Canadian reared, and the work 
quite rapidly developed during the first ten years 
in the face of fearful odds. There were no railroads 
and most of the traveling was done through dense 
forests. Yet prior to 1830, the following churches 
(and probably others) were organized: Keswick, 
East Gwillimbury (Union Street), Newmarket. 
West Gwillimbury, Brougham, Darlington, Whitby 
(Oshawa), Haldimand (Eddystone), Clark (Orono), 
and Hope. That would appear to be a good nine 
years' work on virgin soil. 

During these first few years also a conference 
was formed. The isolated churches probably felt 
the need of being united, for they had the most bit- 
ter opposition to meet, particularly by the Method- 
ists at that time. The opposition was political as 
well as religious. They were suspected because they 
were not preaching the doctrine of the Trinity, and 
also because of being of United States origin, for 
the echoes of the war of 1812 had hardly died away. 
The first conference assembled in the Darlington 
church in September. 1825, There being present from 
the United States. J. T. Bailey, who presided, J. 
Blackmar. Isaac Goff, and from Canada, T. Henry, 
J. W. Sherrard, J. VanCamp, Sisson Bradley, Wm. 
Xoble, and other representatives from the new 
churches. In all these years since, apparently, the 
conference has not failed to gather in annual ses- 
sion, for it moets this year in its eighty-third ses- 

The next twenty years were still quite active in 
church organization, the churches in Whitechurch. 
Mariposa. Markham, King, Burford, and Drayton 


belonging to this period. But the work was largely 
done by Canadian ministers. During this period also 
a struggle was going on for legal recognition. Our 
ministers were not allowed to perform the marriage 
ceremony, and had no legal status. It was indeed 
a struggle, for, as already indicated, they were sus- 
pected because hitherto the most of their ministers 
had come from the United States. And then it was 
during this period that the Canadian rebellion for 
responsible government took place, and our people 
were suspected of being rebel sympathizers, as they 
no doubt largely were. However, these obstacles 
were at last removed, and in 1845 the Christians 
became a legally recognized denomination. 

It was also during this period that the Ontario 
Conference first embarked on the troublous seas of 
religious journalism. It was felt that our work 
could be more firmly established, and our workers 
united more effectively for a common cause, if 
they could be kept in touch with each other by a 
church paper. Accordingly in January, 1845, The 
Christian Luminary made its appearance in Oshawa. 
Elder Win. Noble was the first editor, but it was 
apparently Elder T. Henry that stood behind the 
enterprise. The constituency, however, was too 
small and it never paid its way. The burden at 
last became too heavy and its list was handed over, 
in 1849, to The Christian Palladium. 

During the forty years from 1850 to 1890 the 
work seems to have somewhat languished, but sev- 
eral churches were organized during these years, 
among them Franklin, Scott, Church Hill, and 
Minto. Two further efforts were made to establish 


a church paper. The first was by Rev. J. R. Hoag 
who started in 1853, again with Oshawa as the 
place of publication, The Christian Offering. This 
venture was probably a little more successful than 
the former, but in 1859 it, too, handed its list over 
to The Palladium. Elder T. Garbutt was the next 
to try it, but the financial burden was too great 
for one to carry and soon it, too, ceased publication. 
What may be considered as the great act of at- 
tainment of this period was the incorporation of 
our Conference as The Conference of the Christian 
Church in Ontario. This occurred in 1877, and im- 
mediately solidified our work, as the conference 
could now hold property, and so the churches were 
brought from being semi-detached units to form in- 
tegral parts of a body. During these years no con- 
ference was ever blessed with a more devoted, self- 
sacrificing band of ministers than labored in the 
Ontario Conference. But there seemed nothing 
around which to rally, and growth was hardly evi- 
dent. Then, too, if in our early history the United 
States was largely our source of supply for preach- 
ers, now the tide had turned and practically all 
our young men were going over the line and im- 
poverishing our work by staying there. This was 
probably but natural as there were no schools, nor 
colleges, controlled by our people in Canada, and 
so they went to our schools in the United States, 
received their education there, and were almost im- 
mediately invited to some attractive pulpit to which 
their college association had introduced them. Our 
conference came to be composed largely of noble, 
old men. 


Now we come to our closing period, from 1890 to 
the present. We might speak of this as the period of 
reconstruction. Three movements distinct, and yet 
but one, needs to be mentioned here. Once again a 
conference paper is attempted. In January, 1890, the 
Christian Magazine (now The Christian Vanguard) 
made its appearance. This time, however, it is a 
conference enterprise and the conference makes up 
its deficits, large or small. So, without a break 
for over seventeen years, it has been entering our 
homes, carrying its message of cheer and brother- 
hood, and bidding us ever Onward. Then, again, 
the exodus of our young ministers has practically 
ceased. Our young men were first encouraged to enter 
Queen's University, Kingston, and the home of Bro. 
J. N. Dales became the fount of educational and 
denominational enthusiasm. In October, 1906, Bro. 
Dales became our professor in the faculty of Mc- 
Master University, and there our student colony 
from the United States and Canada, now in its 
second year's existence, numbers a dozen, and there 
is much hope for our pulpit of to-morrow. Then 
also a forward march was begun to occupy new and 
strategic territory. In December, 1899, a church 
was organized in the city of Toronto, the capital 
city of our province and the second city of our 
dominion, which promises to be one of our strong 
churches in the near future. In 1804 a church 
was organized in the, to us, important village of 
Stouffville, and then in 1907, work was begun in 
Western Canada. 

These movements are all of them full of hope 
for the future. Our problems are not yet all solved, 


neither are our dangers all passed. We have not yet 
recovered from our impoverishment of young men, 
and our grand old men are laying aside the armour. 
But, if we can, and we believe we can, tide over this 
pressing period of two or three years, victory shall 
be ours in the Master's name. 

As I close this sketch let me speak of two char- 
acteristics of our church in Canada, past and 
present. We are an evangelistic people. We pub- 
lish the Evangel of Jesus, and seek in revival ef- 
fort, and otherwise, to get people to accept it. And 
we are a loyal people; to our British King, of 
course, but also to the people and denomination called 
only Christian. In all these years surprisingly 
few of our ministerial brethren, and comparatively 
few of our lay members who have remained in Cana- 
da, have left us for other denominations. With all 
our hearts we believe in the principles of liberty and 
brotherhood that characterize the Christian Church, 
and unitedly we pray that long ere another Cen- 
tennial is celebrated, the Master's prayer may be 
answered that 

"They all may be. one." 

Drat/ton, Ontario. 





The New England Christian Convention is com- 
posed of members of the Christian churches. The 
object of the Convention is to promote a general in- 
terest and aid in the general prosperity of the whole 
body. The Convention was organized in Lynn, 
Mass., November 5, 1845. Its officers consist of a 
president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer; 
also a Sunday-school secretary, C. E. secretary, and 
Junior C. E. secretary. 

The Convention therefore takes an interest in 
all the departments of Christian work in the 
churches. The officers are chosen annually. At the 
first its membership was composed of delegates 
elected from the churches. 

As at present organized the Convention is com- 
posed of delegates, lay and clerical, from the several 

The Convention meets annually in the month of 
June. The Convention has no authority over the 
churches. It gives advice and, the churches having 
the good of all at heart, the advice is usually fol- 
lowed. There is perfect harmony between the Con- 
vention and the churches. Some years ago the Con- 
vention authorized "A statement of general senti- 
ments held by the Christians." While it was not a 
creed, yet it was generally accepted by the churches 
of New England. When it was before the Convention, 
in the discussion that followed, there was one brother 







who objected, unless they put upon it what is some- 
times found upon a railroad ticket, "Good for this 
day only," "for" said he, "I do not know what I shall 
believe to-morrow." 

The "statement" disowned all formal creeds, and 
considered the Bible a sufficient rule of faith and 
practice, and Christian Character the only test of 
fellowship and church-membership. That the high- 
est expression of God's love was in the gift of His 
Son, who laying aside the glory which he had with 
the Father before the world was, took upon Him 
man's nature, and suffered upon the cross that we 
might through Him have everlasting life. That the 
grace of God was freely offered to all, and the church 
is composed of all true believers in Christ, whose 
duty it is to associate themselves together for spirit- 
ual growth, and Christian fellowship, for the ob- 
servance of the ordinances, for the teaching of gos- 
pel truth, and for a zealous effort for the conversion 
of men. 

The following note was attached to the statement : 

The churches of the Christian denomination almost 
universally- administer baptism by immersion, but regularly 
invite all Christians to the Lord's table. 

In 1809 the Convention authorized the publication 
of a weekly denominational paper in the interest of 
the New England churches. For several years the 
paper was published, but for lack of support was 
discontinued January, 1907. 

Many of the workers in the Convention in years 
gone by have entered into rest. T recall Revs. D. P. 
Pike. H. M. Eaton, B. S. Batchelor, John Tilton, E. 
Edmunds, and many others that might be mentioned. 


The Convention has been, and is a help to the 
churches. It brings together annually the strong men 
and women of our churches and they work together 
for the best interests of the general cause. The Con- 
vention is a help and inspiration for greater work 
for the Master. The Convention has helped some of 
our weak churches, and to-day they live and are 
strong because of that help. 

For various causes many of our churches in New 
England have lost their visibility. But few churches 
in the past twenty-five years have been organized. 
Churches of other denominations, and ministers of 
the gospel, have nearly taken the position of our 
own churches. The Congregational Church of New 
England is as free and liberal as the churches of 
the Christian faith. Yet we live, and have some 
strong churches, and as able ministers as can be 
found in any of the denominations about us. The 
New England Convention and Conferences are to- 
day a power in connection with the churches of our 
faith. Our work is not yet completed, and will 
not be until the prayer of Christ is fully answered, 

That they all may be one, as Thou Father art in me. 
and I in Thee, that they also may be one in us : that the 
world may believe that Thou hast sent me. — John 11:21. 

We have every reason therefore to thank God, 
and take courage. 

York Corner, Me. 

REV. W. W. ST ALE Y, D. D. 



BY REV. W. W. STALEY, I). It. 


About the fourth decade of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury, the ''Southern Christian Association" was 
formed and, soon after, "Correspondence" with the 
northern and western ''Christians," bodies which 
had come into existence soon after the formation of 
the Southern Church in 1794, brought all three of 
these bodies into intimate relations. This "Union 
Correspondence" continued till the "General Con- 
vention" held in Cincinnati in 1854, when the south- 
ern delegate withdrew for reasons which appear in 
the preamble and declarations when the "General 
Convention of the Christian Church, South," was 
formed at Union Chapel, Alamance County, North 
Carolina, in September, 1856. This meeting lasted 
five days, with three sessions each day. The whole 
subject was thoroughly canvassed and, finally, the 
"Convention" expressed sincere sorrow that cir- 
cumstances made it necessary to organize; that they 
had been denounced by northern brethren as sin- 
ners; that the bitterest language had been employed 
by them in their conferences and conventions; and 
that the Southern delegate. W. B. Wellons, D. 1).. 
in his effort to present a minority report at the 
Cincinnati Convention, had been treated with con- 
tempt. The record of that meeting also shows that 
slavery Avas the question on which the church divided 
into "North" and "South." 

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At this first meeting the "Five Cardinal Princi 
pies" were adopted, the organization and functions 
of local churches defined, the annual conference out- 
lined, and the basis was laid for the fuller organiza- 
tion in 1866. The Five Cardinal Principles adopted 
at this meeting in 1866, were as follows: 

1. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only Head of the Church. 

2. The name Christian to the exclusion of all party or 
sectarian names. 

3. The Holy Bible, or the Scriptures of the Old and 
New Testaments, our only Creed or Confession of Faith. 

4. Christian character, or vital piety, the only test of 
fellowship and church-membership. 

5. The right of private judgment and the liberty of 
conscience the privilege and duty of all. 

The adoption of these principles did much to es- 
tablish the evangelical position of the Christian 
Church in the South. 

The first regular Convention was held in Cypress 
Chapel, Nansemond County, Virginia, in May, 1858. 

At this session arrangements were made to trans- 
fer the Christian Sun, which was first published at 
Hillsboro, North Carolina, in 1844, from the South- 
ern Christian Association to the General Con- 
vention. The paper had fifteen hundred sub- 
scribers, the price was one dollar and a half, and 
Rev. W. B. Wellons was editor. 

Graham Institute, which ultimately became Elon 
College in 1890, was placed under the care of a 
Board chosen by the Convention, and plans were 
matured to increase the capital stock to four thou- 
sand dollars. 

A Missionary Society of fifty members at one 
dollar a year, and thirty-five life members at ten 
dollars, was organized; and plans for a book con- 

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cern, on a small scale, were partially matured. 
The Convention failed to meet in 1862 on account 
of the Civil War. 

The second regular session met in Mount Auburn 
church, Warren County, North Carolina, in May, 
1S66, with only fourteen delegates present, and re- 
mained in session four days. Plans were initiated 
for the resuscitation and publication of the Chris- 
tian Sun, which had been totally destroyed by the 
Federal troops in Suffolk, Virginia, during the Civil 

"The Principles and Government of the Christian 
Church" was adopted and referred to a committee 
on revision, composed of Rev. W. B. Wellons, presi- 
dent, Revs. John N. Manning and Solomon Apple, 
and Deacons Thomas J. Kilby and Alfred Moring, 
to prepare the manuscript for publication. 

An extra session convened with this same church 
in May, 1867, when twenty-four members were pres- 
ent. The work of the revision committee was unani- 
mously adopted and Dr. Wellons was authorized to 
have the book published, which was done in Peters- 
burg, Va., that same year. 

The committee on publications had allowed Rev. 
W. B. Wellons the use of the name "Christian Sun" 
and he had published the paper on his own respon- 
sibility since February, 1867. 

The third regular session was held in Suffolk, 
Virginia, in May, 1870 : Revs. I. H. Coe and B. S. 
.Batchelor, of New Bedford, Massachusetts, were 
present as fraternal messengers from the New Eng- 
land Convention. This was the first step toward 
the restoration of fraternal relations between the 


church north and south after the Cincinnati episode 
of 1854, and the additional estrangements of the 
Civil War. 

The lack of efficient ministers and ministerial 
support was deeply lamented in an elaborate report. 
Educational interests were considered, and con- 
ference schools were recommended. A financial re- 
port first appears at this session, disclosing a balance 
of $219.90. 

Christian union was a prominent topic for dis- 
cussion, and ended in preamble and resolutions ap- 
pealing to all true Christians to unite in promoting 
the "unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace" as 
the only safeguard of Protestantism. Church Fed- 
eration is only the wider application given to the 
position of the Southern Christian Convention in 

The fourth regular session was held in New Provi- 
dence church, Graham, N. C, in 1874. Christian 
Union was the burden of that session, President W. 
B. Wellons being on fire on that subject. A mani- 
festo was addressed to lovers of union everywhere, 
but there were no practical results, and the mani- 
festo expired among its ardent friends. 

The fifth regular session was held in Lebanon 
church, Caswell County, North Carolina, in May, 

Rev. W. B. Wellons, I). P., who had been the 
president of the Convention since its organization 
in 1856, died February 10, 1877, and Rev. Jesse 
T. Whitley, the successor of Dr. Wellons as pastor 
of the Suffolk church and editor of the Christian 
Sun, was elected president. 


It was decided to issue a second edition of the 
Hymn-Book, and Rev. James W. Wellons was chosen 
as evangelist ; and it was decided to meet in extra- 
ordinary session, in Suffolk, Va., in 1879, for the 
purpose of revising the Principles and Government 
of the Church. 

The extra session was duly held in Suffolk, Va., 
in 1879; and Eev. W. S. Long was chosen president. 

After a long and careful review of the whole sub- 
ject of revision, no change was made and the Con- 
vention adjourned. 

The sixth regular session convened in Morris 
ville, N. C, in May, 1882, and Rev. W. S. Long 
was again chosen president. 

Favorable report was made by Committee on 
Home Missions, upon work of evangelist Rev. James 
W. Wellons; plans were adopted to found a denom- 
inational college; Rev. D. A. Long was elected gen- 
eral agent to secure subscriptions to stock, and the 
Executive Committee was authorized to call a meet- 
ing of the stockholders and organize when the 
agent had secured Ten Thousand Dollars in sub- 
scriptions. Rev. D. A. Long was elected to the 
presidency of Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio, in 1883, and the college proposition languish- 
ed till revived in 1888. 

This session of the Convention appointed Revs. 
1). A. Long, M. B. Barrett, J. W. Wellons, and J. D. 
Kernodle, Esq., fraternal messengers to the Amer 
ican Christian Convention which met in Albany. 
N. Y. This was the first time messengers were so 
sent after the war. 

The seventh regular session was held in Mount 


Father and Son, both of Alabama. 
Christian Pioneers in the further South. 

of Georgia 
A theologian of much ability. 


For many years Treasurer of 
the Southern Christian Convention. 


Auburn church, Warren County, N. C, in May, 
18S6, and Rev. W. W. Staley was chosen president. 

The Virginia Valley Conference was reported 
in a state of disorganization, and provision was made 
to reorganize the Conference through the president 
of the Convention. 

Rev. J. P. Barrett was appointed Children's Ed- 
ucational Secretary, with prescribed duties; and 
the money raised through this secretary was to be 
loaned to worth} 7 young men preparing for the 
gospel ministry. This department finally became 
the stream from which the Christian Orphanage was 

In response to a memorial from the North Caro- 
lina and Virginia Conference on Foreign Missions, 
a Board of Control was created, with Rev. P. T. 
Klapp as chairman, under rules prescribed by the 
Convention. This was the first Convention action 
on this great subject and marks an era of wider 

A Theological Department was established in con- 
nection with Suffolk Collegiate Institute, Suffolk. 
Va., Prof. P. J. Kernodle, principal, and Rev. W. 
W. Staley chosen as teacher. 

Rev. C. J. Jones, editor of the Herald of Gospel 
Liberty, Dayton, Ohio, attended this Convention, and 
brought such a spirit as to reduce sectional preju- 

Revs. W. S. Long and W. G. Clements presented 
a memorial from the North Carolina and Virginia 
Conference, requesting that the Convention and the 
Conferences composing it be represented in the 
usual way in the next session of the American Chris- 

North Carolina Preachers laboring chiefly In the last half of 
the Nineteenth Century 


They labored together in the cause of Christ, doing a great 
work in their day. 


A man of deep piety and a He was true under trial and did 
power for righteousness in his day. a good work for the cause. 


tian Convention; and it was finally decided to send 
the following fraternal messengers to the New Bed- 
ford Convention in October, 1886: Revs. W. S. Long, 
W. G. Clements, J. W. YVellons, J. P. Barrett, M. B. 
Barrett, W. W. Staley and layman F. O. Moring. 
This was a second step toward reunion. At the 
New Bedford Convention, Rev. D. A. Long, President 
of Antioch College, was chosen President of the Con- 
vention. As he was born, reared and educated in 
North Carolina, this added another step to the union 

An extra session was held in New Providence 
church, Graham, N. C, in September, 1S88, to con- 
sider the wisdom of immediate effort to establish 
a denominational college. After mature deliberation 
a board of fifteen trustees was elected, and the fol- 
lowing provisional board was chosen with power 
to select location: Revs. W. S. Long. J. P. Barrett, 
and F. 0. Moring, J. H. Harden, and Dr. G. S. Wat- 
son. Rev. J. P. Barrett was chosen agent, but 
afterward resigned, and Rev. W. S. Long was 
elected in his place by the Provisional Board. The 
agent, Rev. W. S. Long, solicited donations and 
subscriptions and the present site of Elon College 
was finally selected by the Board. 

It was also decided 1<. unite with the American 
Christian Convention in the preparation and pub 
lication of a new hymnal. This proposition was 
presented to the Convention by Rev. J. J. Summer- 
bell, secretary of the A. C. Convention. 

The Convention also approved the election by the 
A. C. C. of Rev. C. J. Jones as General Evangelist, 
and voted him an open door and hearty welcome 


to the churches of the South. Dr. Jones was 
present and acknowledged this courtesy in the 
sweetest words. 

The eighth regular session was held in Suffolk, 
Virginia, in May, 1890. In addition to improve- 
ment in foreign mission effort, Elon College was 
opened September 2, 1890, and delegates were 
elected to the American Christian Convention 
which met in Marion, Indiana, of the same 
year. At the Marion Convention the Southern 
Christian Convention and the American Christian 
Convention united and there was great rejoicing. 
This was the first reunion of any Protestant de- 
nomination after the war. 

The ninth regular session was held in the chapel 
of Elon College, in May, 1892, the quadrennial 
session having been changed at the extra session 
of 1888 to biennial sessions. From this date the 
Convention has met every two years. 

The Christian Missionary Association was 
launched at this session, the first consideration of 
the Christian Orphanage was introduced, the col- 
lege interest took important place, and routine work 
filled up those busy days. 

The tenth regular session was held in the Memo 
rial Christian Temple, Norfolk, Va., in May, 1894. 

By invitation the Executive Board of the A. C. 
C. met in Norfolk at the same time and were 
presented to the Convention and invited to take 
part in the deliberations. Besides the Board, many 
other officials and prominent persons from the 
North were present. On Sunday the Memorial Tem- 
ple was dedicated and Kev. Thos. M. McWhinney, 


D. D., preached the dedicatory sermon. This church 
was erected as a monument to the Marion reunion, 
both sections contributing to the building fund. 
The visit of the Board and so many prominent men 
was a supreme moment in the history of the Con- 
vention. The lamented C. J. Jones, D. D., was the 
pastor of the church and had been from its organi- 
zation in 1889. 

Report showed increasing interest among the 
conferences in missions, and that Elon College had 
surpassed the most sanguine hope of its ardent 

A committee of five was appointed to consider 
and report plans concerning an orphanage. 

The eleventh regular session was held in Bur- 
lington, N. C, in May, 1896. 

Report on education showed that Elon College 
had inspired and quickened almost all local church- 
es. The orphanage was further considered. The 
Christian Endeavor Movement was endorsed and 
commended. The whole session was characterized 
by enthusiastic interest and a hopeful outlook. 

The twelfth regular session met in Raleigh, 
N. C, in May, 1898. The most important 
new action of this session was a plan to raise money 
annually from the conferences, through the local 
churches, for Elon College, which is equivalent to 
an endowment of thirty-six thousand dollars at five 
per cent. This has not been realized in full, but 
nearly so, and proves to have been a wise plan. 

The growth of the orphanage idea was evident, 
and all other enterprises seemed to be sustained 
with increase of interest. 

















The thirteenth regular session was held in Frank- 
lin, Va., in May, 1900, and Rev. P. H. Fleming was 
chosen president. 

The matter of maturing a plan to raise a Twen- 
tieth Century offering for Elon College was the most 
important subject before this session. It finally 
resulted in the sum of 112,0011.1(11, to which Hon. 
F. A. Palmer added |20 3 000.00, which he counted 
as payment on his $30,000.00 bequest to the college. 

All other enterprises received due attention in 
relative proportion. 

The fourteenth regular session was held in Ashe- 
boro, N. C, in May, 1902. It was a good session; 
the enterprises of the Convention were duly fos- 
tered ; the orphanage idea was growing in favor ; 
Elon College had made improvements in buildings 
and work; and a forward movement in systematic 
work was manifest along all lines. 

The fifteenth regular session was held with the 
Berea church, Driver, Va., in April, 1904, and Rev. 
W. W. Stale}' was elected president. 

The Christian Sun was purchased by the Con- 
vention from Rev. J. O. Atkinson, D. I)., editor, 
for twenty-three hundred dollars. The name was 
already the property of the Convention, but the 
subscription list, good-will, and equipment was the 
property of the editor. 

President W. W. Staley, of Elon College, reported 
the college out of debt the first time in its history, 
and an endowment fund of $30,000.00. The first 
donation to the endowment was by Rev. O. J. Wait, 
1). D., and was $1,000.00; the second was $25.00 
by Rev. J. J. Summerbell ; then Hon. F. A. Palmer 


gave $30,000.00, most of which went into the en- 

The A. C. C. had met for the first time in the 
South in the Memorial Christian Temple, Nor- 
folk, Va., in October, 1902, and this convention 
had aided in the entertainment in the sum of six 
hundred dollars. 

The orphanage interest was urged with new em- 
phasis upon the Convention ; and home and foreign 
mission ideas were pressed with new zeal. 

The sixteenth regular session was held in Bur- 
lington, N. C, in May, 1906. President J. O. At- 
kinson, D. D., reported the Christian Missionary 
Association as growing in interest, collections and 

Rev. J. L. Foster, secretary of the orphanage, 

reported collections since 1897 $8,929.86 

And expenses for the same time 895.85 

Balance above expenses $8,034.01 

Rev. W. S. Long, D. D., and Rev. J. L. Foster, 
committee on orphanage, reported charter for or- 
phanage secured; location chosen at Elon College; 
112.5 acres of land purchased at cost of $2,41005; 
a good two-story brick building erected, 116 ft. by 
39 ft. 9 in., with wing 30 ft. by 24 ft., at total cost of 
less than ten thousand dollars. A board of seven 
trustees was elected, and Rev. J. L. Foster was 
subsequently elected superintendent by the board. 
The editor of the Christian Sim reported 2,906 
subscribers against 2,046 two years before, with 
thirty-seven states, territories and foreign countries 


The committee on education reported the erection 
of a new and splendid dormitory for young ladies 
at Elon College, a new power-house, and the in- 
stallment of an up-to-date water, light and heat- 
ing system for the college; also, that the number of 
students had increased in proportion to the new 

The seventeenth regular Convention was held with 
the First church in Greensboro, N. C, last of April, 
1908. This was pronounced the best session in the 
history of the Convention. Rev. J. P. Barrett, D. D., 
editor Herald of Gospel Liberty, and Rev. O. 
W. Powers, D. D., Secretary of Home Missions for 
A. C. C, Dayton, Ohio, were present and added to 
the interest of the session. 

Forward movements along all lines seemed to 
be the watchword, especially in Sunday-school and 
Christian Endeavor work ; and it was planned to 
put a mission agent in the field. 

Good reports came in from all departments, and 
a determined purpose to develop the resources and 
make more efficient the agencies of the Convention 
characterized all that was done. 

The growth of the Convention has been slow but 
steady, and every position taken seems to be per- 
manent. The government under which the Con- 
vention, conferences and local churches, perform 
their work, has produced order, system, and uni- 
formity among the churches. 

The Convention is composed of seven conferences : 
Georgia and Alabama; Alabama; North Carolina 
and Virginia; Eastern North Carolina; Western 
North Carolina; Eastern Virginia; and the Central 


Virginia Valley. There are about one hundred 
ministers, two hundred churches, twenty thousand 
members, property value five hundred thousand dol- 
lars, and a good future outlook. The Convention 
is small, but has self-respect and the respect of 
other denominations and the public. Tf it had not 
been for its form of government and the order that 
has grown out of it, it is fair to say that it would 
be next to extinct. "Order is heaven's first law," 
and law is heaven's first order; law and order be- 
long together in the church. 

The Southern Christian Convention takes its 
place among the brotherhood, and joins all in 
thanksgiving for the privilege of taking part in the 
celebration of the Centennial of Religions Journal- 

Suffolk, Va.- 




Ex-President Palmer College 

Where does the West begin, or where may one 
stand, with face to the North and say, "All to my 
right is East and all to my left is West?" The most 
natural division between the East and the West is 
the great Mississippi river. 

In considering our opportunities, as a church, in 
this great West, it will not be out of place for me 
to call attention to some statements of Jesus. In 
His explanation of the parable of the tares in the 
field He said, "The field is the world." In that in- 
teresting and heart-revealing talk of Christ with the 
woman of Samaria, which resulted in moving the 
inhabitants of the city in that marvelous manner, 
and out of which came that remarkable statement 
of Christ to the disciples : 

"Say not ye, there are yet four months and then 
cometh the harvest? Behold, I say unto you; Lift up 
your eyes, and look on the fields that they arc white 
already unto harvest." 

As I understand our work, as a people, these 
statements of Christ have a meaning for us that 
they cannot have for a people whose basis of 
church-fellowship is determined by human opin- 
ions, and consequently many of the followers of the 
Lord cannot conscientiously take fellowship with 

Our basis of fellowship being Christian character, 


and not mental assent to some man's interpretation 
of the Scriptures, warrants us in saying our field is 
the world. It is to be lamented that we have 
not occupied it better. It is to our shame that we have 
thought so little of our heritage. But while we 
have not "occupied" as we should, God has been 
working through agencies and bringing about re- 
sults in the line of Christian unity, even in the 
fields of the East, where sectarianism has held 
sway so long. All over the world there is a cry for 
a basis of fellowship that takes in every true fol- 
lower of Christ. This growing spirit for Christian 
liberty cries unto us as a people — ■ 

"Lift up your eyes and look on the fields, that they 
are white already unto harvest." 

The great field of the West is "white unto 
the harvest," and furnishes a wonderful opportunity 
for us in the name of our Lord, and invites us to 
acquaint ourselves with the needs and opportuni- 
ties that lie before us. One great need in connec- 
tion with this work is for us to realize the vastness 
of the field, and see and make use of our oppor- 

In gathering statistics, I have not considered 
Western Canada and Alaska, though they might 
be considered a part of this 


In the West that I have considered, in 1900 the 
population was 20,283,119. It is a conservative es- 
timate to say that in the last eight years the popu- 
lation has increased twenty-five per cent. This 
would give a population at the present time of 25,- 


352,898. Suppose one-fourth of this population are 
Christians, we still have 20,283,119 souls without 
Christ. Suppose again that all other agencies for 
saving the lost will be responsible for ninety-five 
per cent, of this unsaved population, and that God 
will hold us responsible for the remaining five per 
cent. We then face this proposition, 1,014,355 souls 
to give the message of life to and win them to 
Christ. If we should establish one church each 
week and each church established would have a 
membership of 100 at the end of the year, and the 
growth of the churches would be in proportion to 
the increase of population, it would take us 195 
years to accomplish the work of saving just five 
per cent, of the unsaved portion of this multitude. 
We have not considered that many souls will per- 
ish before the 195 years which it would take to ac- 
complish our work at the rate of one church a 
week. How long ivill it talce at our present rate? 
Who will be responsible for the souls that perish 
in that 195 years? 

The estimated wealth of this Great West in 1900 
was $6,950,660,811. A very conservative estimate 
it would be indeed, to say that this wealth had in- 
creased twenty-five per cent, in the last eight years. 
This would give the vast sum of $8,688,326,013. 
Now suppose we would be able to influence five per 
cent, of this wealth for the extension of Christ's 
kingdom, there would be $2,228,288 each year for 
195 years that would go to advance the work of 
our Lord. 

'About 2,000,000 of this population are foreign 
born. This fact places upon us added responsibil- 

(520 T H E E N T E X \ I v r, o F 

ity and gives us added opportunities, for it brings 
the foreigner right to our door and his greatest 
need is the gospel of Jesus Christ. 

In the presence of these facts, brethren, we need 
men with the faith of Joshua and Caleb. There 
are unlimited openings for the Christian Church, if 
it sends forth men of faith and deep conviction; 
men who are above the price that may be offered by 
any sectarian body; men who can be depended upon 
by the Mission Board ; men who will so faithfully 
live and lovingly teach a unifying gospel that the 
words of Jesus: "One is your master, even Christ; 
and all ye are brethren/' may carry with them the 
unifying power that our Lord intends that they 
should have, and thus the spirit of fellowship among 
Christians may become as broad as Christ's great 
heart of love. 

Soon the balance of power numerically, financial- 
ly and religiously, may be found in this Great West. 
Already millions of the inhabitants of earth depend 
upon the west for their bread and meat. The bowels 
of the earth are giving up their rich treasures and 
wealth is being piled up by the millions of dollars. 
With all the vast resources of this marvelous field 
it has need of Christian colleges and Christian 
settlements after the plan of the Wyoming move- 
ment, and this great field will support many of 
these movements, if the opportunities it affords are 
embraced in time. If every opportunity this Great 
West offers for Christian settlements were em- 
braced and a Christian college and training school 
established in connection with each settlement, we 


would then be preparing for the work in a manner 
more worthy of the cause we represent. 

Oh, young men, this needy field, this inviting 
field, calls to you ! Turn your faces westward and 
with faith in God and the cause you represent, do 
not wait until the Mission Board has ability to 
guarantee a part of your support. Time is too 
precious, souls are perishing. Up and away to the 
fields so loudly calling, and with faith in your God 
and confidence in the message you have to give to 
the people, go forth to establish the cause of the 
Christians in the cities, towns and hamlets of this 
growing West. If you have a message from God to 
the people, He will see that you are supported. The 
world is in need of the teachings of the Christians. 
The cause cannot afford to wait until the Mission 
Board has means to send you. You cannot afford 
to wait, for if God calls you to a field, the call is 
a pledge that He will sustain you if you trust Him. 
Will you accept the honor He confers upon you in 
calling you to this important field? We read with 
interest and approval the work of the pioneer min- 
isters, and almost envy them the honor given them 
because of their loyalty. The days for pioneer work 
are not over. This field of the West invites you to 
exploits that will try your mettle, and give you a 
taste of pioneer work just as interesting as any 
of which you ever read. You may not have as many 
hardships as the early pioneer ministers, but you 
will be quite well satisfied along this line. The cit- 
ies that are so rapidly building up on account of the 
mining industries, represent various denominations, 
but the thought of a unified church, if presented in 


the early life of these cities, will forestall the intro- 
duction of factional teaching among the people of 
God; and not only this, but some of the great wealth 
of these mining cities will be consecrated to help 
advance the kingdom of Christ. 

This field of the West presents a call to the 
churches and bids them enter the open door of a 
wonderful opportunity. It says to the membership 
of the church : "God has planted you in a church 
that is cosmopolitan. Yours is a fellowship that 
takes in every follower of the Lord. Yours is a 
fellowship the world is needing. Yours is a fellow- 
ship that this field will welcome. We open our 
doors to you and bid you enter. Our teeming mil- 
lions of inhabitants; our multiplied millions of 
wealth, because of the genius of your God-given 
mission, will have a welcome for you that they can- 
not have for a people whose fellowship is not as 
broad as Christ. Hear our call and attend unto our 
needs ; for the unifying gospel you preach will meet 
our need, and answer our call. Come to us, our 
response will be quick. You shall have our sons 
and daughters to worship at the altar of this church 
with a unifying gospel. You shall have a part of 
this vast wealth to assist you in giving the mes- 
sage of liberty and union to the world. We open 
our doors to you and again bid you welcome." 

Des Moines, Ioica. 





Editor Christian Sun 

In the introduction to his "Prospect Before Us" . 
published in 1824, Rev. James O'Kelly uses these 

words : 

The little Christian Church moves gradually out of 
the wilderness. She has ruhbed through several hard j 
shocks, with some loss, hut her true friends are getting 
more established ; the farther we go, the more we see, and 
the good old primitive path appears. O, the Christian 
Church is groaning for a reformation back to the apostolic 
order. Heaven bless every hand that shall aid her, and 
every tongue that says "God speed." * * * We have 
nothing so dangerous as ourselves. 

From which it is seen that the Rev. James O'Kel 
ly was not only liberator and reformer, but prophet 
as well. "We have nothing so dangerous as our 
selves." The world outside the Christian Church, 
members of other denominations included, look up- 
on the principles, platform and position of our de 
nomination with wonder, envy and admiration. We 
have never heard a person call in question the beau- 
ty, wisdom and catholicity of our principles, or 
doubt the divinity of our doctrine. 

Truly, therefore, with O'Kelly "we have nothing 
so dangerous as ourselves." But, "the further we 
go, the more we see, and the good old primitive 
path appears." 

Though "we have rubbed through several hard 
shocks with some loss," the future of ou** cause never 


seemed so hopeful, nor the prospect so bright, for 
at least three reasons: 

First : Organization Ms been effected. 

The early Christians feared to organize, or to 
operate in concert as touching legislation and the 
enactment of plans for public weal. Time was 
when our Christian churches dared not to send "dele- 
gates"' to a conference or convention. Instead 
"messengers"' went up to a "yearly general meet- 
ing." And when these "general meetings'' were 
concluded the "records" (proceedings) were all 
burned that nothing might be left by which to bind 
the next "assembling of messengers," or from which 
any written rule or formula might be made to bind 
Christian churches, or Christian people. This Chris- 
tian Church of ours went to the full length in mat- 
ters of freedom from all restraint. 

Such a people naturally did not organize. They 
feared that organization would result in crystal- 
lization and a creed. There is a world of difference, 
but the popular mind failed to distinguish. A creed 
is a formula of belief; an organization is a formula 
of operation, nay, better, of co-operation. Now co- 
operation is essential to the life and growth of every 
institution under heaven. 

The early Christian churches did not build col- 
leges, own publishing houses, send missionaries. 
They feared to co-operate in such enterprises lest 
the individuality of the members be lost in the whole, 
and the church with its enterprises gain strength 
at the expense of personal liberty and individual 

The scattered forces of the Christian Church of 


our day are now gathered into a compact whole. 
Individual interpretation is not incompatible with 
systematic service and extensive co-operation. The 
consequence is that our Christian Church has build- 
ed, and is building, colleges, publishing houses and 
charitable institutions. The day of organization 
has come and the church presents, not a few thou 
sand fragments, but a mighty and solid phalanx of 
brave souls marching together to herald the battle 
cry of freedom and to do service for the ''right 
of private judgment." That which a few scattered in- 
dividuals have had to do on their own initiative, 
namely, declare that "the Bible is a sufficient ruie 
of faith and practice" and the "name Christian" is a 
sufficient designation of those who follow Christ, this 
our several colleges are now inculcating and our pub- 
lishing houses are heralding. A Christian force of 
free and liberal souls has been brought into a com- 
mon and compact whole for Christian service and 
the enlargement of the kingdom. 

No longer do "messengers" merely go to speak 
for themselves, but regularly chosen representatives 
are sent with delegated authority, not to a yearly 
meeting, but to a duly constituted conference, to 
deliberate there in behalf of missions, publications, 
education and charity. The Christian denomina- 
tion now has its several churches organized into 
conferences, and the conferences organized into con- 
ventions and state associations, and these all or- 
ganized into the American Christian Convention. 
And to-day the individual is as free as in the days 
when be feared to speak his mind in behalf of a 
common cause or a general enterprise. 


Here then is our hope, here our strength, here our 
glorious outlook: We face a future with a com- 
bined and organized force not ashamed of itself, 
nor fearful of results and undertakings. This body 
of believers is buoyant with the belief, and the di- 
vine assurance, that its destiny is large and its 
future assured. We have a past of which we are 
not ashamed; a present that inspires us; an out- 
look that is joyous to contemplate. We have proven 
to the world our right to be, and shown to all man- 
kind that a church, whose test of membership is 
personal piety and individual character, may be 
united with inseparable bonds and achieve untold 
results in the Master's name. 

We repeat, that, because our energy is now con- 
served and our efforts are converged into harmoni- 
ous organization for united efforts, the prospect be- 
fore us seems bright indeed and the future looms 
large with results. 

Secondly : We have taught and learned the primal 
lesson of self-respect, and from it imbibed the spirit 
of self-reliance. 

This means untold measures for our Christian 
cause. There has been a reckless spirit with us to 
run after people of other denominations, to have 
them join us without our having shown to the world 
and to other churches that we bad any particularly 
inviting brand, breed, or brotherhood for them to 
come to. We failed to show that we had a self-re- 
specting, and self-relying brotherhood. We wanted 
others to come, but had only poorly equipped quar- 
ters, and uninviting surroundings when ("hey ar- 
rived. We calculated that our "principles" were 


sufficient, without showing what the principles 
would result in. 

We have at least learned, and let us hope forever 
learned, that we are to build and equip from the 
ground up. If ours is the best church, the one best 
adapted to the salvation of a sin-sick and sin-cursed 
humanity, then it will survive by manifesting its 
own strength, beauty and character. 

We are now building and developing a self-respect- 
ing enterprise. It will yet command the respect 
and admiration of the nation, and of the world. 
The plan is pure; the purpose, holy; the principles, 
heavenly. We have learned to respect ourselves. 
We shall teach the centuries to respect us because 
our mission is heavenly and our errand divine. To 
simply assert that the Bible is our only creed, a 
sufficient rule of faith and practice, merely catches 
the attention of passing strangers and wanderers. 
To build a great church edifice upon that liberal 
basis, to unite a great brotherhood on that as a 
foundation of its life and operation, is an under- 
taking worthy of stoutest hearts and a most in- 
vincible faith and courage. Yet such has been ac- 
complished. To-day there exists a widely scattered. 
but a compact and loyal brotherhood, united upon 
the basis, and with the single creed, of the Word of 

And that brotherhood has built institutions and 
promulgated enterprises of which it is not ashamed. 
In the practical affairs of men and measures we 
have tried our strength and achieved momentous 

When, therefore, the challenge is flung out to the 


world to come and unite with us, we have that with 
which men may unite and not be ashamed. With 
pardonable pride we point to our achievement, and 
in humility acknowlege, as all fair-minded men must 
see, that God is with us, and our future is assured. 

Thirdly: There has been begotten a calm confi- 
dence in the everlastingness, and the eternal neces- 
sity of our Christian Cause. 

Many have feared, faltered, and fled away. But 
the ranks have ever been filled with new and strong 
and brave recruits, and we have learned not to fear 
nor dread. We have somehow discovered a people 
who love liberty and fear God, nay, who have learned 
under God to ''advance upon chaos and the dark" 
and not dread. 

Institutions, educational, charitable and mission- 
ary, have called upon our strength and have given 
us the privilege of measuring our might. We have 
learned something of our ability to achieve. A calm 
confidence has been begotten and in the strength 
and assurance of it we march toward sure victory 
and ultimate triumph. 

Our outlook is most hopeful and inspiring. We 
have a past of which we are not ashamed. We have 
a present that challenges wonder and admiration. 
We have championed a cause that cannot die and 
entered a contest that cannot fail. We stand to- 
gether, many thousand strong, for "the democracy 
of religion," the brotherhood of all believers, the 
fellowship of all spirits made akin by the blood of 
the Lamb, and in answer to our Savior's holy in- 
vocation that — 

They all may be one. 



General Index 


Address to Public, B. Smith 29 

Agrippa, King 275 

Albany, N. Y 572 

Allen, Alden 544 

Allen, Mrs. Alden 544 

Allen, Ira ....462 

Almonds, E 5G9 

Americans 274 

American Christian Conven- 
tion — 433, 456, 472, 483, 509, 
527, 559, 567, 572, 627 
So named in 1866 — Consti- 
tution adopted ■ — - Conven- 
tion legitimate result — 
An evolution — General 

meetings 567 

l/he power of the Holy 
Ghost — Development - — 
Purely evangelistic — Hard- 
ships of early ministry — 
Authority over member- 
ship — No interference with 
doctrines — Helpful discus- 
sions 568 

No articles of faith, no for- 
mulas of belief — Early 
conventions voluntary — 
Absolute rulers — Organi- 
zations effected in 1818 
■ — Separation from, M. E. 
Church — Conferences at 
Reese Chapel — Petition for 
union — Efforts vain . . . 569 
Episcopal government con- 
demned — Address to the 
bishop • — ■ O'Kelly's com- 
ment — Four kinds of meet- 
ings 570 

Names of general meetings 
— First meeting in Ports- 
mouth, N. H 571 

Beginning of annual sessions 
— Places of meeting — 

. — Proper relationship — 
History hard to trace. . 572 

Purposes of the Convention 

— Secretarial departments 

■ — Membership determined 


Names of presidents of the 
Convention • — Names of 
secretaries of the Conven- 
tion — Officers of the Con- 
vention — Department Sec- 
retaries — Boards of the 
Convention 574 

Woman Boards — Convention 
fosters church enterprises 
— Confusion as to mem- 
bership — Members C. P. A. 
■ — Antioch College . . . 575 

Division of church, North 
and South — 'Plans Bibli- 
cal School — Formally ded- 
icated — Department of 
missions — Franklinton 
school established — Mis- 
sionaries to Japan — De- 
nominational union con- 
sidered 577 

Christian Endeavor depart- 
ment — Two Mission Sec- 
retaries chosen — The value 
of the Convention. .. .578 
American Christian Extension 

Society 483 

American Chris. Messenger. 60 
Antioch College 63, 419, 421, 507 

Apple, Solomon 361,601 

Apple's Chapel 359, 360 

Articles of Incorporation. . .475 
Asbury, Francis 17, 258, 259, 

261, 262, 411, 569 

His appointment to America 
— Bearing on beginning of 
Christian Church ... 17 

A commanding general . . 18 



An innovator 21 

Ambitious to head Method- 
ism — Displeased 258 

Minsters turned out ..261 

A noted refusal 263 

Last meeting with 0"Kelly265 

At Manchester, Va 277 

Atkinson, D. B 37 

Atkinson, J. O. 478, 611, 612 


Badger, Joseph. . 457, 461, 463 

Bailey, J. T 583.585 

Bailey, Mrs. Sarah M....505 

Baltimore Conference 259 

Baker. M. D 465 

Baker, M. W 574 

Bangor Theo. Seminary. . . .416 
Baptism in New England. . 47 

Baptism in the South 47 

Baptism not a requisite to 

communion 48 

Baptists 276, 325 

Baer, Oliver 62, 63, 419, 421, 
433, 462, 463 

Sudden death of 421 

Barrett, Burwell 264 

Barrett, Eva Olyn. . . .486, 515 

Barrett, D. P 486 

Barrett, J. P. 72, 276, 478. 578, 
605, 607, 613 

Barrett, Mills 569 

Barrett. M. B 607 

Barry. Mrs. E. D 510 

Batchelor, Miss Annie 510, 511 

Batchelor, B. S 552,601 

Bates College 413 

Beale, E. W 598 

Beck, C. A 559 

Beginning and Beyond, The. 13 

Berea church 611 

Biblical Interpretation .... 74 
Bishop, Rev. Emily K. 509, 510, 
511, 513 

Bishop, J. G 481 

Bishop, S 583 

Black, George D., becomes edi- 
tor — Retires 70 

Blackmar, J 583, 585 

Blodgett, .T. C 53, 57, 452 

Blood, John 559 

Bowdoin College 416 

Bollinger, Maggie R 477 

Bowman, C 375 

Bowman. N 375 

Boston Recorder, The 15 

Bradley, S 585 

Breckinridge. John ...331,335 

Brougham, Canada 585 

Brown, N 292 

Brown, S. E 53,452 

Brush, J. E 563 

Bryant. Charles 62 

Buff, H. T 467 

Burford, Canada 585 

Burkholder, Jesse 600 

Burlingame, James 63 

Burnett, J. F 567 

Buzzell, Aaron 292 


Cable. A. C 477 

Calvin ■ 282 

Calvinism, fatalism 47 

Campbell, A 272, 273, 275 

On design of baptism ... 59 

Campbellites 273 

Canada, 439, 581, 585, 587, 588, 

Cane Ridge Revival ..322, 324 

Panada, Lelia May 537 

Castile. N. Y 507,541 

Carnegie. A 319 

Carrington, John IT 537 

Carter. B. F. . . 53, 57, 62, 452 
Centennial of Religious Jour- 
nalism. The 13 

Centennial Biographical 

Sketches 72 

Century Churches, Our.. 383 

Swansea, Massachusetts ■ — 

O'Kelly's Chapel, North 

Carolina 383 

New Carlisle, Ohio — Ports- 
mouth 387 

Providence, Virginia ...391 
South, Haverhill, Mass.. 393 
Woodstock, Vermont ...395 



Eaton, Ohio 399 

North, New Bedford, Mass- 
achusetts 401 

Knob Prairie (Enon, 0.)397 

Milan, New York 407 

York, Maine 403 

Centennial Hymn, Our .... 76 

Chadwick, Edmund 416 

Chapel, John 569 

Chapel, O'Kelly's 264 

Chapin, A 457 

Charleston, N. Y 495 

Cheney, O. B 413 

Christian all embracing . . . .451 

Child, F. S 544 

Children's Mission 71 

Children's Mission Column 509 
Christians 4, 17, 48, 273, 274, 
276, 278, '283, 285 

Christian Alliance 276 

Christian Banner 466 

Christian Biblical Institute 

63, 411, 439 

Remoyal to Defiance, Ohio — 

New buildings 433 

Christian Church, South... 599 

Christian Church, The 18, 

20, 21, 22, 23, 27. 28, 51, 

79, 325, 360, 451, 459, 481, 

486, 527, 555, 625 

A necessity 13, 17 

Validity of its claims. . 14 
Mother of religious newspa- 
per idea — Organic begin- 
ning 15 

Back of the Lebanon meet- 
ing 17 

Its God-given mission.. 21 

Achievements 22, 24 

Christian Church in Canada 


Fruits of early planting — 
Missionary character ■ — 
Alary Stos'dill's work — A 
taste of freedom — A let- 
ter 581 

Missionaries sent 583 

Rapid development — Much 
opposition — Churches or- 
ganized — Conference form- 

ed ■ — ■ Bitter opposition — 
First conference in 1825 
— Activity in church or- 
ganizations 5S5 

Legal recognition — Canadian 
rebellion — Our first effort 
at religious journalism in 
Canada- — The Christian 
Luminary — The Luminary 
consolidated with the Pal- 
ladium — A period of lan- 
guishing — New churches 
organized — Further efforts 
in journalism 586 

Consolidation again follows 
— Act of incorporation, 
1877 — Self-sacrificing min- 
isters — Not much growth 
• — Ministers from United 
States — Lack of schools 

Another conference paper — 
Seventeen years of good 
work — Its message on- 
ward — Alliance with Mac- 
Master University — Edu- 
cation enthusiasm — -Work 
in western Canada... 588 

Christian Church in Canada 
— Passing of the aged — 
Incoming of young men — 
An evangelistic people — 
Loyalty — Prayer life 589 
Christian Connection 285, 457 

Founder of 285 

Christian Endeavor 71, 275, 

529, 530, 531 

A great forward movement 
— Universality of the mes- 
sage — Other great move- 
ments — Awakening and 
quickening — Y. M. C. A. 
— The need of the church 

The needs of one, the needs 
of many — Distinguishing 
marks — Stored power — 
Evangelistic fervor — Find- 
ing new life 530 



The individual for Christ — 
Simplifying the message — 
Setting free the power — 
The essentials of Chris- 
tian faith 531 

A larger outlook — Interde- 
nominational amity and 
fellowship ■ — Pledged alle- 
giance to Christ — Render- 
ing obedience — Daily serv- 
ice — "Quiet Hour"' ... .532 
Negative features — Great 
success of the movement 
— Its great membership — 
Working in thirty nations 
— Staggering statistics — 

Its future 533 

Christian General Book As- 
sociation 60, 61, 73, 461, 
463, 464, 471, 572 
Christian Book Association 458 
Removal to N. Y. City.. 62 

^Christian Herald 503 

Christian Hymnary 547 

Christian Intelligencer ....365 

Christian Magazine 478 

Christian Messenger 72 

Christian Ministers' Home, 

The Aged 541 

Founded by Mr. and Mrs. 
Sellon — Organization — 
Mrs. Sellon's untiring zeal 
— Removal to Dakemont 


F. A. Palmer endows the 
Home — Rev. B. S. Fanton 
and wife, first to enter 
Home — Enlarging the 
building- — Endowment in- 
sufficient — Donations need- 
ed — Board of Trustees — 
Home comforts - — Condi- 
tions of admittance 544-5 
Christian Offering, The.... 587 
Christian Orphanage 535, 605 
A convention work — The 
Christian Sun's Children's 
Corner — The Band of Cou- 
sins — Rev. J. L. Foster, 

Sec'y — Location — Building 

erected 535, 536 

New Board of Trustees — J. 
L. Foster, Supt. — Orphan- 
age opened — First orphan 
received — Orphanage equip- 
ment — Orphanage capaci- 
ty — Owned by Southern 
Christian Convention 537 
Supported by voluntary of- 
ferings — The annual 
Thanksgiving offering — 
Bequests — Most beautiful 
feature, Christian charity 
— Needs — Mission of the 

Orphanage 538 

Christian Palladium 60, 61, 62, 
349, 357, 359, 360, 363, 366, 
457, 461, 462, 464, 470. 

Christian Psalmist 462 

Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation. .65, 71, 72, 73, 475, 
491, 572 

Meets at Hagerstown, Ind — ■ 
Consolidated Papers 65 
Christian Sun 359, 360, 361, 
362, 364, 365, 366, 367, 369, 
370, 371, 478, 599, 601, 602. 
611, 612, 625 

Suspension 366 

Subjects discussed 368 

Christian Vanguard, The 478, 

479, 588 
Church, "a man-of-war," The 
Her lights dimmed .... 24 
Church In Wilderness, The 281 

Church Hill, Canada 586 

Cincinnati, Ohio 375, 572 

Civil War 417, 428, 555 

Clark, Canada 585 

Clark, David 410 

Clark, Mrs. N. F 295 

Clements, W. G 605,607 

Clemm, H. E 492 

Cloud, A 277 

Clough, Simon 57, 458, 459, 463 

Coan, A. W 68,69,527 

Coe, I. H 601 

Coffin, L 471,541 

Coke, Dr 262 



Cole, Jesse K 35S 

Columbus, Ohio 64, 466 

Coming Conflict, The 9 

Comings, A. G 57, 551 

Constructive Period, The ..412 

Cooper, Fred 443 

Co-operation weakened ....421 

Corner, Hannah 503 

Cornwallis 317 

Covington, Ohio 65. 468, 472. 

Cox, L. 1 254 

Craig, Austin ..62,63,420,435 

Cummings, Moses 62, 471 

Cradle Roll 527 

Crampton, Henry ..85,476,477 

Cram, Mrs. Nancy 405 

Crosby, B. S 541 

Cushing, W. 547 

Cypress Chapel 599 


Dales, J. N. .439, 442, 47S, 479, 

Dameron, W 277 

Darlington, Canada 585 

Dayton, Ohio 64, 468, 469, 471, 
473, 475, 477 

Davis, R 452 

Davis, Miss Rebecca B....371 

Davis, Stephen 277 

Day, N 551 

Debruler, M 277 

Dedication 5 

Denominational Position 27 

Peculiar origin 27 

Name — Mode of government 
— Spirit and Mission . . 28 

Dickson, B. L 37S 

Differences not serious ..... 47 
Disbelieve in baptism for remis- 
sion of sins 274 

Disciples of Christ 273, 274, 275 

Dismarks, Maj. A 370 

Doctrine foundation of practice 


Dogma no test of fellowship 74 

Dooly, Reuben 278 

Drake, Abraham 53, 452 

Drayton, Canada 585 

Duckworth, John ' 458 

Dunlavy, John 271, 332 

Dunn, Geo. W 555, 563 

Dukan, Marie 25, 26 

A heroine of faith 26 


Eastern Christian Publish- 
ing Association 53, 73, 456, 
Purchases Christian Herald 

53, 56 

Purchases llie Christian 60 

Eaton, H. M 68 

Eastern Virginia Conference 600 

Ebenezer Chapel 464, 466 

Eddytown, N. Y 435 

Editor Herald, The present 12 

Edmunds, E 57, 62, 63 

Education Among the Color- 
ed Christians in the 

South 555 

Better education needed — 
School opened in old church 
■ — Demand for room — Col- 
lege building erected.. 555 
President's residence built 
- — Destroyed by fire — First 
name of school — Incorpor- 
ated — Wait's bequest — 
Support from free-will of- 
ferings — Board of Control 
— Planning an Industrial 
College — Brick-making — 
Controlled by Mission 

Board 558 

In care of Educational Board 
— First colored member of 
faculty — Objects of College 
■ — Its work in the past — 
Feeble beginning — Color- 
ed conferences and statis- 
tics 559 

Influence of College on 
churches — The Cary Con- 
ference incident- -Exami- 
nation of candidates for 
ministry — Assimilating 
lessons in Christianity, 
etc 560 



Library — Donations to — 
Thirsting for knowledge — ■ 
Summerbell's Christian 
Principles 501 

Progress of College and 
churches go hand in hand 
■ — Watsonian Literary So- 
ciety — Young's sacrifices 
and successes 563 

Dunn's delight with tbe Col- 
lege — Courtesy received — ■ 
Needs of the College.. 564 
Educational Institutions, Our 

Early founders 411 

First movement for .... 413 

Starke y Seminary — First 
building erected 416 

Hathaway Hall 417 

Talmer Hall — -Antioch Col- 
lege — Inadequate plans 
.' 419 

A Theological School... 420 

Provisional Committee — Un- 
ion Christian College 
...' 421 

Endowment ■ — A financial 
mistake 42."> 

F. A. Palmer endows — C. J. 
Jones, president — O. B. 
Whitaker, president ..425 

Graham Institute — Our 
first southern school — 
John R. Holt, principal 
— Graham High School 

opened 425 

— Graham College — W. 
H. Doherty, president 428 

Graham Normal College 

ELON College — -Convention 
plans for — Provisional 
board appointed ....428 

Located — F. A. Palmer en- 
dows 429 

Defiance College — Started 
as female seminary. .429 

Location — Additional build- 
ings— Trowbridge Hall — 

Mr. Carnegie's gift — Help 
of O. S. C. A 432 

Apparatus, library, athletics, 
etc. — Faculty — Outlook 
promising 433 

Christian Biblical Insti- 

Early prejudice 433 

Opens at Starkey — Instruc- 
tion — David Clark endows 
— Never deeply in debt — 
Austin Craig, president — 
Death of Dr. Craig — Dr. 
Weston, president ...435 
Removal to Defiance, Ohio 
—Weston Hall — Y. M. C. 
A. Hall — Gymnasium — 
Professors and lecturers 

Palmer College — Iowa con- 
ferences support — -Presi- 
dent Helfenstein's labors 
— F. A. Palmer endows — 
Name changed — President 
Summerbell's work — Mr. 
Kerr's presidency .... 439 


Alliance with Queen's Col- 
lege 439 

Alliance with MacMaster 
University — A professor- 
ship 442 

Weaubleau College 

Location — First as an acad- 
emy — Rev. John Whitaker, 

principal 442 

Re-chartered as a college 
— -Fruitful work — Presi- 
dent resigns — O. B. Whit- 
aker president — President 
resigns — Fred Cooper, 
president 443 

Kansas Christian College 
Established by conference 
— Thomas Bartlett, princi- 
pal — Becomes a college — 
President resigns — O. B. 
Whitaker president ..443 

President resigns — George R. 



Stoner president — A cen- 
tury in advance — For spir- 
itual life — An awakening 
— Early indoctrinated 446 

The prospect 447 

Edwards. J 322 

Edwards, Miss Dora 537 

Elon College 270 

Our Southern Athens... 364 

Elon College 599,611 

Ellis, John ..65,279,466,551 

Author of White Pilgrim 339 

Episcopacy the issue 18 


Falkner, J. L 471 

Fernald. Mark 53, 55, 57, 290, 


Fess, Dr 420 

First impulse originated. .. 275 

Fleming, P. H 611 

Fletcher, W. P 5S1 

Ford. David 462 

Foster, J. L. .535, 536, 559, 612 

Foster, Mrs. Myrtle L 537 

Foster, Robert 43, 50, 55, 58, 

73, 311, 452, 571 

Broken health 53 

Freedom and loyalty 75 

Free Will Baptist 495 

Franklin church, Canada.. 586 

Franklin, Ohio 572 

Franklin, Va 611 

I'r.'inklinton College ..507,555 

Franklinton, N. C 555 

Frontispiece 2 

Frost. Henry 4S2 

Frost, James S 541, 544 

Fry, Mrs. S. V 515 


Garbutt, Thomas 478,587 

Gardner, Matthew — Gardner's 

Hymns 459 

Garfield, J. A 319 

Garman, Mrs. K. W 515 

Garoutte, C. W 09 

Garrard. Gov 335 

Gnrrettson, F 277 

Gaylord Hall 558 

Gems, Editorial 85 

A Word to the Wise, Elias 
Smith S5 

Light of the Moon Prefer- 
able to the Light of the 
Sun, Elias Smith 80 

Aphorisms, Elias Smith 87 

The Happy Man, Elias 
Smith 88 

The Passing Year, Robert 
Foster S9 

Christian, Be Careful, J. 
Rodenbaugh 92 

The Dark Side, Joseph Bad- 
ger 93 

An Affectionate Address, Ab- 
ner Joues 93 

An Address to Ministers, 
Simon Clough 95 

A Short Sermon, E. Ed- 
munds 100 

Promote Good Feelings, Eli- 
jah Shaw 101 

The Sower of Discord, Jo- 
seph Marsli 104 

Principles of Union, Ira Al- 
len 105 

Consolations of Religion, Hi- 
ram Simonton 100 

Infidelity in the Church, 
Joseph Marsh 100 

The Ministry, S. S*. N..109 

The Lambs Must Be Fed, 
Joseph Badger 109 

Christian, D. W. Kerr.. 112 

Excuses For Not Attending 
Church, I. X. Walter. 117 

An Address, L. Purviance 120 

A Dissertation On Preach- 
ing, David Purviance. 122 

Faith and Works — The Sun, 
N. Summerbell 122 

Remember the Earth Is the 
Lord's. Mark Fernald 123 

Profane Swearing, John Ross 

Scripture Investigation, Jas- 
per Hazen 125 



Christianity, Jasper Hazen 

Sect, David Millard 12S 

The Bible Is Our Rule, Jas- 
per Hazen 129 

Things I Have Never Seen, 
O. Gordy 130 

Order of Repentance and 
Faith, N. Summerbell. 131 

Our Cause, W. B. Wellons 

The Bible Class — Count One, 
J. B. Weston 132 

Newness of Life, Jasper 
Hazen 133 

Christian Suffering, B. F. 
Summerbell 134 

Life's Golden Grains, Charles 
Bryant 135 

The Two Ways, Seth Hink- 
ley 135 

A Prepared Ministry, Oliver 
Barr 130 

Is It Duty to Love Chris- 
tians? A. G. Comings 137 

Milk Diet, Austin Craig. 137 

The Bible, B. F. Summer- 
bell 140 

Education and Religion, D. 
P. Pike 141 

Injured Influence, D. P. Pike 
x 143 

Unworthy Church Members, 
D. P. Pike 143 

The Great Business of Life, 
James Williamson ...144 

Ministerial Apologies, D- P. 
Pike 14S 

Wages of Sin, I. C. Goffi.149 

The Christian a Philanthro- 
pist, D. E. Millard. . .152 

Light in Dark Places, B. F. 
Carter 152 

Unseen, But Yet Enjoyed, 
Charles Bryant 153 

The Christian Church, N. 
Summerbell 153 

The Prayer-Meeting, B. F. 
Carter 155 

God — Nothing, O. J. Wait 

The Plague Spot, James 
Maple 157 

Death, W. O. Cushing.,158 

The Cross, B. F. Carter 159 

The Christian Name, B. F. 
Carter 162 

Why I Love the Christian 

Church, N. Summerbell 


Rest, Mrs. C. D. Ellis.. 168 

Our True Position, W. B. 
Wellons 169 

Two Scenes — Earth and 
Heaven, John Ellis... 173 

An Hour With Jesus, John 
Ross 175 

The Divine Existence, Moses 
Cummings 177 

Bad Signs, Read and Re- 
flect, J. W. Hayley..l78 

Love Your Pastor, N. Day 

The Christian Church, E. W. 
Humphreys 183 

The "Will Not," W. O. Cush- 
ing 185 

Long Sermons, H. Y. Rush 

Manliness, Warren Hatha- 
way 188 

Ministerial Changes, J. E. 
Brush 189 

An Earnest Plea, Thomas 
Garbutt 191 

There Must Be Friendship, 
H. Y. Rush 192 

Our Doctrine, N. Summer- 
bell 193 

Ihere Is and Can Be No 
Antagonism, T. M. Mc- 
Whinney 195 

Christian Union, Elijah Wil- 
liamson 195 

Secret Trayer, Rebecca 
Kershner 197 

The Christian Life, T. M. 
McWhinney 199 



Evidences of the Right, T. 

M. McWhinney 201 

Too Small to do Anything 


The Pulpit, W. II. Orr..202 
' Aim of the Christian Move- 
ment, A. W. Coan .... 203 
The Spirit of the Truth, G. 

J. Jones 205 

Picking Bones, J. E. Brush 


A Religion That Can he Felt. 

W. C. Smith 207 

The Kind We Don't Warn, 

H. M. Eaton 200 

Baccalaureate Address, D. 

A. Long 200 

Ilie Weight of the Word, J. 

P. Watson 211 

The Train That Follows. W. 

G. Clements 213 

The Men of Pisgah, J. P. 

Watson 210 

Life Interpreting Life, G. 

D. Black 217 

"For All His Benefits," J. .7. 

Summerbell 210 

The Resurrection of Jesus 

Christ, J. J. Summerbell 

A Great Need — The Holy 
Spirit, J. G. Bishop. .222 

One of the Greatest Hin- 
drances. E. L. Moffit 227 

Not By Might Nor By Pow- 
er. J. N. Dales 229 

Character Self-Revealing, F. 
H. Peters 233 

A Splendid Challenge, M. T. 
Morrill 234 

With Whom Do You Make 
Your Investments? E. L. 
Moffitt 235 

A Policy and a Plea, J. O. 
Atkinson 230 

Lei us Keep to the Main 
Line, J. P. Barrett. .. 237 

Origin of the Name Chris- 
tian. J. O. Atkinson. .240 

General Christian Conference 

456, 457 

General Conference ...261,277 
Genessee Christian Association 

457, 458 

George III 30 

Germans, Franks, etc 274 

Glendenning, W 277 

Goff, Isaac 458,459,585 

Good Hope 360 

Gospel Herald 64, 66, 456, 464, 

465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470 
Christian Luminary (Can.i 4 7-- 
Gospel Luminary (N. T.) 456 

Goss, J. A 501 

Gould, Jay 310 

Grafton, N. H 287 

Graham, N. C 420 

Graham Institute 500 

Gray, Isaac H 47 

Gray, John, 27 

Green, General 31 

Green, J. B 209,271,272 

Grimes, Nancy 276, 277 

Grimes, William 276,277 

Gross. W. A. 468, 470, 471, 475 

Grundy, Felix 335 

Guiry on "Three Points".. 46 

Gunter. W. S 370 

Gustin, Rev. Ellen G. . 509, 510, 

511, 513 
Gwillimbury. East, West... 585 


Haggard. David 270,278 

Haggakd, Rice 264, 269, 270, 

271, 272, 273, 275, 276, 277. 

278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283 

Suggested name Christian 
17, 264, 271 

His work in Virginia — His 
work in Kentucky. . . .270 

A herald to the church — Vir- 
ginian by birth — His par- 
entage — His ordination 260 

His brother David — His 
marriage — Suggests Chris- 
tian as name to Stone — 
Labors in Alabama and 
Ohio — His burial place un- 



known, probably Xenia, 

Ohio 270 

Settles in Kentucky ... .278 

An able leader 271 

Indebted to — Habit of 

thought 272 

Made no mistake — No proof 
of opposition to organiza- 
tion — Work effective 273 
Leads, the movement^ Ac- 
cepts his principles — The 
man in Virginia — Fulfill- 
ing prophecy ? — Marries 

Mrs. Wiles 276 

Enters the Methodist minis- 
try — Withdraws with O'- 
Kelly — Stands faithful — 
Discards all names but 

Christian 277 

Estimate of (Thomas) . 278 

An Elegy 280 

A prophet ? ■ — Presbyterian 

testimony to 283 

Tlagerstown. Ind 65 

Ilainer, W. IT 559 

Haldimand, Canada 585 

Haley, Miss H. Lizzie 505- 553 

Hanger, A. C 473 

Hanover, N. H 292 

"Harbinger, Millennial" . . . .273 

Harden, J. II 607 

Harper, W. A 353 

Harrod. Mills 474 

Hartley, J 277 

Harris, Ivey 277 

Hathaway, Warren .... 68, 552 

Haverhill, Mass 71 

Hawthorne, W. T 468 

Hayley, J. W 62, 63 

Hazen, Jasper 60, 61, 462, 463 

Heart, Dennis 366 

Hebbard, Geo. H 473 

Hedges, Mrs. Sarah 501 

Heidlebaugh, A. M 489,492 

Ilelfenstein, D. M 477,617 

Helfenstein, S. Q 478.521 

Henry, T 585,586 

Herald of Gospel Liberty 1, 
14, 15, 33, 37, 39, 40, 41, 
42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 

54, 55, 56, 61, 62, 03, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73, 75, 
79, 82, 308, 309, 313, 451, 
453, 456, 469, 470, 471, 472, 
473, 474, 476, 477, 478, 509, 
551, 573, 578, 605, 613 

Why so named 33 

Oldest religious newspaper 


History of the Herald of 

Gospel Liberty , 37 

First number 39 

Moved to Portland, Me.. 40 

Returned to Portsmouth, N. 

H. - — ■ Moved to Boston, 

Mass 41 

Passes into the hands of 

Robert Foster 42 

Files of the Herald — Char- 
acter of the paper — Its 

mission 43 

The spirit of the paper — 

Its policy in 1810 48 

Helps to bring South, East 
and West together. . . 49 
The Christian Herald — -- 
Change of name and pol- 
icy 50 

Controversial spirit disap- 
pears 51 

Continuous publication.. 54 
The organ of the Christian 
Church — -Miss Shaw's tes- 
timony 55 

Name changes 56 

Another change — Christian 

Journal 57 

Motto of the paper — Subjects 
discussed — Against slavery 


The Millerites — Against 

Campbell 59 

Herald and Messenger unite 


Moves to Newburyport, Mass. 


LTnder new management — 
Messenger and Palladium 



unite — Published in New 
York City 62 

Herald absorbs Messenger 
and Palladium ...... 63 

A new era dawns 64 

Not a passive medium — Fun- 
damental principles.. 67 
Removes to Dayton, Ohio 68 

Evangelistic 69 

Union much discussed. . 70 
Advocates education ... 71 
Increase of size — Absorbs 
Christian Messenger. . 72 
Files complete ■ — Maintains 

its character 73 

Progressive measures . . 74 
Utility and Influence . . 79 
Spiritual influence of — -A 

sure exponent 81 

Herndon, W. T 256 

Hess, J. N 47S 

Hess, Mrs. J. N 375 

Hess, Mrs. O. K 509 

Hester, M. M 561 

Hines, J. B 462 

Hillsboro, N. C 599 

"Hirelings," Dislike for . . . .412 

Hix, Daniel 525 

Hoag, J. R 62, 63, 68, 587 

Holmes, Mrs. Lettice 507 

Holmes, Thomas 62, 63, 79, 425, 

Holt, J. R 304 

Homer 34 

Hope, Canada 585 

Hosmer, Rachel 503 

How, Moses 53 

Howsare, Mrs. Athella M..511 

Hull, Hope 277 

Humphreys, E. W. .6S. 272, 421, 

Hundred Years of Progress 411 

Huntley, Allen 583 

Huntington, Indiana . . .72, 572 

Hutchinson, Aaron 303 

Hutchinson, Geo. W 482 

Hymn Book, M. & B 549 

Hymn Writers of the Chris- 
tian Church 547 

Worthy song writers — 
Hymns of high order — 
Cushing's Hymns ....547 

David Millard's poems and 
hymns — The Millard and 
Badger hymn hook — Son 
inherits father's gifts — 
Strickland's collections — 
The Reunion hymn ..549 

"O Teach Me, Father," etc. 
"How Sweet the Hour of 
Prayer" — John Ellis and 
the "White Pilgrim". .551 

Hathaway's "Presence and 
Love of God," etc. — Ranks 
with best hymnology — 
Batchelor's graceful ex- 
pression — N. Summerbell's 
poetic effusions . . . .552-3 

Christian Doxology — Other 
hymn writers — Scant in- 
formation — Hymns a me- 
dium of devotion .... 553 
Hyslop, R. A 538 


Iowa 442 

Indiana Conferences 425 

Indiana State Conference. . .492 

Informal Convention 461 

Ingoldsby, O. F 417 

Ireland, Miss Mary 329 


Jackson, Mrs. M. P 511 

Johnson, Andrew .".42 

Johnsonburg, N. J.... 351, 551 

Jones, Abner ....57,411,463 

Biographical sketch — Birth 

— Removed to Bridgewa- 

ter — Sense of sin 285 

Season of doubt — Baptism — 
Visits seashore — Visits 

Elias Smith 287 

Engages in teaching — Dis- 
cards name Baptist — 
Brother's sickness and 

death 2S9 

Studied medicine — Residence 
at Hartford, Vt„ Grafton, 



N. H., and Lindon, Vt. — 
Marries Miss Prior — Suc- 
cess as physician — Great 
revival brings awakening 
Impressed to preach.. 290 
Final decision — Organizes 
first church at Lindon — 
Withdraws from Baptists 

— Ordination 291 

A busy preacher — Christian 
church at Boston organ- 
ized 292 

Resides in Portsmouth — Fi- 
nancial embarrassment — 
Moves to Hopkinton, N. 
H.— The Cold Plague. 293 
In a great revival — Banishes 
liquor from his home — 
Pastor at Salem — New 
church building — Pastor 

at Milan, N. Y 294 

Pastor at Assonet, Mass. — 
Death of wife — -Returns to 
Massachusetts — Second 

marriage 295 

Resides at Exeter, N. H. — 
Last illness and death.. 296 

Jones, A. D 295 

Jones, Amelia P 485,515 

Jones, C. J. 69, 474, 605, 607, 

Visits the churches 70 

President of U. C. College. 425 

Jones, D. F 485 

Junto Academy 363 

Removed to Pittsboro. .364 

Junto, North Carolina 357 

Judy, Mrs. K. M 509 


Kansas 442 

Kedar 364 

Keller, Mrs. O. H 510 

Kellison, Barbara 503 

Kentucky 271, 275, 278, 281, 331 

Kernodle, P. J 276,605 

Kerr, Ercy C 439 

Kerr, Daniel Wilson 478 

Earlv life 353 

A scholar and linguist — A 
commanding personality — 

Social nature 355 

Moved to North Carolina — 
Cast lot with the Chris- 
tians — Ordination ...356 
Modesty in leadership. . .357 
North Carolina and Virginia 
Christian Conference. .358 
Marsh correspondence ..359 
Borealis of the North.. 360 
"Pushership"- — Expounder of 

the Word 361 

Estimate of preaching abil- 
ity — A leader in confer- 
ence — As a teacher. . .362 
Moral and intellectual train- 
ing — His success .... 364 
Christian Sun launched 365 

Elected editor 366 

Free service as editor — The 

name Christian 367 

Exponent of principles . .368 
Removes to Pitsboro. . .369 

Death of 370 

Death of Mrs. Kerr . . . .371 

Keswick, Canada 585 

Kidder, Moses 62, 63 

Kiefer, Miss Ella 510 

Kilby, T. J 600,601 

King, Canada 585 

King, N 292 

Kinkade, William 411 

Kissell, Mrs. S. H 537 

Klapp, P. T 605 

Knight, Josiah 68 

Knox, John 282 

Kochensperger. Martin . . . .458 

Ladley, D. F 465 

Lamb, Mrs. N. E 505 

Lanphier, William 46 

Lamson, Sabrina 503 

Lane, William 458, 459 

Latchaw, Dr 432 

Lawrance, Marion 438 

Laymen's Movement 489, 491, 
492, 493 



Interdenominational prayer- 
meeting — American Board 
of Commissioners for F. 
M. — A committee of twen- 
ty-five — Missionary din- 
ners 489 

The Laymen's Commission — 
Southern Baptist, M. E. 
Church, South, Episcopal 
Church, Congregational 
Church, Northern Baptist, 
Baptists of Canada and 
Christians — Interdenomi- 
national committees — Lay- 
men sent to England and 
Scotland — Topeka, Kan., 
meeting — Meeting in St. 
Joseph, Missouri ....490 
Meeting in Toronto, Canada 
— Toronto Globe's testi- 
mony — -Philadelphia meet- 
ing — The Chicago meeting 
— Eel River (Ind.) Chris- 
tian Conference 491 

Interest in the movement 


Leaders, Ocr Early — 

Their character — Estimate 

of their worth 245 

A storm center — Reaction 246 

America calling 247 

Prevalence of iniquity .. 248 

Strenuous life 249 

Bible students 250 

Lebanon. Virginia 271 

Lee. W. J 536 

LeMay, .1. P 365 

Lewelling, Elijah 365 


God-given 30 

Lack of religious liberty 31 

Articles on 45 

To believe Bible doctrines 46 

Lincoln. A 319 

Loxc, D. A. 428.474.555.603 

Purchases Graham College 
— President of Antioch 
College 428 

Long, Mrs. D. A 510 

Long, H. E 559 

Long, W. S. 428, 536, 603, 605, 

607, 612 

President Graham Normal 
College 42S 

Success as an educator — 

Resignation 429 

Loyalty to the Word 81 

Luke 275 

Luther 282 

Lynch, J. B 362, 363 

Lynch, Thomas 358 

Lynn, .1. T 467 


McCord, Mrs. E. P 515 

McCullough. P 468,469 

McGready, James 320 

McKeen, James 458, 459 

McKexdree, William ....262 

Resigns 277 

McKinney, A. L 472 

McMaster University . . 442, 588 
M'Xemar, Richard ....271,332 
McReynolds, N. Del ..555,559 
McReyxolds, P. W — ■ 

President of Defiance Col- 
lege 432 

Self-sacrificing 433 

McWhinney, T. M 608 

Becomes agent 475 

Becomes editor — Moral re- 
form prominent 68 

MacCalman, John 544 

MacClenny, \Y. E 253 

Magazine, The Christians' 37, 38 

Mann, Darius 583 

Mann, Horace 420,421,577 

Manning, John N 598. 601 

Maple. James 65, 68 

Marion Convention 421 

Marion, N. Y 419, 572 

Marion, Ind 472, 572, 577 

Mariposa, Canada 585 

Markham, Canada 585 

Marsh. Joseph 358. 359. 360, 

363, 462 

Marshall, Mich. 567,572 

Marshall, Robert. . 271, 275, 332 



Marvin, Ezra 416 

Marvin, James W Go, 4G5 

Marvin, Seth 463 

Meadville Theological School 


Medway, N. Y 572 

Merom, Indiana 421 

Merrifleld, A. M 419 

Merrill, Geo. E 475, 476 

Methodism, American 19, 262 


An innovation 19 

Methodism, English 262 

Never had a bishop .... 19 
Miami Ohio Christian Confer 

ence 492 

Milan, N. Y 459,572 

Millard, David E 525,547 

Millard, David 419, 420, 456,^ 

462, 463, 459, 581 ^mL^C^Cf 

Miller, B 457 

Miller, John R 466 

Miller, Rebecca L 503 

Minto, Canada 586 

Mishler, Miss Jennie 515 

Missionary Society, A 599 

Mississippi 442 

Missouri 442 

Moffitt, E. L., 

President Elon College.. 429 

Mood, D. J 535 

Moody, D. L 322 

Moore, D. W 526 

Morgridge, Charles 416 

Moring, Alfred 601 

Moring, F. 607 

Morning Star and City Watch- 
man 52 

Morrill, A. H 68, 285 

Morrill, Mrs. Ailce V 495 

Morrill, M. T 491 

Morrill, O. E 57,457 

Morrison, A. C 55,482,583 

Morse, Caleb 561 

Morse, C. A 469 

Morton, A. G 62 

Mountain circuit 277 

Moulton, T. C, 553 

Movements, Similar 21 

Mt. Zion Academy 363 

Mt. Auburn church 364 

Mulkeyites 270 

Murray, Miss Donna 509 


Nason, N. P 482 

New battle 10 

New Bedford, Mass 572 

New Carlisle, Ohio 64, 419, 464 
New England Convention, 
The 360, 483, 591, 593, 594 
Object of the Convention — ■ 
Organized in 1845 — Offi- 
cers — A delegated body — 
Advisory — A statement of 
general sentiments held 
by the Christians. . .591 
"Good for this day only" — 
The Bible is a sufficient 
rule — Christian character 
the test of fellowship — 
Spiritual growth — ■ Bap- 
tism — A weekly paper — - 
Departed laborers ...593 
As a helper — Loss of 
churches — A liberalizing 
sentiment— Christ's pray- 
er 594 

Newhouse, S. S" 68, 476 

Newmarket, Canada 479, 572, 

New Paris (O.) Chckch . . 334 

. Divided 335 

New Testament Dictionary 

Smith"s 40,309 

New Thing Under the Sun. . 32 
N. Y. Central Conference. .416 

New York City 572 

Noble, William 585,586 

Nom de plumes 57 

Norfolk, Va 572 

North Carolina ..281,331,365 
N. C. Colored Conference. .555 
N. C. & Va. Conference. .42S 
Establishes church paper 365 
N. W. Ohio Christian Confer- 
ence 492 

Nota Bene 6 




Ohio Christian Book Asso- 
ciation 64, 464, 465 

Becomes the Christian Pub- 
lishing Association . . 65 
Officers elected — Executive 

Committee 464 

Ohio Christian Home Mission- 
ary Society, The .482 

Ohio S. C. Association ...492 
O'Kellt, James 15, 18, 19, 20, 
262, 268, 270, 276, 277, 356, 
411, 569, 625 

Not an innovator .... 21 
Biographical sketch ...253 
Moves to North Carolina — 
Marries Miss Meeks — His 
children — Son leads fa- 
ther to Christ — William, a 
statesman — His conver- 
sion 252, 255 

Only living great-grandson 

• 256 

Joins the Wesleyans — Joins 
Virginia Conference — Abil- 
ity ranks high in Meth- 
odism 257 

Champion of religious free- 
dom — A prisoner of war — ■ 

Retaken 258 

Ordained an elder ....259 

Influence great 260 

Offers resolution — A stormy 

debate 261 

Withdraws — Effort to recon- 
cile^ — His plea — First con- 
ference — M. E. pulpits left 
open to him — A false re- 
port 262 

Second conference — Request 
denied — Two courses left 
- — Ceases to be a Method- 
ist — Becomes first Chris- 
tian minister — The Bible 
as a creed — Lebanon Con- 
ference 263 

Haggard's motion to adopt 

name Christian 264 

Believes in baptism by 

sprinkling — Baptizes 
"While Pilgrim" — Terri- 
torial limits — Visits Jef- 
ferson — Breaches before 
Congress 265 

His monument 266 

O'Kefly's works — His death 

Conditions of return... 277 

On a candle-stick 451 

Opposition to slavery .... 64 
Origin and Ghowth of Our 

Missionary Interests 481 

Early ministers, missiona- 
ries — Later, larger plans 
— Gaining new concep- 
tions — It is now expan- 
sion or extinction ...481 

Progress of fifty years— Or- 
ganized work began in 
1844 — David Millard on 
Missions 482 

N. E. H. and P. Missionary 
Society organized — Dr. 
Watson, Mission Secre- 
tary — The children's mis- 
sion — A better organiza- 
tion 483 

Mission Board — Board en- 
larged- — Change in the 
plan made in Norfolk 

Convention Women's 

Board of F. M. organized 
in 1886 — Women's Home 
Mission Board organized 
in 1890 — Permanent and 
life membership 484 

Election of two secretaries 
— Began foreign work — 
Our first foreign mission- 
aries — Work begun in Ja- 
pan 485 

Work begun in Torto Rico 
— Porto Rican missiona- 
ries — Number of mission- 
aries in the field — Results 
most encouraging ....486 
Oshawa, Canada . .572, 5S6, 587 
Our name 273 



Outlook, The 625 

O'Kelly's "prospect" before 
us — Our platform admir- 
ed — Several hard shocks 

Organization— "Assembling 
of messengers"— "Fear of 
organization - — Organiza- 
tion not a creed — The fear 
of co-operation 626 

A change — Now co-opera- 
tion and prosperity — Now 
chosen representatives — 
Thorough organization — 

Our hope and glorious out- 
look — Proven our right to 
be — A primal lesson, self- 
reliance — A reckless spir- 
it 628 

Build and equip — A self-re- 
specting enterprise — Our 
mission divine — A com- 
pact brotherhood — ■ Mo- 
mentous results . . . .629 

A calm confidence — Men flee, 
but the ranks fill — Our abil- 
ity to achieve — A cause 
that cannot die — That all 
may be one 630 


Talmer, P. A. . .410, 417, 544, 


Paul 321 

Peavey, John L 295 

I'eckham, Rev. Mr 38 

Pennell, Miss R. N 507 

Penrod, Miss C 515 

Peters, F. H 559 

Petersburg, Va 601 

IMielps, Merton 544 

Phillips, John 465 

Piermont, N. H 292 

Pike, D. P. ..55,57,62,63,68 

Associate editor 65 

Piney Grove 570 

Piper, Noah 53, 452 

Plummer, Frederick . 458, 459, 

462, 463 

Pope's Chapel 369 

Portsmouth, N. H. 14, 37, 43, 
44, 50, 56, 293, 295, 304, 
308, 309, 312, 313, 314,, 451, 
452, 571 

Poste, Z. A 559 

Powers, Mrs. Emma S . . . '. 510 

Powers, O. W 329, 613 

Prejudice against training. 413 
Presbyterians 276, 321, 325, 331 

Public Notice 52 

Publishing Interests, Oue 


A publishing people — -The 
Herald of Gospel Liber- 
ty 451 

Its locations — Purchases the 
Christian Herald — Name 
changed to Christian 

Journal 452 

Eastern Christian Publish- 
ing Association organized 

452, (453) 

Elijah Shaw, editor — Fre- 
quent changes of name — ■ 
Christian Herald sold — 
Consolidated ■ — Christian 
Herald repurchased — Re- 
moved to Newburyport — 
Again assumes name, Her- 
ald of Gospel Liberty — 
Christian Messenger and 
Palladium purchased by E. 
C. P. Association. .. .453 
Consolidated with Herald 
of Gospel Liberty — Sold 
to Christian Publishing 
Association — Moved to 

Dayton, Ohio 456 

Gospel Luminary ..456,457 
Joseph Badger, editor Chris- 
tian Palladium 457 

Christian Book Association 
and Genessee Christian As- 
sociation 458 

Work of the Association 459 

Resolutions 461 

Work of Executive Commit- 
tee — Joseph Badger se- 



lected editor — Christian 
Psalmist and M. and B. 
Hymn Book 462 

Consolidation of all former 
associations — -Elder Bad- 
ger's course approved — 
First officers of the Asso- 
ciation — Jasper Hazen, 
president — Seth Marvin, 
first publishing agent. 463 

Ohio Book Association . .404 

I. N. Walter, Agent .... 46.". 

I. N. Walter, editor — Change 
of name 405 

Funds for Pub. House . . 467 

Publishing interests moved 
to Dayton 468 

Christian Publishing Asso- 
ciation formed — Purchases 
Herald of Gospel Liberty 

Consolidation of papers — 
Property bought 471 

First Publishing House 473 

Sold 474 

C. P. A. incorporated. . .475 

New Publishing House — lo- 
cation — Completion and 
dedication 477 

Publishing interests in the 

South and Canada ... 478 

Purviance, David 271, 275, 

276, 411 

Early days — Marriage — 
Moves to Tennessee. .329 

Moves to Cane Ridge, Ky. 
— Elected to legislature — 
Defeated for constitution- 
al convention — Cane Ridge 
revival — Candidate for 
ministry 331 

Too liberal — Withdraws 
from Synod of Kentucky 
— Synod excommunicates 
— Springfield Presbytery 
formed — Ordained — charge 
of heresy 332 

Renounces man-made creeds 
— Fully enters the minis- 

try — His territory— Moves 

to Ohio 333 

Adopts immersion — -Fellow- 
ships unimmersed Chris- 
tians — Travels much — 
Elected to State Senate- 
Work as a statesman. 334 
Death of wife — Resides with 
son — Writes for the Gos- 
pel Herald, etc. — Last vis- 
it to Miami Conference — ■ 
Last sermon — Death.. 335 
Presidential elector — Tem- 
perance advocate — Against 
slavery — Very popular 


Purviance, Col. John 329 

Purviance, L 65 

Quaker faith 325 

Queen's College 439, 588 


Raleigh, N. C 345, 362 

Rand, John 571 

Ransom, Elisha 287 

Ranlet, Henry 309 

Recorder, Boston 15,54 

Recorder, The Weekly .... 15 

Rexford, Miss Ann 501 

Reese Chapel 569 

Reeder, Jacob G 464, 466 

Reeves, Thomas ..278,358,365 
Religious Newspaper, The 

first 2 

A vision of 14 

Files of 15 

Remembrancer, The Religious 


"Republican" Methodists, 15. 

"Resist," heroic example 25, 26 

Rhodes, H. J 486 

Rhodes, Mrs. A. G 515 

Richard, Miss Lydia 377 

Rittenous, Christiana ..349 

Letter from her pen .... 349 

Roberts, Mrs. Abigail 499 



Roberts, P 68 

Roberts, O. A : 470 

Robertson, Jobn 277 

Rockefeller, J. D 319 

Rogers, Samuel 270 

Romans &c 274 

Rush, H. Y. 65, 66, 468, 469, 

470, 472, 473 

Elected editor — Editorial 
, policy 65 

Retires 66 

Russell, P. R 57,482 

Russell, W. H 482 


Sabbath Schools 63 

Sailer, P. S 559 

Samuel, W. D 470,477,574 

Sanford, A. W 466 

Sargent, W. G ...479,529 

Scott church, Canada 586 

Sellon, Mrs. Lois L 507,541 

Sellon, P. R 541 

Shaw, Elijah 42, 53, 55, 57, 
58, 62, 452, 453, 462, 464, 482 
Editor Christian Herald 53 

Sherrard, J. W 585 

Smith, Elias 13, 37, 38, 39, 40, 
41, 42, 46, 49, 50, 52, 54, 
55, 73, 74, 276, 279, 411, 
451, 452 

Financial troubles 41 

Becomes a Universalist. 42 

Farewells 42 

Letter to William Guiry 46 

A reformer 50, 314 

Forsakes Universalism 52, 

Opposition to religious des- 
potism 50 

Disfellowshiped 54, 313 

Early days — Inured to hard- 
ship 299 

Religiously inclined . . .301 
Despondent moods ....303 
Early educational advanta- 
ges — Ministerial career 304 
Ordination- — Baptist pastor 

— In mercantile business 

Losing Calvanism — Fifteen 
days in Universalism — 
Author and journalist — 
Controversalist 306 

Much persecution — Almost 
mobbed — The Christian's 
Magazine 307 

Establishes first religious 
newspaper 308 

Another mob — Changes pub- 
lishers — Moves to Phila- 
delphia — Stricken with 
typhus fever — Death of 
wife — Second marriage 309 

Autobiography — Career as a 
physician 310 

Medical works 311-312 

Abandons journalism ..311 

Re-enters journalism — Re- 
stored to church member- 
ship — Dies at Lynn, Mass. 

Organizes Portsmouth 

church 314. 

As a Christian — A brilliant 
career 315 

Abundant in labors — Great- 
ly persecuted 316 

Smith, Elias, Jr 472 

Smith, Stephen 299,301 

A Baptist — Mrs. Smith a 
Congregationalist .... 299 

Smith, T. C 68 

Smith, Uriah 289 

Sxeathen, Abraham 375 

A pulpit oddity — Birth — 
Young manhood — Convert- 
ed in Cincinnati — Fifteen 
years from home — Returns 
— Holds great revival 375 

Married — Settles in Ohio — 
Ordained — Pastor at Mer- 
om — Names Union Chris- 
tian College — College lec- 
ture — Organizes first Chris- 
tian church in N. W. In- 
diana — Organizes Tippeca- 



noe Conference — Visits 
Kansas 377 

Sympathy for weak churches 
— Hospitality — The deer 
incident — Heroic charae- 

acter 378 

Personal magnetism — Visits 
Honey Creek Camp meet- 
ing — "Will disgrace the 
meeting" — Preaches great 
sermon — Called a barefoot 

preacher 379 

Falls asleep 380 

Southern Christian Associa- 
tion — Becomes Southern 
Christian Convention ..369 
Southern Christian Conten- 
tion, The 369 

Organization - — Separation 
from A. C. C. — Regret in 
parting — Slavery cause of 

division 597 

Five Cardinal Principles — 
Establishing an evangel- 
ical position — First regu- 
lar convention in 1858 — 
Christian Sun transferred 
— W. B. Wellons, editor 
— Missionary society.. 599 
The Civil War — Convention 
meets in Mt. Auburn in 
1866 — Plans for re-publi- 
cation of Christian Sun- 
Principles and government 
of Christian Church 
adopted — Revision com- 
mittee — Called session of 
1867 — Revision fully ap- 
proved — Publishing inter- 
est — Third regular session 
■ — Messengers from N. E. 
Convention — First step to- 
wards reunion 601 

Educational interests — Chris- 
tian union — Church fed- 
eration — Convention of 
1874 — Union again — Fifth 
session at Lebanon, N. C. 
— Death of Dr. Wellons — 
His successor 602 

New Hymn-Book issued — 
Evangelist chosen — Call- 
ed session, Suffolk, Va., 
1879 — Home missions — 
Antioch College — Frater- 
nal messengers to A. C. 
C. at Albany, N. Y. .603 

Seventh regular session, 
1886 — Children's Educa- 
tional Secretary — Foreign 
missions — Era of wider 
growth — S. C. Institute — 
Theological department — 
Memorial presented. . .605 

Messengers to New Bedford 
Convention — Called ses- 
sion at New Providence, 
1888 — A denominational 
college — Provisional Board 
■ — Elon College located — 
Joint publication of 
Hymnal 607 

Eighth regular session, 1890 
— Foreign mission effort — 
Elon College opened — A. 
C. Convention, 1890 — Re- 
union — Ninth session, 
Elon College, 1892 — 
Changed from quadrenni- 
al to biennial sessions — ■ 
Christian Missionary As- 
ciation launched — Chris. 
Orphanage introduced — 
Tenth regular session, 
Norfolk, Va., 1894 — Exec- 
utive Board of A. C. C. 
meets same time and 
place— Dedication Memo- 
rial Chr. Temple. ... .60S 

Interest in Elon College 
growing — Orphanage fur- 
ther considered— Eleventh 
regular session, Burling- 
ton, 1S96 — Twelfth regu- 
lar session, Raleigh, N. 
C, 189S — Endowment of 

Elon College 609 

Thirteenth regular ses- 
sion, Franklin, Va., 1900 
— Twentieth Century of- 



fering — F. A. Palmer en- 
dows Blon College — Four- 
teenth regular session, 
Asheboro, N. C, 1902— 
Orphanage and College en- 
terprises — Fifteenth regu- 
lar session, Driver, Va., 
1904 — Christian Sun pur- 
chased — Elon College out 

of debt 611 

A. C. C. meets Norfolk, Va., 
as guests of Southern 
church — Sixteenth regular 
session Burlington, N. C., 
1906 — Orphanage finances 
— Building erected ..612 
Dormitory at Blon College 
— Seventeenth regular ses- 
sion, Greenf.ooro, N. C, 
1908 — Forward move- 
ments — Growth of the Con- 
vention — Value of church 
government ■ — Southern 

conferences 613 

Statistics — Order, Heaven's 

first law — Centennial of 

religious journalism. .614 

Southern Christian Publishing 

Committee 366 

South Woodstock, Vt 303 

Spoor, John, Jr 462 

Springfield, Ohio 64,466 

Springfield Presbytery — Over- 
throws man-made creeds 271 
Last will and testament 333 
Stanley, Rev. Hannah W. .511 
Staley, W. W. 553, 597, 605, 
607, 611 

President Elon College— Col- 
lege freed from debt. .429 

Stanfordville, N. Y 572 

Starkey Seminary 416 

Statement of general senti- 
ments, A 591 

Stebbens, R. P 420 

Stewart, Perry 472 

Stiles, Elizabeth 503 

Stoddard, B. M 476 

Stogdill, Mrs. Mary 503, 581, 

Stone., Barton W. 271,272, 275, 
276, 321:, 411 

Against Campbell 59 

Diplomatically duped — "Un- 
ion" injured cause in 
Kentucky and Illinois 273 
Early days — Religious con- 
tentions 317 

Opposition — Noble mother — 

Against bigotry 319 

Student- — An upbraiding con- 
science^ — conversion .320 
"In the mortar of trials*' — 
A scholar — A linguist — 
Candidate for ministry 
— Theological stumbling 

block 321 

Difficultes over the Trinity 
— Cane Ridge revival — 

Spirit of unity 322 

His eloquence — Touched by 

unseen power 323 

Scenes at Cane Ridge — Perse- 
cution — -A Pedobaptist 324 
Not a Campbellite — Fellow- 
ships every child of God 
— Visits Baptist Associa- 
tion 325 

"Union" ( ?) with Campbell 
— Lived and died a mem- 
ber of Christian Church 
— Shaker and Disciple 

schisms 326 

Dies in Hannibal, Mo. — His 
crown of rejoicing. . .327 

Stoner, Geo. R 446 

Stouffville, Canada 588 

Strickland, Mrs Mary A.. 505, 

Summerbell, B. F 63,68 

Summerbell, Carlyle 439 

Summerbell, Mrs. E. J. 507, 515 
Summerbell, J. J. 68, 71, 72, 
269, 471, 476, 515, 577, 607, 

Summerbell, M 68, 419, 544 

Summerbell, N. 65, 68, 425, 
507, 515, 552 
Becomes editor— Theological 



editorials — Division of la- 
bors 67 

Business success — Fond of 
editor's chair — Returns to 

pulpit 6S 

Sunday-Schools, Our ....521 

Early Sunday-schools in our 
work — -The catechetical 
method in teaching. .521 

Opposition to — The Bible as 
a text-book — The Sunday- 
school as a seed bed — An 
Iowa example — Holding 
aloof 522 

C. E. Methods — Resolutions 
of the I. B. C. Confer- 
ence- — Resolutions of the 
N. H. C. Conference. 523 

Oar S. S. and the Palladium 
• — Beginning's in S. S. Lit- 
erature — A S. S. paper 
suggested — Christian Sun- 
day-School—Youth's Pen- 
ny Gazette 524 

Children's Friend — Sunday- 
School Herald — Hixville 
Sunday-school ■ — Letters 
from Rev. D. E. Millard, 
D. D.. Rev. Thomas 
Holmes. D. D 525 

Letter from Rev. D. W. 
Moore — A "felt need"— 
The Sunday-School Herald 
published 526 

Our Teacher's Guide and 
Scholar's Help — Growing 
interest- — Great possibili- 
ties 527 

Swett. Simoon 53, 452 


Taylor, James 45$ 

Taylor, John S 458 

Temple of Fame. No 26 

Terrell, Mrs. Melissa 503 

Test of Fellowship 60 

Theological Storms 21 

Thompson, John 271, 275, 332 
Thompson, Mrs. Sally ....501 

Thomas, Joseph, "The White 
Pilgrim" — Reason for sobri- 
quet — Birth 341 

Curse of intemperance — 
First seven years of life — 
Six years under cruelty — 
Favorite books — Afflicted 
— Moves to Virginia — A 

friend in need 342 

Sensitive — Feels the weight 
of sin— Seeking Christ 343 
Conversion — Baptism — Call- 
ed to preach — Objections 
to Presbyterians and Bap- 
tists 344 

Falls in love with the Chris- 
tians — Enters the minis- 
try — Becomes a traveling 
evangelist ■ — Baptized by 

O'Kelly 345 

Works under an "over- 
preacher" who seeks to dis- 
courage him — Invulnera- 
ble walls — Laymen oppos- 
ing Christian preachers 


Called "O'Kellyite" — Life 
threatened — Twenty-eight 
years of service — A nine 
months' record — Territory 

traveled 347 

A fruitful ministry — Hard- 
ships — Message to the peo- 
ple — Becomes an immer- 
sionist — Poems 34S-9 (350) 
A call to settle declined — ■ 

■ Marriage 349 

■ An orator — Personal ap- 
pearance — In Walter's 
New York pulpit .... 350 
Death of — Burial at John- 

sonburg, N. J 351 

Three months' circuit 266 

Threshold Message, A 7 

Thurber, Rachel 309 

Tippecanoe Conference ..377 

Becomes Northwestern . .377 

Toronto, Canada ....442,479 

Tower of Constance 25 



Trinity and Its Scholastic 

Terms 47 

Trained Ministry, A 58 

Troy, Ohio ..492,508,509,572 

True, Miss A. M 515 

Tuckerman, O. P 63 

Tyron, I. C 541 


Ullery, J. F 558, 559 

Union, Christian ....75, 27S 
Union North and South 359 

Terms of union 360 

Union Christian College 63, 
377, 421, 507 

Seeks endowment 66 

Union Mills, N. T 572 

Unitarians 274, 420 

United States Christian Con- 
ference 457, 458, 459, 572 

Dissolved forever 459 

University, Palmer 432 

Utsunomiya Christian Girls' 
School 515 


VanCamp. J 585 

Vaughan, B. F 547 

Virginia 2^1 

Virginia Colored Conference 555 
Virginia Valley Conference 600, 



Wahash 425 

Wait, O. J. 62, 63, 482, 558, 561, 


Wakarusa, Indiana 491 

Wake Forest Pleasant Grove 

Academy 362 

Wallace, Mrs. Maggie 505 

Walter, I. N. 64, 65, 459, 462 

463, 465 

Leads in re-organization 459 

Warhinton. Mrs. Ada O 511 

Warren, .T 346 

Washington, Booker T....3.19 
Washington Presbytery of Ohio 


Watson, Mrs. Ella S. . 505, 510 
Watson. G. S 607 

Watson, J. P. 68, 71, 470, 476, 
4S3, 509, 555, 563, 577 
Becomes editor 70, 474, 476 

Wayne, Gen. A 432 

W. C. T. U 275 

Weaubleau 442-3 

Weeks, T. S 76 

Wellons, J. W. 371, 428, 563, 603 
Wellons, W. B. ..597,601,602 

Wesley, John 282,322 

In sympathy with O'Kelly 

19, 21 
Taught principles of Chris- 
tian Church 19 

Repudiated human creeds — 

A dream 20 

Christmas Conference . .259 

West, The Inviting 617 

The natural division, East 
and West — The field is 
the world — Our basis of 

fellowship 617 

White unto harvest — Great 
West — Comparisons — 
Overwhelming facts — Es- 
timated wealth of the 
great West — Our part. .619 
Openings for the Christian 
Church — A call under the 
unifying gospel — -The bal- 
ance of power in the 

great West 620 

Young men, come — The need 
is now — A field to try 

your mettle 621 

A wonderful opportunity — 
A cosmopolitan church with 

open doors 622 

West Bloomfield, N. T 456 

Western Christian Book Asso- 
ciation 65, 466 

Weston, J. B. 62, 63, 68, 411, 

482, 541. 544 
Weston. Mrs. A. E... 510, 511 

Whitechurch 585 

White, J. Campbell 491,492 

White, Mrs. M. S 515 

Whitaker, John ...68,442,443 

Whitaker, O. B 317,446 

President U. C. College 425 



Whitelock, O. W. 451, 476, 477, 
491, 492 

Whitby, Canada 585 

Whitfield, George 322 

Whitley, J. T 602 

Wilber, Isaac, suggests religious 
newspaper idea ....38,308 

Wiles, William 277 

Wilgus, Mrs. Vina 505 

Williams, Miss Olive 509 

Williamson, James ....65,465 

Williamson, B 464 

Williston, Maine 529 

Wilson, Miss 432 

Wilson, Mrs. Emily G. 507, 558 

Wilson, J. W 541,544 

Winborne, Jesse 538 

Windham, Conn 571 

Winebrenner, Peter OS 

Witsius 321 

Woodstock, Vt. 287, 302, 303, 
304, 305, 497 

Woodworth, Mrs. I. P 515 

Women's Woek, Our . . . .495 

Miriam and Deborah — Our 

consecrated women — Mrs. 

Nancy Cram 495 

Her revival work— Work in 
Ballston, N. Y. — Abun- 
dant fruitage from her 

labors 497 

Mrs. Abigail Roberts — A 
woman of remarkable abil- 
ity — A great sufferer— 
Her sacrifices — The fields 

of her labors 499 

Work in Milford, N. J. — 
Miss Ann Rexford — -Mrs. 
Sally Thompson — Mrs. 

Sarah Hedges 501 

Mrs. Mary Stogdill — Her 
work in Canada — Great 
success of her labor — 
Thirty churches in fifteen 
years — Rachel Hosmer and 
Sabrlna Lamson — Hannah 
Corner a n d Elizabeth 
Stiles — Rebecca L. Miller 
And Barbara Kellison — 
Mrs. Melissa Terrell, first 

woman ordained since the 
fifth century 503 

Mrs. N. E. Lamb, Mrs. Mag- 
gie Wallace, Mrs. Vina 
Wilgus, Mrs. Sarah M. 
Bailey, home missionaries, 
Mrs. Strickland and Miss 
Haley — Women's labors 
greatly blessed — Mrs. 
Watson as a writer — Sun- 
day-School Herald ...505 

Miss R. N. Pennell and Mrs. 
Holmes — U. C. College — 
iToung People's Prayer- 
Meeting — C. E. Society — 
Mrs. E. J. Summerbell — 
Mrs. Emily G. Wilson — 
Mrs. Lois Sellon, founder 
of Aged Christian Minis- 
ters' Home 507 

Miss Olive Williams — Miss 
Donna Murray- — Foreign 
Mission Secretaries for 
Conferences : Rev. Ellen 
G. Gustin of Mass., Rev. 
Emily K. Bishop of New 
Jersey, Mrs. K. M. Judy 
of Ohio and Mrs. O. K. 
Hess of Indiana — First 
Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety — Beginning of our 
missionary literature 507 

Officers elected — Organiza- 
tion of Home Board — 
Cradle Roll inaugurated. 
Mrs. Emma S. Towers 
first superintendent — 
Young People's Work, 
Mrs. Alice Burnett, Super- 
intendent 510 

ITie Christian Missionary 
and the women — Women 
editorial writers : Mrs. 
M. P. Jackson, Mrs. A. 
E. Weston, Miss Annie E. 
Batchelor, Mrs. E. K. 
Bishop and Mrs. E. G. 
Gustin — Members of Mis- 
sion Board : Mrs. Ada 
Warbinton, Rev. Hannah 



W. Stanley and Mrs. 
Athella M, Howsare — 
Presidents of H. and F. 
Boards 511 

Mrs. Weston as a teacher — 
Death of Mrs. Weston — 
Mrs. Gustin, new presi- 
dent — United Study Mis- 
sion Course— Mrs. Emily 
K. Bishop — Mrs. Bishop's 
abundant labors 513 

Our Women Missionaries : 
Mrs. A. P. Jones, Mrs. A. 
G. Rhodes, Mrs. Ida P. 
Wood-worth, Miss Chris- 
tine Penrod, Mrs. Susie 

V. Fry, Miss Alice M. 
True, Mrs. Edith P. Mc- 
Cord, Mrs. K. W. Gar- 
man, Mrs. Eva O. Barrett, 
Miss Jennie Mishler, Mrs. 
Mattie S. White — Death 

of Mrs. Jones 515 

Woman as a home builder 


Woorley, Joshua 277 

Worley, William 467,469 


Yellow Springs, Ohio ..64,466 

Youmans, A. C 341 

Young, Geo 555,559,563 

* * * 

Index to Illustrations 


Aldricb. Mrs. Mehitable. . .51S 

Apple, Rev. Alfred 606 

Apple, Rev. Solomon 606 

Atkinson, Rev. D. B 36 

Atkinson, Rev. J. 624 


Badger, Rev. Joseph 110 

"Barefoot Preacher" 376 

Batchelor. Rev. B. S 592 

Beale, Rev. Edwin W 59S 

Bishop, Rev. Emily K 514 

Bishop, Rev. J. G 480 

Blood, Rev. John 566 

Brush, J. E 562 

Burkbolder, Jacob 582 

Burkholder, Jesse 600 

Burnett, Rev. J. F 566 


Carter, Rev. B. F 160 

Christian Biblical Institute 436 
Christian Ministers' IIome..542 

Christian Orphanage 536 

Church in which Elias Smith 

preached 44 

Clark, David 410 

Clements. Rev. W. C, .....214 

Clough, Rev. Simon 94 

Craig, Rev. Austin 434 

Crampton, Rev. Henry .... 84 

Coan, Rev. A. W 204 

Coe, Rev. I. H 592 



Colonial State House 388 

Cooper, Rev. Fred. ...... .445 

C. P. A. Building 454 


Dales, J. N 230 

Defiance College ........ .430 


Eaton (Ohio) church 400 

.Elder, Rev. J. D 604 

Elder, Rev. W. J. M 604 

Ellis, Rev. John 550 

Elon College 426 

Enon (Ohio) church 398 


Facsimile 2 

Fernald, Rev. Mark 124 

Fletcher, Rev. W. P 580 

Foster, Rev. James L 534 

Foster, Rohert 90 

Fowler, Rev. Thomas J . . . . 606 

Franklinton College 556 

Frost, James S 540 


Garbutt, Rev. Thomas ....190 

Goff, Isaac C 150 

Goss, Rev. John A 590 

Gustln, Rev. Ellen G 508 


Hainer, Rev. Charles H....582 
Haley, Rev. H. Lizzie ....502 

Harper, W. A 352 

Hathaway, Rev. Warren . . 550 
Haverhill (Mass.) church.. 392 

Hazen, Rev. Jasper 126 

Heidlebaugh, A. M 488 

Helfenstein, Rev. D. M....616 
Helfenstein, Rev. S. Q....520 

Henry, Rev. Thomas 582 

Herald and its editor 12 

Herald of Gospel Liberty, The 
house where first printed 39 

Herndon, Rev. W. T 256 

Hess, Mrs. J. N 374 

Hess, Jasper N 455 

Holmes, Mrs. Lettice S 506 

Holmes, Rev. Thomas .... 78 
Humphreys, Rev. E. W....182 


Iseley, Rev. Alfred 606 


Jones, Rev. Abner .......286 

Site of boyhood home.. 288 
Jones, Rev. C. J 206 


Kansas Christian College. .448 

Kerr, Rev. Ercy C 441 

Kerr, Rev. D. W 354 

Kilby, Thomas J 600 

Kirton, Richard and wife.. 582 


Lebanon church, New 16 

Lebanon church, Site of old . . 16 

Long, Rev. D. A 41S 

Long, H. E 557 

Long, Rev. W. S 424 


McCullough. Rev. Peter ...460 
McReynolds, Rev. N. Del.. 554 
McReynolds, Rev. P. W...431 
McWhinney, Rev. T. M....198 

Mann, Horace 418 

Manning, Rev. John N....598 

Maple. Rev. James 156 

Memorial Christian Temple 576 

Milan (N. Y.) church 406 

Millard, Rev. David 548 

Millard, Rev. D. E 548 

Miller, Rev. William 592 

Morrill, Rev. A. H 284 

Morrill, Mrs. Alice V 494 

Morrill, Rev. M. T 298 

Moffitt, Emmett L 427 

Moring, Alfred 604 

Morton, Rev. A. G 592 

New Bedford North church 402 
New Carl'sle (Ohio) church 386 




O'Kelly Memorial Window. 254 

O'Kelly Monument 2G6 

O'Kelly's Chapel, N. C 384 


Palmer College 440 

Palmer, F. A 410 

Palmer Institute-Starkey Semi- 
nary 414 

Peters, Rev. F. H 232 

Phillips, Rev. L. W 566 

Pike, Rev. D. P 142 

Portsmouth church 389 

Powers, Rev. O. W 328 

Providence church 390 

Purviance, Rev. David.... 330 

Summerbell, Rev. J. J 218 

Summerbell, Rev. M 415 

Summerbell, Rev. N 1G4 

Swansea (Mass.) church... 382 
Supplee, Catherine F 519 


Tatem, William 610 

Tatton, Rev. Jesse 582 

Thomas, Rev. Joseph 338 

Trull, W. W 584 


Union Christian College. . .422 

Vaughan, Rev. B. F 546 


Roberts, -Sirs. Abigail ....496 

Rodgers, B. J 584 

Rush, Rev. H. Y 186 


Samuel. Rev. W. D 566 

Sargent, Rev. W. G 528 

Sellon, Mrs. Lois L 543 

Sellon, Rev. P. R 543 

Shaw, Rev. Elijah 102 

Smith, Rev. Elias 300 

Smith Home, Site of 302 

Smith, Rev. Jubilee 604 

Sneathen, Rev. Abraham . .376 

Staley, Rev. W. W 596 

Stogdill, Mrs. Mary 498 

Stone, W. R. and wife ....584 

Stone, Rev. Barton W 318 

Stoner, Rev George R....449 
Strickland, Rev. Mary A.. 500 
Summerbell, Mrs. B. J.... 516 


Walker, Rev. W. T 200 

Walter. Rev. Isaac N 116 

Watson, Mrs. Ella S 504 

Watson, Rev. J. P... 210, 562 

Weaubleau College 444 

Wellons, Rev. J. W 424 

Wellons, Rev. William B..170 

West, H. T 610 

Weston, Rev. J. B 437 

Weston, Mrs. Achsah E...512 

"White Pilgrim," The 338 

Whitaker, Rev. O. B 423 

Whitelock, O. W 450 

Williamson, Rev. Elijah ..196 
Williamson, Rev. James... 146 

Woodstock church ' 396 

Worley, William 460 


York church 404 

Youmans. Rev. A. C 340 



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